Yakolev Yak-36 '36 yellow'
The Yak-36 first flew in 1963 and was designed as a technology demonstrator for a VTOL aircraft. Four were built, although one was used only for ground tests, and a second was used purely for take-off and landing research.
It was twin-engined using vectored thrust to transit from vertical to horizontal flight.
The type was given the NATO codename 'Freehand'.
This sole survivor is reported as being the second aircraft, c/n 35, however the situation is unclear.
On display at the Russian Air Force Museum.