Mexico-3748 - Aztec Calendar
Aztec Calendar or Sun Stone was carved during the reign of the 6th Aztec monarch in 1479 and dedicated to the Aztec deity: the sun. It has both mythological and astronomical significance. It weighs 25 tons, 12 feet in diameter, and 3 feet thick. Mexico City, Mexico
The solar calendar of 365 days was inseparable from the Sacred Round, the priests used of 260 days primarily for divinatory purposes. The method of naming the individual days consisted in the combination of twenty pictorial signs with the numbers one to thirteen. Each of the day signs also bears an association with one of the four cardinal directions. The 20 day signs are arrayed in a circle surrounding the central face.
On December 17th, 1790 the stone was discovered, buried in the "Zocalo" (the main square) of Mexico City. Afterwards it was embedded in the wall of the Western tower of the metropolitan Cathedral, where it remained until 1885. At that time it was transferred to the national Museum of Archaeology and History by order of the then President of the Republic, General Porfirio Diaz.