East Timor / Timór Lorosa'e / Timor Leste Island...Former Portuguese colony
East Timor, also known as Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timor Lorosae; officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste) is a country in Southeast Asia. It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecusse, an exclave on the northwestern side of the island, within Indonesian West Timor. The small country of 15,410 km² (5,400 sq mi) is located about 640 km (400 mi) northwest of Darwin, Australia.
East Timor was colonized by Portugal in the 16th century, and was known as Portuguese Timor until Portugal's decolonization of the country. In late 1975, East Timor declared its independence, but later that year was invaded and occupied by Indonesia and was declared Indonesia's 27th province the following year. In 1999, following the United Nations-sponsored act of self-determination, Indonesia relinquished control of the territory and East Timor became the first new sovereign state of the 21st century on May 20, 2002. East Timor is one of only two predominantly Roman Catholic countries in Asia, the other being the Philippines.
East Timor is a lower-middle-income economy. It continues to suffer the aftereffects of a decades-long independence struggle against Indonesia, which damaged infrastructure and displaced thousands of civilians. It is placed 158th by Human Development Index (HDI) among the world's states, the second lowest in Asia.
Etymology and naming issues
"Timor" derives from timur, the word for "east" in Indonesian and Malay (hence the Indonesian Timor Timur) which became Timor in Portuguese and entered English as Portuguese Timor. Lorosa'e is also the word for "east" in Tetum, literally "rising sun".
The official names under the Constitution are República Democrática de Timor-Leste in Portuguese, which is almost universally used within the country, and in Tetum, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór Lorosa'e, which is infrequently used and is not standard across the many Tetum dialects. Following independence, the government requested the official name in all languages be Timor-Leste, but this has not been commonly adopted within English-speaking countries worldwide, where "East Timor" is the common usage. The Indonesian name Timor Timur, abbreviated as Timtim, is now less widely used, with the Indonesian government and media now using Timor Leste.
The official short form names of countries worldwide are set by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The ISO 3166-1 official short name in English and all other languages is Timor-Leste. The ISO definition is adopted by the United Nations, the national standards organisations of France (AFNOR), the United States of America (ANSI), Britain (BSI), Germany (DIN) and Sweden (SIS) and is universally used by international NGOs. Timor–Leste is used as a matter of protocol by the departments of foreign affairs of almost all countries for example, the USA Department of State and the European Union, notable exceptions being Australia, which uses "East Timor".
The ISO name gives rise to the standard three letter country code TLS and two letter country code TL as in the country’s internet domain name. The old two letter country code, TP, is gradually being phased out.
The island of Timor was originally populated as part of the human migrations that have shaped Australasia more generally. It is believed that descendants from at least three waves of migration still live in the country. The first were related to the principal indigenous groups of New Guinea and Australia, and arrived before 40,000 years ago. Around 3000 BC, Austronesians migrated to Timor, and are possibly associated with the development of agriculture there. Thirdly, proto-Malays arrived from south China and north Indochina. The mountainous terrain kept these groups separated, and this is why there is so much linguistic diversity in East Timor today.
Timor was incorporated into Chinese and Indian trading networks of the 14th century as an exporter of aromatic sandalwood, slaves, honey and wax. The earliest historical record about Timor island is 14th century Nagarakretagama, Canto 14, that identify Timur as an island within Majapahit's realm. Early European explorers report that the island had a number of small chiefdoms or princedoms in the early 16th century. One of the most significant is the Wehali (Wehale) kingdom in central Timor, with its capital at Laran, West Timor, to which the Tetum, Bunaq and Kemak ethnic groups were aligned.
The Portuguese were the first Europeans to colonize the Maritime Southeast Asia when they arrived in the sixteenth century. They established outposts in the (now Indonesian) Maluku Islands and Timor and surrounding islands. During the House of Habsburg's rule over Portugal (1580-1640), all surrounding outposts were lost and eventually came under Dutch control by the mid-seventeenth century. Effective European occupation of a small part of the territory only began after 1769, when the city of Dili, the capital of so-called Portuguese Timor, was founded. In the nineteenth century, the Netherlands gained a foothold on the western half of the island West Timor, and formally received it in 1859 through the Treaty of Lisbon. The definitive border was established by the Hague Treaty of 1916, and it remains the international boundary between the successor states East Timor and Indonesia.
For the Portuguese, East Timor remained little more than a neglected trading post until the late nineteenth century. Investment in infrastructure, health, and education was minimal. Sandalwood remained the main export crop with coffee exports becoming significant in the mid-nineteenth century. In places where Portuguese rule was asserted, it tended to be brutal and exploitative. At the beginning of the twentieth century, a faltering home economy prompted the Portuguese to extract greater wealth from its colonies which met Timorese resistance.
In late 1941, Portuguese Timor was briefly occupied by Dutch and Australian troops in an attempt to preempt a Japanese invasion of the island. The Portuguese Governor protested the occupation, and Dutch forces returned to the Dutch side of the island. The Japanese landed and drove the small Australian force out of Dili, and the mountainous interior became the scene of a guerrilla campaign, known as the Battle of Timor. Waged by Allied forces and Timorese volunteers against the Japanese, the struggle resulted in the deaths of between 40,000 and 70,000 Timorese. Following the end of the war, Portuguese control was reinstated.
The process of decolonization in Portuguese Timor began in 1974, following the change of government in Portugal in the wake of the Carnation Revolution. Owing to political instability and more pressing concerns over the decolonisation of Angola and Mozambique, Portugal effectively abandoned East Timor and it unilaterally declared itself independent on November 28, 1975. Nine days later, it was invaded and occupied by Indonesian forces before the declaration could be internationally recognized.
As political parties began to form and emerge inside the country, the Indonesian military headed an operation that backed Apodeti, a pro-Indonesian party that encouraged divisions between the pro-independence parties of East Timor. A brief civil war occurred in 1975. Indonesia alleged that the East Timorese FRETILIN party, which received some vocal support from the People's Republic of China, was communist. Fearing a Communist domino effect in Southeast Asia—and in the wake of its South Vietnam campaign—the United States, along with its ally Australia, supported the pro-Western Indonesian government's actions. The UN Security Council had a unanimous vote for Indonesia to stop its invasion and to withdraw immediately from East Timor’s borders, and was blocked by the United States from imposing any economic sanctions or other means of enforcing this mandate.
The territory was declared the 27th province of Indonesia in July 1976. Its nominal status in the UN remained that of a "non-self-governing territory under Portuguese administration."
Indonesian rule in East Timor was often marked by extreme violence and brutality; estimates of the number of East Timorese who died during the occupation vary from 60,000 to 200,000, A detailed statistical report prepared for the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in East Timor cited a minimum bound of 102,800 conflict-related deaths in the period 1974–1999, namely, approximately 18,600 killings and 84,200 'excess' deaths from hunger and illness.
The East Timorese guerrilla force, Falintil, fought a campaign against the Indonesian forces from 1975–1999, some members being trained in Portugal by Portuguese special forces. The Dili Massacre proved a turning point for the East Timorese cause internationally, and a burgeoning East Timor solidarity movement grew in Portugal, Australia, and the United States.
Following a UN-sponsored agreement between Indonesia, Portugal and the United States and a surprise decision by the Indonesian President B. J. Habibie, a UN-supervised popular referendum was held on August 30, 1999, to choose between Special Autonomy within Indonesia and independence. 78.5% of voters chose independence, but violent clashes, instigated primarily by elements within the Indonesian military and aided by Timorese pro-Indonesia militias led by Eurico Guterres, broke out soon afterwards. A peacekeeping force (INTERFET led by Australia) intervened to restore order. The militias fled across the border into Indonesian West Timor, from which sporadic armed raids were attempted. As these raids were repelled and international moral opinion forced Indonesia to withdraw tacit support, the militias dispersed. INTERFET was replaced by a UN force of International Police, the mission became known as UNTAET, and the UNTAET Crime Scene Detachment was formed to investigate alleged atrocities. UNTAET was headed by the late Sérgio Vieira de Mello as UN Transitional Administrator from December 1999 to May 2002. On December 2, 1999, De Mello established the National Consultative Council (NCC), a political body consisting of 11 East Timorese and four UNTAET members charged with overseeing the decision-making process during the transition period leading to independence. However, UNTAET experienced difficulties initially in establishing its credibility amongst the Timorese leadership, leading to street violence. An important workshop on March 1, 2000, brought the Timorese and UN leadership group together to tease out a revised strategy, and identify institutional needs. The workshop was organised by Francis Martin O'Donnell , and the Timorese delegation was led by José Ramos-Horta, and included Mari Alkatiri. The outcome was an agreed blueprint for a joint administration with executive powers, including leaders of the National Congress for Timorese Reconstruction (CNRT), led by future president Xanana Gusmão. Further details were worked out in a conference in May 2000. De Mello presented the new blueprint to a donor conference in Lisbon, on June 22, 2000, and to the UN Security Council on June 27, 2000.On July 12, 2000, the NCC adopted a regulation establishing a Transitional Cabinet of four East Timorese and four UNTAET representatives. The revamped joint administration successfully laid the institutional foundations for independence, and on September 27, 2002, East Timor joined the United Nations.
Districts, subdistricts, and sucos
East Timor is divided into thirteen administrative districts:
1. Lautém 2. Baucau 3. Viqueque 4. Manatuto 5. Dili 6. Aileu 7. Manufahi 8. Liquiçá 9. Ermera 10. Ainaro 11. Bobonaro 12. Cova Lima 13. Oecusse Ambeno
The districts are subdivided into 65 subdistricts, 443 sucos and 2,336 towns, villages and hamlets
Located in southeast Asia, the island of Timor is part of the Maritime Southeast Asia, and is the largest and easternmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. To the north of the mountainous island are the Ombai Strait, Wetar Strait and the greater Banda Sea, to the south the Timor Sea separates the island from Australia, while to the west lies the Indonesian Province of East Nusa Tenggara. The highest mountain of East Timor is Tatamailau (also known as Mount Ramelau) at 2,963 meters (9,721 ft).
The local climate is tropical and generally hot and humid, characterised by distinct rainy and dry seasons. The capital, largest city and main port is Dili, and the second-largest city is the eastern town of Baucau.
The easternmost area of Timor-Leste consists of the Paitchau Range and Iralalaro area. This area has been proposed as the first conservation area in Timor-Leste as it contains the last remaining tropical dry forested area within the country. It hosts a number of unique plant and animal species and is sparsely populated. The northern coast is characterised by a number of coral reef systems that have been determined to be at risk.
Republika demokratika Timor Lorosa'e (Tetum)
Republica democratica de Timor Leste (Portuguese)
Declared November 28, 1975
- Recognized May 20, 2002
Adabe [adb] 1,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Ethnic population: 1,000. Atauro Island, north of Dili on Timor Island. Alternate names: Ataura, Atauru, Atauro, Raklu-Un, Raklu Un. Dialects: Munaseli Pandai. Reported to be different from Galoli dialects on Atauro. No relationship to Kolana. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, Timor-Alor-Pantar
Baikeno [bkx] 20,000 (2003 UKAW). Many are monolingual. Population includes several thousand refugees in west Timor. Ethnic population: 20,000. Oekusi enclave separated from the rest of East Timor. Traditional kingship of Ambeno on north coast of west Timor. The Kais Metan dialect is spoken in the Pantai Makasar and Oesilu districts. Tai Boko is spoken in the Nitib District. The two dialects together take up most of the northern part of Ambeno. Uis Tasae is spoken in the Pasab District, taking up the southern third. Kais Metan has two subdialects: Kais Metan in the north, and Bob Meto in the south. Alternate names: Baikenu, Vaikenu, Vaikino, Biqueno, Ambeno, Ambenu, Uab Meto, Uab Pah Meto, Oecussi, Oe Cusi, Oekusi. Dialects: Kais Metan (East Baikeno, Bob Meto), Tai Boko (West Baikeno), Uis Tasae (South Baikeno). Baikeno is linguistically a dialect of Uab Meto, but for political reasons has to be treated as a separate language for vernacular literature. It is intelligible with the Uab Meto dialects of Amfo'an, northern Mollo, and Insana. Significant differences with Amarasi block intelligibility. They see themselves as part of the wider Atoni cultural, linguistic, political, and historical network, in contrast to being Tetun, Helong, or Rote. They refer to themselves as 'atoni' (person), speaking 'uab meto' (the language of the dry). The Kais Metan dialect is the most populous and most influential, being around the town of Oekusi, the seat of the former king, and the commercial and government center. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Nuclear Timor, West
Bunak [bfn] 50,000 in East Timor (1977 Voegelin and Voegelin). Population total all countries: 100,000. Ethnic population: 50,000. Central interior Timor Island, south coast. Also spoken in Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara). Alternate names: Buna', Bunake, Bunaq. Dialects: Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Bunak
Fataluku [ddg] 30,000 (1989). Ethnic population: 30,000. Eastern tip of Timor Island around Los Palos. Alternate names: Dagaga, Dagoda', Dagada. Dialects: May be related to Oirata on nearby Kisar Island. Significant dialect variation. May turn out to be several languages. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Fataluku
Galoli [gal] 50,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Ethnic population: 50,000. North coast between Mambae and Makasae, regions of Laklo, Manatutu, Laleia, and We-Masin, Wetar Island. Alternate names: Galole. Dialects: Na Nahek, Edi, Dadua, Galoli, Baba, Hahak. Talur on Wetar Island in Maluku may be inherently intelligible. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Nuclear Timor, East
Habu [hbu] 1,260 (2000 WCD). Northeast of Laclubar and the Idate language. Dialects: Many loanwords from Trans-New Guinea languages similar to Makasae, but with Austronesian structure. Related to Waima'a and Kairui. Classification needs further investigation. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Nuclear Timor, Waima'a
Idaté [idt] 5,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Ethnic population: 5,000. Central East Timor, mountains of part of the Laclubar area, surrounded by the Mambae, Galoli, Kairui, and Tetun. Dialects: Closest to Lakalei and Galoli. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Nuclear Timor, East
Kairui-Midiki [krd] 2,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 2,000. Central small mountainous area surrounded by Makasai, Waima'a, Tetun, Galoli. Alternate names: Cairui, Midiki. Dialects: Kairui, Midiki (Midik). Vocabulary is predominantly Trans-New Guinea, structure is Austronesian. Related to Waima'a and Habu. Classification needs further investigation. May be a co-dialect with Waima'a. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Nuclear Timor, Waima'a
Kemak [kem] 50,000 in East Timor (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Population total all countries: 100,000. Ethnic population: 50,000. North central Timor Island, border area between East Timor and West Timor, mostly on eastern side. Also spoken in Indonesia (Nusa Tenggara). Alternate names: Ema. Dialects: Nogo (Nogo-Nogo), Kemak. Close to Tetun. Most closely related to Mambae and Tukudede. Also related to Uab Meto. Morris 1992 counts Nogo as a separate language from Kemak. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Nuclear Timor, East
Lakalei [lka] 5,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Ethnic population: 5,000. Central Timor Island, north of Same, northeast of Ainaro. Dialects: Close to Idate, Tetun, Galoli. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Nuclear Timor, East
Makasae [mkz] 70,000 (1989). Ethnic population: 70,000. Timor Island, eastern end around Baucau and inland, west of Fataluku, from northern to southern coast in a dialect chain. Alternate names: Makassai, Macassai, Ma'asae, Makasai. Dialects: Maklere, Makasai. Not closely related to other languages. Non-Austronesian. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Makasai-Alor-Pantar, Makasai
Maku'a [lva] 50 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Ethnic population: 50. Northeast tip of Timor Island, around Tutuala. Alternate names: Lovaea, Lovaia. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird's Head-Timor-Alor-Pantar, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Maku'a
Mambae [mgm] 80,000 in East Timor (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Ethnic population: 80,000. Mountains of central Timor, around Ermera, Aileu, and Ainaro. One of the dominant groups among Timorese communities in Australia. Also spoken in Australia. Alternate names: Mambai, Manbae. Dialects: Damata, Lolei, Manua, Mambai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Nuclear Timor, East
Nauete [nxa] 1,000 (1981 Wurm and Hattori). Ethnic population: 1,000. South coast, eastern tip of Timor Island, west of Tiomar. The main town is Uato Lari. Alternate names: Nauhete, Naueti, Naóti, Nauote, Nauoti. Dialects: Naumik, Oso Moko. Not closely related to any other language. Many loanwords from Trans-New Guinea languages like Makasae. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Nuclear Timor
Portuguese [por] Alternate names: Português. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician
Tetun [tet] 50,000 in East Timor (2004). Western East Timor on the south coast from Suai to Viqueque. East of Atoni, west of Bunak (in Batagude) around Batibo, and in from the south coast around Viqueque and Soibada. Alternate names: Tetum, Tettum, Teto, Tetu, Tetung, Belu, Belo, Fehan, Tetun Belu. Dialects: Eastern Tetun (Soibada, Natarbora, Lakluta, Tetun Loos, Tetun Los), Southern Tetun (Lia Fehan, Plain Tetun, Tasi Mane, Belu Selatan, South Belu, South Tetun), Northern Tetun (Lia Foho, Hill Tetun, Tasi Feto, Belu Utara, North Belu, Tetun Terik, Tetun Therik). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Nuclear Timor, East
Tetun Dili [tdt] 50,000 (1995). First-language speakers concentrated in and around Dili on the north coast of East Timor. Second-language speakers scattered widely throughout the western part of East Timor. Alternate names: Tetun, Tetum, Tetum Prasa, Tetum Praça, Dili Tetum, Tetum Dili. Dialects: There are important differences with Tetun in parts of the grammar, morphology, functors, and much of the lexicon. There is heavy influence of Portuguese and some Indonesian or Malay loans in Tetun Dili. Classification: Creole, Tetun based
Tukudede [tkd] 63,170 (2000 WCD). Timor Island, north coast, regions of Maubara and Liquisa from the banks of the Lois River to Dili. Alternate names: Tukude, Tokodede, Tokodé, Tocod. Dialects: Keha (Keia), Tukudede. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Nuclear Timor, East
Waima'a [wmh] 3,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 3,000 or more. Northeast coast Timor Island, enclave within Makasae-speaking area. Alternate names: Uai Ma'a, Waimaha, Waimoa, Uaimo'a. Dialects: Many Trans-New Guinea loanwords similar to Makasae. Related to Habu and Kairui. Classification needs further investigation. May be a co-dialect with Kairui-Midiki. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Central Malayo-Polynesian, Timor, Nuclear Timor, Waima'a
Pidgin, Timor [tvy] Extinct. Timor Island, around Bidau, Dili, and Lifan. Alternate names: Timor Creole Portuguese. Dialects: Português de Bidau, Macaísta. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based
Meaning country name:
From the Malay word timur meaning "east". The local official Tetum language refers to East Timor as Timor Lorosae or "East Timor", or Timor-Leste in Portuguese. In neighbouring Indonesia it has the formal name Timor Timur - etymologically "eastern east". But Indonesians usually shorten the name to Tim-Tim.
The flag of Timor-Leste (also known as East Timor) was adopted in 2002. It is the same as the 1975 flag.
At midnight on May 19, and during the first moments of Independence Day, 20 May 2002, the United Nations Flag was lowered and the flag of an independent East Timor was raised.
As per the Constitution of the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, the yellow (PMS 123) triangle represents "the traces of colonialism in East Timor's history". The black triangle represents "the obscurantism that needs to be overcome"; the red (PMS 485) base of the flag represents "the struggle for national liberation"; the star, or "the light that guides", is white to represent peace.
Official description of the flag
"The national flag is rectangular and is formed by two isosceles triangles, the bases of which are overlapping. One triangle is black and its height is equal to one-third of the length overlapped to the yellow triangle, whose height is equal to half the length of the Flag. In the center of the black triangle there is a white star of five ends, meaning the light that guides. The white star has one of its ends turned towards the left side end of the flag. The remaining part of the flag is red."
-The Constitution of the Democratic Republic of East Timor, Part I, Section 15
Coat of arms:
The central emblem is the well known C.N.R.T. shield and the motto is also based on Falintil’s.
António Martins, 11 Sep 2002
Behind the shield there is a yellow sun with 14 rays. All surounded by a light blue circle with the black text "REPÚBLICA DEMOCRÁTICA DE TIMOR-LESTE" and between two white stars "RDTL". Under the circle is a red banner with the black words "HONRA, PÁTRIA E POVO".
"Unidade, Acção, Progresso"
National Anthem: Pátria
Pátria, Pátria, Timor-Leste, nossa Nação.
Glória ao povo e aos heróis da nossa libertação.
Pátria, Pátria, Timor-Leste, nossa Nação.
Glória ao povo e aos heróis da nossa libertação.
Vencemos o colonialismo, gritamos:
abaixo o imperialismo.
Terra livre, povo livre,
não, não, não à exploitação.
Avante unidos firmes e decididos.
Na luta contra o imperialismo
o inimigo dos povos, até à vitória final.
Pelo caminho da revolução.
Fatherland, fatherland, East Timor our Nation
Glory to the people and to the heroes of our liberation
Fatherland, fatherland, East Timor our Nation
Glory to the people and to the heroes of our liberation
We vanquish colonialism, we cry: down with imperialism!
Free land, free people, no, no no to exploitation.
Let us go forward, united, firm and determined
In the struggle against imperialism, the enemy of people,
until final victory, onward to revolution.
Internet Page: www.timor-leste.gov.tl
East Timor in diferent languages
eng: East Timor; Timor-Leste
ast | cat | ina | lld-bad | spa: Timor Oriental
cor | fur | scn | srd: Timor Est
afr | lim: Oos-Timor
deu | ltz: Osttimor / Oſttimor
ind | msa: Timor Timur / تيمور تيمور
arg: Timor Oriental; Timor Este
aze: Şərqi Timor / Шәрги Тимор
bos: Istočni Timor / Источни Тимор
bre: Timor ar Reter
ces: Východní Timor
crh: Şarqiy Timor / Шаркъий Тимор
csb: Pòrënkòwi Timor
cym: Dwyrain Timor
dsb: Pódzajtšny Timor
epo: Orienta Timoro
eus: Ekialdeko Timor
fao: Eystur Timor
fra: Timor oriental; Timor-Leste
frp: Timor orientâl
fry: East Timor
gag: Günduusu Timor / Гӱндуусу Тимор
gla: Tiomor an Ear; Timor an Ear
gle: Tíomór Thoir / Tíomór Ṫoir
glg: Timor Leste
glv: Yn Teemor Hiar
hat: Timò oryantal
hrv: Istočni Timor
hsb: Wuchodny Timor
ibo: Timọ Iru-anyanwu
ita: Timor Est; Timor Orientale
jav: Timor Timur
jnf: Timor d’l’Êst
kaa: Shıgʻıs Timor / Шығыс Тимор
kmr: Tîmora Rohilata / Тимора Р’оһьлата / تیمۆرا ڕۆهلاتا; Tîmora Rojhelata / Тимора Р’ожһәлата / تیمۆرا ڕژۆهەلاتا; Tîmora Şerqê / Тимора Шәрqе / تیمۆرا شەرقێ
kur: Tîmor Rojhelat / تیمۆر رۆژهەلات
lat: Timoria Orientalis
lin: Timor ya monyɛlɛ
lit: Rytų Timoras
lld-grd: Timor Urientel
mlg: Timora Atsinanana
mlt: Timor tal-Lvant
mol: Timorul de Est / Тиморул де Ест
nds: Oosttimor / Ooſttimor
oci: Timòr Èst
pol: Timor Wschodni
que: Intichay Timur
rmy: Orientalutno Timoro / ओरिएन्तालुत्नो तिमोरो
roh: Timor da l’Ost
ron: Timorul de Est
rup: Timorul di Dat
slk: Východný Timor
slo: Vostokju Timor / Востокйу Тимор
slv: Vzhodni Timor
smg: Rītū Timuors
som: Barriga Tiimoor
sqi: Timori Lindor
swa: Timor ya Mashariki
tet: Timór-Leste; Timór Lorosa’e
tgl: Silangang Timor
tuk: Gündogar Timor / Гүндогар Тимор
tur: Doğu Timor
uzb: Sharqiy Timor / Шарқий Тимор
vie: Đông Ti-mo
wln: Timor Ess
wol: Timoor gu Penku
zza: Timurê Rocvetışi
abq: Восточна Тимор (Vostočna Timor)
alt: Кӱнчыгыш Тимор (Künčygyš Timor)
bak: Көнсығыш Тимор / Könsığış Timor
bel: Усходні Тымор / Uschodni Tymor; Тымор-Лешты / Tymor-Lešty; Тымор-Лешці / Tymor-Lešci
bul: Източен Тимор (Iztočen Timor)
che: Малхбали Тимор (Malḫbali Timor)
chm: Эрвел Тимор (Ėrvel Timor)
kaz: Шығыс Тимор / Şığıs Tïmor / شىعىس تيمور
kbd: Восточнэ Тимор (Vostočnă Timor)
kir: Чыгыш Тимор (Čygyš Timor)
kjh: Восточнай Тимор (Vostočnaj Timor)
kom: Восточнӧй Тимор (Vostočnöj Timor)
krc: Восток Тимор (Vostok Timor)
kum: Гюнтувуш Тимор (Güntuvuš Timor)
mkd: Источен Тимор (Istočen Timor)
mon: Зүүн Тимор (ǲüün Timor)
oss: Скӕсӕйнаг Тимор (Skäsäjnag Timor)
rus: Восточный Тимор (Vostočnyj Timor)
srp: Источни Тимор / Istočni Timor
tat: Көнчыгыш Тимор / Könçığış Timor
tgk: Тимори Шарқӣ / تیمار شرقی / Timori Şarqī
tyv: Чөөн-Тимор (Čöön-Timor)
udm: Шунды ӝужан пал Тимор (Šundy ǆužan pal Timor)
ukr: Східний Тимор (Sĥidnyj Tymor); Східний Тімор (Sĥidnyj Timor)
ara: تيمور الشرقية (Tīmūru š-Šarqīyâ); تيمور ليشتي (Tīmūr Līštī)
fas: تیمور شرقی / Timore Šarqi
prs: تیمور شرقی (Tīmōr-e Šarqī)
pus: ختيځ تيمور (Ḫatīź Tīmor)
uig: شەرقىي تىمور / Sherqiy Timor / Шәрқий Тимор
urd: مشرقی تیمور (Mašriqī Tīmor)
heb: מזרח-טימור (Mizraḥ-Ṭîmôr); טימור המזרחית (Ṭîmôr ha-Mizraḥît)
lad: טימור אוריינטאל / Timor Oriental
yid: מזרח טימאָר (Mizreḥ Timor)
ell-dhi: Ανατολικό Τιμόρ (Anatolikó Timór)
ell-kat: Ἀνατολικὸν Τιμόρ (Anatolikòn Timór)
hye: Արևելյան Տիմոր (Arevelyan Timor); Արևելյան Թիմոր (Arevelyan Ṭimor)
kat: აღმოსავლეთი ტიმორი (Aġmosavleṭi Timori)
hin: पूर्वी तिमोर (Pūrvī Timor)
ben: পূর্ব টিমোর (Pūrbô Ṭimor); পূর্ব তিমুর (Pūrbô Timur)
pan: ਟੀਮੁਰ-ਲੀਸਟੀ (Ṭīmur-Līsṭī)
kan: ಪೂರ್ವ ಟೀಮೋರ್ (Pūrva Ṭīmōr)
mal: കിഴക്കന് ടിമോര് (Kiḻakkan Ṭimōr); കിഴക്കന് തിമുര് (Kiḻakkan Timur)
tam: கிழக்குத் திமோர் (Kiḻakkut Timōr); திமோர் லெஸ்தே (Timōr Lestē)
tel: తూర్పు టిమోర్ (Tūrpu Ṭimōr)
zho: 东帝汶 (Dōng Dìwèn)
jpn: 東ティモール (Higashi Timōru); 東チモール (Higashi Chimōru)
kor: 동티모르 (Dong Timoreu)
mya: အရ္ဟေ့တီမော (Ášé Timɔ̀)
tha: ติมอร์ตะวันออก (Timɔ̄[r] Tawân'ɔ̄k); ติมอร์เลสเต (Timɔ̄[r] Lēttē)
khm: ទីម័រខាងកើត (Tīmŏr Kʰāṅkøt)