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La Défense - Paris

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Portuguese

La Défense é o maior centro financeiro da cidade de Paris. Com uma população de 20.844, é centrado em um circuito oval de auto-estradas no departamento de Altos do Sena, nas comunas de Nanterre, Courbevoie e Puteaux. O distrito está na extremidade ocidental de Paris, ao longo do Eixo Histórico, que começa no Louvre, no centro de Paris, e continua ao longo da Champs-Élysées, através do Arco do Triunfo, até culminar em La Défense.

Com o Grande Arco, com cerca de 110 metros de altura, a área abriga muitos dos maiores e mais altos edifícios da área urbana de Paris. Com 314.000 m², seus 72 edifícios de vidro e aço, incluem 14 arranha-céus acima de 150 metros, com 150.000 trabalhadores diários e 3,5 milhões de metros quadrados de espaços de escritórios, La Défense é o maior centro empresarial desenvolvido na Europa.

Seu nome vem do monumento La Défense de Paris criado como homenagem aos soldados que defenderam a cidade durante a Guerra franco-prussiana de 1870. Trata-se uma escultura de Louis-Ernest Barrias esculpida em bronze e inaugurada em 1883 sobre o que era a glorieta de Courbevoie e sempre visível sobre Lhe Parvis.

Em setembro de 1958, o Estabelecimento público para o planejamento de La Défense (Établissement public pour l'aménagement de La Défense, EPAD) criado pelo Estado para construir, administrar e animar o distrito. La Défense começa a desenhar-se. Um primeiro Plano de Ordenação é aprovado pelo Estado em 1964. Constroem-se os primeiros imóveis (Esso, a Torre Nobel). O Centro das Novas Indústrias e Tecnologias (CNIT) desenhado pelos arquitetos: Robert Camelot, Jean de Mailly e Bernard Zehrfuss, previsto em 1956, dantes do EPAD, inaugura-se em 1958 pelo General Charles De Gaulle por motivo da exposição Lhes Floralies. As torres que obedecem a este primeiro plano, chamadas de primeira geração, são todas de uma morfologia idêntica: uma base de 42 x 24 metros, limitadas a uma altura de 100 metros e de uma superfície de 30 000 m². Em 1966, a Torre Nobel (do arquiteto Jean de Mailly) é a primeira em levantar-se na La Défense.

No início dos anos 1970, para responder a uma considerável demanda, surgem as torres de segunda geração. O plano de 1964 modifica-se para aumentar a superfície dos imóveis. Os perímetros de 100 000 m² fazem seu aparecimento em edifícios como a Torre Fiat (hoje Areva), de 184 m de altura e 44 andares. A partir de 1973, a crise econômica diminui fortemente o desenvolvimento deste distrito: durante 4 anos não se vendeu nem um m² de escritórios.

Desde princípios dos anos 1980, para implementar a construção de La Défense, constroem-se torres de terceira geração, seguindo um modelo mais econômico: menos largas e menos altas (como as torres Pascal, Voltaire e todo o Bairro Michelet). Em 1981, cria-se o maior shopping de Europa (da época): Lhes Quatre Temps (100 000 m²). Em 1982, o EPAD, sob o impulso do Presidente François Mitterrand, lança o concurso Tête Défense que conduzirá à construção do Grande Arche. Durante este mesmo período, constroem-se hotelé, se remodela o CNIT (1989) e prolonga-se a linha 1 do metro parisiense, inaugurada o 1 de abril de 1992, e acerca mais este distrito a Paris. Em 1993, La Défense conhece sua segunda crise. Teria que esperar até 1997 para que surja uma recuparação espectacular. Hoje, A Défense é o maior distrito de negócios de Europa.

As principais companhias instaladas ali são: Cegetel, a Société Génerale, Total, Aventis, Arcelor. A maior torre é a Total, construída em 1985.

Com 48 andares e 187 metros de altura, é a segunda maior torre de França após a Torre Montparnasse; há que assinalar que as duas torres são obra dos mesmos arquitectos Roger Saubot e François Julien. Estão dendo construídas duas novas torres de altura destacáveis, chamadas T1 e Granite. Por outra parte, Bernard Bled, diretor geral do EPAD, propôs em 2 de dezembro de 2005 ao conselho de administração do EPAD um importante plano de desenvolvimento que implica a construção de 850 000 m² de escritórios e 100 000 m² de novas moradias, a edificação de uma torre de 400 metros de altura e a renovação das torres existentes.

O Estado deve dar uma resposta durante 2006 a este plano cuja realização, prevista para o 2020, daria uma nova dimensão à La Défense.

 

English

La Défense (pronounced [la de.fɑ̃s]) is a major business district of the Paris aire urbaine. With a population of 20,000, it is centered in an orbital motorway straddling the Hauts-de-Seine département municipalities of Nanterre, Courbevoie and Puteaux. The district is at the westernmost extremity of Paris's 10 km long Historical Axis, which starts at the Louvre in Central Paris and continues along the Champs-Élysées, well beyond the Arc de Triomphe before culminating at La Défense.

La Défense is seen as comparable to Canary Wharf in London: both are spaces where "statements of corporate ambition can be made", without thereby encroaching on the historical quarters of the city. Around its 110-metre (360 ft)-high Grande Arche and esplanade ("le Parvis"), the district holds many of the Paris urban area's tallest high-rises. With its 77.5 acres (314,000 m2), its 72 glass-and-steel slick buildings including 14 high-rises above 150 metres (490 ft), its 180,000 daily workers and 3.5 million square metres (37.7 million sq ft) of office space, La Défense is Europe's largest purpose-built business district

The name of the district comes from the statue of La Défense de Paris which commemorates the Parisian resistance during the Franco-Prussian War.

La Défense is named after the iconic statue La Défense de Paris, which was erected in 1883 to commemorate the soldiers who had defended Paris during the Franco-Prussian War.

In September 1958, The Public Establishment for Installation of La Défense (EPAD) buildings (of which the Esso Tower was the very first) were built and began to slowly replace the city's factories, shanties, and even a few farms. The Center of New Industries and Technologies (CNIT) was built and first used in 1958. These "first generation" skyscrapers were all very similar in appearance, limited to a height of 100 metres (330 ft). In 1966, the Nobel Tower was the first office building built in the area. In 1970 the RER line A railway was opened from La Défense to Étoile.[citation needed] In 1974 a contract for a Défense-Cergy high-speed hovercraft train was signed and soon abandoned.

In the early 1970s, in response to great demand, a second generation of buildings began to appear, but the economic crisis in 1973 nearly halted all construction in the area. A third generation of towers began to appear in the early 1980s. The biggest commercial centre in Europe (at the time), the Quatre Temps, was created in 1981. In 1982, the EPAD launched the Tête Défense competition to find a monument to complete the Axe historique, which eventually led to the construction of Grande Arche at the west end of the quarter. During the same period, hotels were constructed, the CNIT was restructured, and in 1992 Line 1 of the Paris Métro was extended to La Défense, which made the area readily accessible to even more of the city.

The Grande Arche (here at night) is the central and iconic building of La Défense. It is, with the Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile and the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, the third arch on the Axe historique of Paris.

On Bastille Day 1990, French electronic composer Jean Michel Jarre staged an ambitious concert at the site, using the Grande Arche and three of the area's towers as projection screens, and building a pyramidal stage above the road. The free concert, titled simply Paris la Defense, attracted two million spectators, stretching all the way back to the Arc de Triomphe. This beat Jarre's own previous world record for the largest attendance for a musical concert.

After a stagnation in new development in the mid-1990s La Défense is once again expanding and is now the largest purpose-built business district in Europe.

Important corporations headquartered at La Défense include Neuf Cegetel, Société Générale, Total, Aventis, Areva and Arcelor. The tallest skyscraper, the Tour First belongs to AXA, constructed in 1974. It is 231 metres (758 ft) high, has 50 floors, and is the highest inhabited building in the Paris area (a title previously held by the Tour Montparnasse, which was the tallest inhabited building until the Tour First was renovated between 2007 and 2011, bringing it to its current height from a previous 159 metres (522 ft); the tallest building in Paris is the Eiffel Tower).

On 9 September 2008, La Défense celebrated its 50th birthday with a huge fireworks display.[3]

In December 2005, Bernard Bled, CEO & Chairman of EPAD (La Defense Management & Development Office) announced an ambitious 9-year development plan called "La Defense 2006–2015".This important modernisation plan has to give a new dimension to the district and focuses on four main axes: regenerate outdated skyscrapers, allow new buildings, improve the balance between offices and residential housing and make the transport of local employees from their homes to La Défense easier. There are 3 aims: building 150 000 square metres (1 600 000 sq ft) of offices within demolition/rebuilding projects, building 300 000 square metres (3 200 000 sq ft) of offices within new projects and building 100 000 square metres ( 1 100 000 sq ft) of housing. The government confirmed in July 2006 this plan which has to be carried out around 2015. It is justified by the strong estate pressure, which plays in favour of building new skyscrapers near Paris. Those constructions have also the advantage to be more economical than little buildings. But it will have to overcome some difficulties: French economy faces a short-term slowdown; the government tries to balance tertiary sector employment in the whole region again, because La Défense today concentrates a major part of those jobs; and traffic is already saturated in the district, while it would need huge investments to extend transport infrastructures. It launched high profile international competitions and/or construction greenlight of several key 300-to-320-metre (980 to 1,050 ft) tall sustainable development-style skyscrapers such as Tour Signal, Tour Phare, Hermitage Plaza and Tour Generali. During said December 2005 Press Conference, EPAD released to the public an elaborate 3D animation film titled "La Défense 2015".

 

Wikipedia

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Taken on September 5, 2010