San Pietroburgo (in russo: Санкт-Петербург[?], Sankt Peterburg, /ˈsankt ˌpʲɪtʲɪrˈburk/) con oltre 4,5 milioni di abitanti (2006), è attualmente la seconda città della Russia per dimensioni e popolazione nonché il porto più importante, nonché città federale. Fondata dallo Zar Pietro il Grande presso il Mar Baltico, fu capitale della nazione durante il regno zarista, sede della Corte degli Zar ed oggi è uno dei principali centri artistici e culturali d'Europa.
Saint Petersburg (Russian: Са́нкт-Петербу́рг (help·info), tr. Sankt-Peterburg, IPA: [ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk]) is a city and a federal subject (a federal city) of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea. The city's other names were Petrograd (Russian: Петроград, IPA: [pʲɪtrɐˈgrat], 1914–1924) and Leningrad (Russian: Ленинград, IPA: [lʲɪnʲɪnˈgrat], 1924–1991). It is often called just Petersburg (Russian: Петербург) and is informally known as Piter (Russian: Питер, IPA: [ˈpitʲɪr]).
Founded by Tsar Peter I of Russia on May 27, 1703, it was the capital of the Russian Empire for more than two hundred years (1713–1728, 1732–1918). Saint Petersburg ceased being the capital in 1918 after the Russian Revolution of 1917. It is Russia's second largest city after Moscow with 5.132 million inhabitants, and sixth in Europe after Moscow (15m), London (12.875m), Paris (9.638m), Istanbul (9.413m), and The Ruhr, (7.3m). Saint Petersburg is a major European cultural centre, and an important Russian port on the Baltic Sea.
Saint Petersburg is often described as the most Western city of Russia. Among cities of the world with over one million people, Saint Petersburg is the northernmost. The Historic Centre of Saint Petersburg and Related Groups of Monuments constitute a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Saint Petersburg is also home to The Hermitage, the largest art museum in the entire world. Russia's political and cultural centre for 200 years, the city is sometimes referred to in Russia as the Northern Capital. Over its history it has also been referenced as "the Venice of the North" and the "Northern Palmyra". A large number of foreign consulates, international corporations, banks and other businesses are located in Saint Petersburg.