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Italian girl, ragazza italiana 1923

Taken in Whiskey Run, Pennsylvania. Many Italians worked in the Iselin coal mines in Indiana County. Conditions were so terrible that the majority of immigrants who worked in these mines prior to World War I, including my great-grandfather, returned to Italy -- the Italy of the "miseria," of starvation.

Whiskey Run was famous for its violent murders and for an early appearance of the Black Hand, a forerunner of what we now call the Mafia, even though its origin and purpose was different.

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Taken in September 1923