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Royal Mail Postage Stamp Scientific Achievements 1991.


Royal Mail Postage Stamp Scientific Achievements 1991. Royal Mail postage stamps


1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1991st year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 991st year of the 2nd millennium, the 91st year of the 20th century, and the 2nd year of the 1990s decade.


It was the final year of the Cold War that had begun in 1947. During the year, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics fell, leaving fifteen sovereign republics in its place. India also abandoned its policies of socialism and autarky and began extensive neoliberal changes to its economy in July 1991 which would increase the GDP but also economic inequality over the next two decades.[1] A U.N.-authorized coalition force from thirty-four nations fought against Iraq, which had invaded and annexed Kuwait in the previous year, 1990. The conflict would be called the Gulf War and would mark the beginning of a since-constant American military presence in the Middle East. The clash between Serbia and the other Yugoslav republics would lead into the beginning of the Yugoslav Wars, which ran through the rest of the decade.


The Japanese asset price bubble burst this year, leading to the Lost Years and a permanently stagnated (though still prosperous) Japanese economy.[2]




January 1

Czechoslovakia becomes the second Eastern European country to abandon its command economy.

The first anti-stalking law, passed in 1990, goes into effect in California.[3]

Dublin begins its year as the European Capital of Culture.

January 2 – In eastern El Salvador, Salvadoran rebels shoot down a United States Army helicopter and execute the two surviving members of its 3-man crew.

January 4 – The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously to condemn Israel's treatment of the Palestinians.

January 5 – Georgian troops attack Tskhinvali, the capital of South Ossetia, opening the 1991–92 South Ossetia War.

January 6

The runoff for the Guatemalan presidential election is won by Jorge Serrano Elías.

The All India Federation of Anganwadi Workers and Helpers is founded in Udaipur.

January 7 – In Haiti, an attempted coup by an associate of former dictator Jean-Claude Duvalier is thwarted by Loyalist troops.

January 9

United States Secretary of State James Baker meets with the Foreign Minister of Iraq Tariq Aziz, but fails to produce a plan for Iraq to withdraw its troops from Kuwait.

In Sebokeng, South Africa, gunmen fire on mourners attending the funeral of a leader of the African National Congress, killing 13 people.

January 12 – Gulf War: The Congress of the United States passes a resolution authorizing the use of military force to expel Iraqi forces from Kuwait.

January 13 – Singing Revolution: Soviet forces storm Vilnius to stop Lithuanian independence. January Events (Lithuania) and the Time of Barricades in Latvia.

January 15

The United Nations deadline for the withdrawal of Iraqi forces from occupied Kuwait expires, preparing the way for the start of Operation Desert Storm.

Prime Minister of Cape Verde Pedro Pires resigns following his party's loss in the January 13, Cape Verdean parliamentary election, the first ever multiparty election in an African nation.[4]

January 16

U.S. serial killer Aileen Wuornos confesses to the murders of six men.

Gulf War: Operation Desert Storm begins with air strikes against Iraq.

January 17

Gulf War: Iraq fires eight Scud missiles into Israel.

Harald V of Norway becomes king on the death of his father, Olav V.

The volcano Hekla erupts on Iceland.

January 18 – Eastern Air Lines shuts down after 62 years, citing financial problems.

January 19

An Iraqi Scud attack on Tel Aviv in Israel injures 15 people.

The Party of the Alliance of Youth, Workers and Farmers of Angola is founded in Luanda, Angola.

January 21 – Harald V's investiture ceremony as King of Norway.

January 22

Three Iraqi Scuds and one Patriot missile hit Ramat Gan in Israel, injuring 96 people; three elderly people die of heart attacks.

The British Army SAS patrol, Bravo Two Zero, is deployed in Iraq during the Gulf War.

January 24 – The government of Papua New Guinea signs a peace agreement with separatist leaders from Bougainville Island, ending fighting that had gone on since 1988.

January 26 – Siad Barre is overthrown; Somalia enters civil war.

January 29

Siad Barre is succeeded by Ali Mahdi Muhammad in Somalia.

In South Africa, Nelson Mandela of the African National Congress and Mangosuthu Buthelezi of the Inkatha Freedom Party agree to end the violence that had plagued relations between the two organizations.

Gulf War: the Battle of Khafji occurs, the battle lasts until February 1.


February 1

A USAir Boeing 737-300, USAir Flight 1493 collides with a SkyWest Airlines Fairchild Metroliner, 5569 at Los Angeles International Airport, killing 34.

The 6.4 mb Hindu Kush earthquake affected northeast Afghanistan with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VII (Very strong), causing extreme damage, leaving 848 dead and 200 injured.

February 5 – A Michigan court bars Dr. Jack Kevorkian from assisting in suicides.

February 7

Haiti's first democratically elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide, is sworn in.

The Provisional Irish Republican Army launches a mortar attack on 10 Downing Street during a cabinet meeting.

Gulf War: Ground troops cross the Saudi Arabian border and enter Kuwait, thus starting the ground phase of the war.

February 9 – Singing Revolution: Voters in Lithuania support independence.

February 11 – The Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO) forms in The Hague, Netherlands.

February 13 – Gulf War: Two laser-guided "smart bombs" destroy an underground bunker in Baghdad, killing hundreds of Iraqis. United States military intelligence claims it was a military facility but Iraqi officials identify it as a bomb shelter.

February 15 – The Visegrad Agreement, establishing cooperation to move toward free-market systems, is signed by the leaders of Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Poland.

February 17 – The Cape Verdean presidential election, Cape Verde's first multiparty presidential election since 1975, is won by António Mascarenhas Monteiro.

February 18 – The Provisional Irish Republican Army explodes bombs in the early morning, at both Paddington station and Victoria station in London.

February 20 – President of Albania Ramiz Alia dismisses the government headed by Prime Minister of Albania Adil Çarçani in an effort to stem pro-democracy protests. Fatos Nano is sworn in as Prime Minister on February 22.

February 22 – Gulf War: Iraq accepts a Soviet-proposed cease fire agreement. The U.S. rejects the agreement, but says that retreating Iraqi forces will not be attacked if they leave Kuwait within 24 hours.

February 23

The One Meridian Plaza fire in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, kills three firefighters and destroys eight floors of the building.

In Thailand, General Sunthorn Kongsompong deposes Prime Minister Chatichai Choonhavan in a bloodless coup d'état.

February 25 – Gulf War: Part of an Iraqi Scud missile hits an American military barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, killing 29 and injuring 99 U.S. soldiers. It is the single-most devastating attack on U.S. forces during that war.

February 26

Gulf War: On Baghdad radio, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein announces the withdrawal of Iraqi troops from Kuwait. Iraqi soldiers set fire to Kuwaiti oil fields as they retreat.

Impostor James Hogue is arrested at Princeton University in the United States for forgery.

February 27

President Bush declares victory over Iraq and orders a cease-fire.

In the Bangladeshi general election, the Bangladesh Nationalist Party wins 139 of 300 seats in the Jatiyo Sangshad. BNP leader Khaleda Zia becomes President of Bangladesh on March 19.


March 1

The ballistic missile submarine USS Sam Houston is deactivated.

Clayton Keith Yeutter ends his term as United States Secretary of Agriculture.

March 3

An amateur video captures the beating of motorist Rodney King by Los Angeles police officers.

Singing Revolution: In the Estonian restoration of independence referendum and the Latvian independence and democracy poll, voters vote more than 3-to-1 in favor of independence from the Soviet Union.

United Airlines Flight 585 crashes in Colorado Springs, Colorado, killing all 25 people on board.

The São Tomé and Príncipe presidential election, the first contested presidential election in the history of São Tomé and Príncipe, is won by Miguel Trovoada.

March 6 – Prime Minister of India Chandra Shekhar resigns because of a dispute with former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi, whose support had kept him in power.

March 9 – Massive demonstrations are held against Slobodan Milošević in Belgrade; two people are killed and tanks are in the streets.

March 10

Gulf War – Operation Phase Echo: 540,000 American troops begin to leave the Persian Gulf.

In the Salvadoran legislative election, the Nationalist Republican Alliance wins 39 of 48 seats in the Legislative Assembly of El Salvador.

March 11 – A curfew is imposed on black townships in South Africa, after fighting between rival political gangs kills 49.

March 13

The United States Department of Justice announces that Exxon has agreed to pay $1 billion for the clean-up of the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska.

The Acid Rain Treaty of 1991 is signed between the American and Canadian governments.

March 14

The Emir of Kuwait, Jaber Al-Ahmad Al-Sabah, returns to Kuwait after seven months of exile in Saudi Arabia while his country was occupied by Iraq.

After 16 years in prison for allegedly bombing a public house in a Provisional Irish Republican Army attack, the "Birmingham Six" are freed when a court determines that the police fabricated evidence.

March 15

Four Los Angeles, California, police officers are indicted for the videotaped March 3 beating of Rodney King during an arrest.

Germany formally regains complete independence after the four post-World War II occupying powers (France, the United Kingdom, the United States and the Soviet Union) relinquish all remaining rights.

The United States and Albania resume diplomatic relations for the first time since 1939.

March 17

In a national referendum, the people of the Soviet Union vote in favor of keeping the 15 Soviet republics together, with the pro-unity position gaining 77% of the vote. Six Union Republics effectively boycott the referendum.

In the Finnish parliamentary election, the Centre Party wins 55 of 200 seats in the Parliament of Finland, ending 25 years of dominance by the Social Democratic Party of Finland.

March 19 – 26 – President of Poland Lech Wałęsa becomes the first Polish president to ever visit the U.S.

March 23 – The Sierra Leone Civil War begins when the Revolutionary United Front attempts a coup against the Sierra Leone government.

March 24 – The Beninese presidential election, Benin's first presidential election since 1970, is won by Nicéphore Soglo.

March 26

In Mali, military officers led by Amadou Toumani Touré arrest President Moussa Traoré and suspend the constitution.

Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay sign the Treaty of Asunción, establishing the South Common Market (Mercosur is its acronym in Spanish).

In Daegu, South Korea, five boys disappear while frog-hunting. Their remains are found eleven years after their disappearance (Frog Boys; Korean: 개구리소년 실종사건) in 2002.

March 31

Albania holds its first multi-party elections.

1991 Georgian independence referendum: Georgia votes for independence from the Soviet Union.


April 1 – Comedy Central is launched on cable television in its current format.

April 2 – Government-imposed price increases double or triple the prices of consumer goods in the Soviet Union.

April 3 – Iraq disarmament crisis: The U.N. Security Council passes the Cease Fire Agreement, Resolution 687. The Resolution calls for the destruction or removal of all of Iraq's chemical and biological weapons, all stocks of agents and components, and all research, development, support and manufacturing facilities for ballistic missiles with a range greater than 150 km and production facilities; and for an end to its support for international terrorism. Iraq accepts the terms of the resolution on April 6.

April 4

Senator John Heinz of Pennsylvania and six other people are killed when a helicopter collides with their plane over Merion, Pennsylvania.

William Kennedy Smith, a nephew of U.S. Senator Edward Kennedy, is identified as a suspect in an alleged Palm Beach, Florida, sexual assault.

Forty people are taken hostage in the 1991 Sacramento hostage crisis. Three gunmen and three hostages were killed in the process.

April 5

Former Senator John Tower and 22 others are killed in an airplane crash in Brunswick, Georgia, United States.

STS-37: Space Shuttle Atlantis is launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The shuttle launches an observatory to study gamma rays before returning to Earth on April 11.

April 9

The Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia declares independence from the Soviet Union.

The first Soviet troops leave Poland.[5]

April 10

A South Atlantic tropical cyclone develops in the Southern Hemisphere off the coast of Angola (the first of its kind to be documented by weather satellites).

The Italian ferry Moby Prince collides with an oil tanker in dense fog off Livorno, Italy killing 140.

April 12 – Globalization – The Warsaw Stock Exchange opens in Poland.

April 14 – In the Netherlands, thieves steal 20 paintings worth $500 million from the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam. Less than an hour later they are found in an abandoned car near the museum.

April 15

The EBRD is inaugurated.

The European Economic Community lifts economic sanctions on South Africa in response to moves to end the apartheid system.

April 16 – 18 – Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev begins the first ever visit of a Soviet leader to Japan, but fails to resolve the two countries' dispute over ownership of the Kuril Islands.

April 17 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 3,000 for the first time ever, at 3,004.46.

April 18 – Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraq declares some of its chemical weapons and materials to the UN, as required by Resolution 687, and claims that it does not have a biological weapons program.

April 19 – George Carey is enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury, the spiritual leader of the worldwide Anglican Communion.

April 21 – French underwater archaeologist Franck Goddio discovers the wreckage of the Spanish Galleon San Diego off the coast of Fortune Island (Philippines).

April 22

The Social Democratic Party of Albania is founded.

The 7.7 Mw Limon earthquake affected Costa Rica and Panama with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent), causing 47–87 deaths and 109–759 injuries.

April 23 – Prime Minister of Iceland Steingrímur Hermannsson resigns following an inconclusive parliamentary election on April 20. On April 30, he is succeeded as prime minister by Davíð Oddsson.

April 26

55 tornadoes break out in the central United States, killing 21. The most notable tornado of the day strikes Andover, Kansas.

Esko Aho, age 36, becomes the youngest-ever Prime Minister of Finland.

April 29

A tropical cyclone hits Bangladesh, killing an estimated 138,000 people.

STS-39: Space Shuttle Discovery lifts off from Cape Canaveral to study instruments related to the Strategic Defense Initiative. The mission ends on May 6.

The 7.0 Mw Racha earthquake affected Georgia with a maximum MSK intensity of IX (Destructive), killing 270 people.

April 29 – 30 – In Lesotho, a bloodless coup ousts military ruler Justin Lekhanya. On May 2, he is replaced as Chairman of the Military Council by Elias Phisoana Ramaema.


May 1

In Taiwan, the Temporary Provisions against the Communist Rebellion are abolished, having been in effect for 43 years.

Angolan Civil War: The MPLA and UNITA agree to the Bicesse Accords, which are formally signed on May 31 in Lisbon.

May 6 – Time magazine in the United States publishes "The Thriving Cult of Greed and Power", an article highly critical of the Scientology organization.

May 12 – Nepal holds its first multiparty legislative election since 1959.

May 14 – Elizabeth II arrives in Washington, D.C. for a 13-day royal visit to the U.S. On May 16 she becomes the first British monarch to address the United States Congress.

May 15 – Édith Cresson becomes France's first female prime minister.

May 18 – Somaliland withdraws from Somalia.

May 19 – In the Croatian independence referendum, voters in the Socialist Republic of Croatia vote to secede from Yugoslavia.

May 21

In Sriperumbudur, India, former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi is assassinated at a public meeting in Sriperumbudur, by suicide bomber Thenmozhi Rajaratnam; many others are killed in the explosion.

Mengistu Haile Mariam, president of the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, flees Ethiopia to Zimbabwe, effectively bringing the Ethiopian Civil War to an end.

May 22 – Acting Prime Minister of South Korea Ro Jai-bong resigns in the wake of rioting following a beating death of a student by police on April 26. On May 24, he is succeeded by Chung Won-shik.

May 24 – Authorised by Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir, Operation Solomon commences.

May 25 – The Surinamese general election is won by the military-backed New Front for Democracy and Development.

May 26 – In Thailand, a Lauda Air Boeing 767 crashes near Bangkok, killing all 223 people on board.

May 28 – In the Ethiopian Civil War, the forces of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front seize Addis Ababa.



Mount Pinatubo

June 3

Mount Unzen erupts, killing 43 people as a result of pyroclastic flow.

Ethiopian Civil War: Derg insurgents explode an ammunition dump in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia held by the new pro-US anti-communist Ethiopian government.

June 4

Fatos Nano resigns as Prime Minister of Albania following a nationwide strike. President of Albania Ramiz Alia appoints Ylli Bufi as his successor.

The largest solar flare ever recorded triggers an anomalously large aurora as far south as Pennsylvania.[6][7]

June 5

President of Algeria Chadli Bendjedid dismisses Prime Minister of Algeria Mouloud Hamrouche following 11 days of antigovernment demonstrations, replacing him with Sid Ahmed Ghozali.

South Africa repeals the last legal foundations of apartheid, the laws that segregated places of residence and employment.

STS-40: Space Shuttle Columbia carries the Spacelab into orbit.

June 7 – About 200,000 people attend a parade of 8,800 returning Persian Gulf War troops in Washington, D.C.

June 9 – A major collapse of ground at the Emaswati Colliery in Swaziland traps 26 miners 65 m below the surface. The men have access to a safe refuge chamber and are all rescued by a drill hole 30 hours after the rescue unit is first alerted.

June 12

Boris Yeltsin is elected President of Russia, the largest and most populous of the 15 Soviet republics.

Sri Lankan Civil War: Sri Lankan Army soldiers kill 152 civilians in Kokkadichcholai.

Party of Labour of Albania is dissolved and succeeded by the Socialist Party of Albania which signals the end of communist rule in Albania.

June 15

In the Philippines, Mount Pinatubo erupts in the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century; the final death toll tops 800.

End of voting in the Indian general election. The Indian National Congress wins the most seats but fails to secure a majority. On June 21, Congress leader P. V. Narasimha Rao becomes Prime Minister of India

June 17

Apartheid: The South African Parliament repeals the Population Registration Act, which had required racial classification of all South Africans at birth.

U.S. President Zachary Taylor is exhumed to discover whether or not his death was caused by arsenic poisoning, instead of acute gastrointestinal illness; no trace of arsenic is found.

In Northern Ireland, the four main political parties begin talks on restoring self-government.

President of Turkey Turgut Özal appoints Mesut Yılmaz as Prime Minister of Turkey, replacing Yıldırım Akbulut, who had resigned.

Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall announced plans to retire.

June 20 – In Germany, the Bundestag votes to move the capital from Bonn to Berlin.

June 21 – P. V. Narasimha Rao sworn in as the Prime Minister of India in a Congress party-led coalition government.

June 23 − Mesut Yılmaz, of ANAP forms the new government of Turkey (48th government).

June 23 – 28 – Iraq disarmament crisis: U.N. inspection teams attempt to intercept Iraqi vehicles carrying nuclear related equipment. Iraqi soldiers fire warning shots in the air to prevent inspectors from approaching the vehicles.

June 25 – Collapse of Yugoslavia: Croatia and Slovenia declare their independence from Yugoslavia.

June 28 – Comecon is dissolved in Moscow.


July 1

The Warsaw Pact is officially dissolved at a meeting in Prague.

Telephone service goes down in the cities of Washington, D.C., Pittsburgh, Los Angeles and San Francisco due to a software bug. About twelve million customers are affected.

World's first GSM telephone call made in Finland.

Clarence Thomas is nominated to replace Thurgood Marshall as the Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court.

July 2 – Ten-Day War: Fighting breaks out when the Yugoslav People's Army attacks secessionists in Slovenia.

July 4 – President of Colombia César Gaviria lifts a 7-year-long state of siege.

July 6 – 7 – Steffi Graf and Michael Stich win the 1991 Wimbledon Championships.

July 7 – The Brioni Agreement ends the Ten-Day War in Slovenia.

July 9

In response to the end of apartheid, the International Olympic Committee readmits South Africa to the Olympics.

Iran–Contra affair: Alan Fiers agrees to plead guilty to two charges of having lied to the U.S. Congress.

July 10

Boris Yeltsin begins his 5-year term as the first elected president of Russia.

President Bush announces the U.S. is ending its 1986-enacted sanctions on South Africa.

July 11

A solar eclipse of record totality occurs, seen first in Hawaii, then enters Mexico where the path directly crosses Cabo San Lucas and Mexico City, seen by 20 million inhabitants, and finally ends in Colombia in South America.

Nigeria Airways Flight 2120, a Douglas DC-8 operated by Canadian airline Nolisair, catches fire and crashes soon after takeoff from Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, killing all 261 people on board.

July 15 – Chemical Bank and Manufacturers Hanover Corporation announce that they are merging, the largest bank merger in history.

July 16

President Gorbachev arrives in London to ask for western aid from the leaders of the G7.

Ukraine celebrates its first Independence Day.

July 17 – President Bush and President Gorbachev reach an agreement on START I, which is formally signed on July 31.

July 18

In Israel, a judge investigating a 1990 incident outside a mosque in Jerusalem in which at least 17 Palestinians were killed rules that Israeli police provoked the incident.

The governments of Mauritania and Senegal sign a treaty to stop the Mauritania–Senegal Border War which had been going on since 1989.

July 22

Boxer Mike Tyson is arrested and charged with the rape of Miss Black America contestant Desiree Washington three days earlier, in Indianapolis, Indiana.

Serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer is arrested after the remains of 11 men and boys are found in his Milwaukee, Wisconsin, apartment. Police soon find out that he is involved in six more murders.

July 24 – Finance Minister of India Manmohan Singh announces a New Industrial Policy, marking the start of economic liberalisation in India.

July 25 – British astronomers announce they have found what appears to be an extrasolar planet.

July 27 – An oil spill begins fouling beaches in Olympic National Park.

July 29 – In New York City, a grand jury indicts Bank of Credit and Commerce International of the largest bank fraud in history, accusing the bank of defrauding depositors of $5 billion.

July 30 – In Haiti, a jury convicts the Tonton Macoute of attempting to overthrow Haiti's first democratically-elected government.

July 31

The Warsaw Treaty Organization is officially dissolved in accordance with a protocol calling for a "transition to all-European structures".

The United States and the Soviet Union sign the START I treaty limiting strategic nuclear weapons.

Singing Revolution: Soviet Special Purpose Police Unit (OMON) forces kill seven Lithuanian customs officials in Medininkai in the most serious of the Soviet OMON assaults on Lithuanian border posts.


"August 1991" redirects here. For the film, see August 1991 (film).


The Warsaw radio mast after its collapse on August 8.


August 19: The coup attempt in Moscow.

August 1 – Israel agrees to participate in the Madrid Conference of 1991, which is held in October.

August 4 – The cruise liner MTS Oceanos sinks off the coast of South Africa and all 571 passengers on board are safely evacuated by SAAF helicopters.

August 5 – Sergey Bubka breaks the world record for men's pole vault.

August 6 – Tim Berners-Lee announces the World Wide Web project and software on the alt.hypertext newsgroup. The first website, "" is created.

August 7 – Shapour Bakhtiar, former prime minister of Iran, is assassinated.

August 8 – The Warsaw radio mast, the tallest construction ever built at the time, collapses.

August 13 – The Super Nintendo Entertainment System (or "Super Nintendo") is released in the United States.[importance?]

August 17

Strathfield massacre: In Sydney, Australia, taxi driver Wade Frankum shoots seven people and injures six others before turning the gun on himself.

The remains of the Prussian King Frederick (II) the Great are re-interred in Potsdam.

August 17 – 20: Hurricane Bob hits North Carolina and New England. The storm kills 17 people and causes $1½ billion in damage.

August 19 – Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev is put under house arrest while vacationing in the Crimea during a coup. The attempted coup, led by Vice President Gennady Yanayev and seven hard-liners attempting to usurp control, collapses in less than 72 hours.

August 20

Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Estonia restores its independence from the Soviet Union.

Dissolution of the Soviet Union: More than 100,000 people rally outside the Soviet Russia's parliament building protesting the coup that deposed President Mikhail Gorbachev.

August 21 – Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Latvia restores its independence from the Soviet Union.

August 22 – Iceland is the first nation in the world to recognize the independence of the Baltic states.


Restored flag of Russia.

August 23 – Russia restores the white-blue-red tricolour as its national flag.

August 24 – Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Ukraine declares independence from Soviet Union.

August 25

Serbian aggression (Yugoslav People's Army and Chetniks) starts on Croatian town Vukovar.

Student Linus Torvalds posts messages to Usenet newsgroup comp.os.minix about the new operating system kernel he has been developing.

Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Belarus declares independence from Soviet Union.

August 27 – Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Moldova declares independence from the Soviet Union.

August 29

Maronite general Michel Aoun leaves Lebanon via a French ship into exile.

Boris Yeltsin bans and dissolves the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

August 30 – Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Azerbaijan declares independence from Soviet Union.

August 31 – Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan declare independence from the Soviet Union.



Map of the three Baltic states, in their flag colours.

September 2 – The United States re-recognizes the independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania and the US government reopens the embassies there.

September 3 – In Hamlet, North Carolina, a grease fire breaks out at the Imperial Foods chicken processing plant, killing 25 people.

September 4 – The Russian city Yekaterinburg regains its name from the communist–era name of Sverdlovsk, Russia (former Soviet Union).

September 5 – 7 – At the 35th Annual Tailhook Symposium in Las Vegas, 83 women and 7 men are assaulted.

September 5 – The Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union self-dissolves, replaced by Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union and State Council of the Soviet Union

September 6

Singing Revolution: The Soviet Union recognizes the independence of the Baltic states.

Leningrad renamed St. Petersburg .

September 8 – The Republic of Macedonia becomes independent. A naming dispute with Greece immediately erupts.

September 9 – Tajikistan declares its independence from the Soviet Union.

September 11

Israel releases 51 Arab prisoners and the bodies of nine guerillas, raising hopes that the last Western hostages in Lebanon will soon be released.

The Soviet Union announces plans to withdraw Soviet military and economic aid to Cuba.

September 15 – In the Swedish general election, the Social Democrats suffer their worst election results in 60 years, leading to the resignation of Prime Minister Ingvar Carlsson.

September 16 – Judge Gerhard Gesell of the United States District Court for the District of Columbia issues a ruling clearing Col. Oliver North of all charges brought against him in the Iran–Contra affair.

September 17 – North Korea, South Korea, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands and Micronesia join the United Nations.

September 19 – Ötzi the Iceman is found in the Alps.

September 20 – 21 – In Sandy, Utah, several patients are held hostage and a nurse is killed in the Alta View Hospital hostage incident.

September 21

Armenia declares independence from the Soviet Union.

The Order of the Sisters of Perpetual Indulgence of German tongue (Orden der Schwestern der Perpetuellen Indulgenz deutscher Zunge, "O.S.P.I.") is founded in Heidelberg by Erzmutter (Archmother) Johanna Indulgentia Tara Maria Benedicta O.S.P.I.

September 21 – 30 – Iraq disarmament crisis: IAEA inspectors discover files on Iraq's hidden nuclear weapons program. Iraqi officials confiscate documents from U.N. weapons inspectors, refusing to allow them to leave the site without turning over other documents. A 4-day standoff ensues. Iraq permits the team to leave with the documents after the U.N. Security Council threatens enforcement actions.

September 22 – The Huntington Library makes the Dead Sea Scrolls available to the public for the first time.

September 23 – United Nations Special Commission inspectors discover secret Iraqi documents in Baghdad detailing plans to make nuclear weapons, but the Iraqi Army forcibly remove the documents from the inspectors.

September 24 – Lebanese kidnappers release Jackie Mann, 77, after more than two years of captivity.

September 25 – In the Salvadoran Civil War, representatives of the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front reach an agreement with President of El Salvador Alfredo Cristiani, setting the stage for ending over 11 years of civil war.

September 27 – President Bush announces unilateral reductions in short-range nuclear weapons and calls off 24-hour alerts for long-range bombers. The Soviet Union responds with similar unilateral reductions on October 5.

September 29 – In El Salvador, an army colonel of the Atlacatl Battalion is found guilty of the 1989 murders of six Jesuits.

September 30

Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide is removed from power. He is reinstated in 1994.

A tornado destroys parts of Itu, a city in southeastern Brazil, killing 16 and leaving 176 injured.


October 1 – Croatian War of Independence: Forces of the Yugoslav People's Army invade the area surrounding Dubrovnik in Croatia, beginning the Siege of Dubrovnik, which lasts until May 31, 1992.

October 3

Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton announces he will seek the 1992 Democratic nomination for President of the United States.

Nadine Gordimer, whose work was once suppressed because of its scathing criticism of Apartheid in South Africa, is awarded the 1991 Nobel Prize in Literature.

House banking scandal: Tom Foley, Speaker of the United States House of Representatives, announces closure of the House Bank by the end of the year after revelations that House members have written numerous bad checks.

October 4 – Carl Bildt becomes the new Prime Minister of Sweden, replacing Ingvar Carlsson.

October 6 – President Gorbachev condemns Antisemitism in the Soviet Union in a statement read on the 50th anniversary of the Babi Yar massacres, which saw the death of 35,000 Jews in Ukraine.

October 7 – The Yugoslav Air Force bombs the office of President of Croatia Franjo Tuđman, who narrowly escapes with his life.

October 8 – The Croatian Parliament cuts all remaining ties with Yugoslavia.

October 11

In Russia, the KGB is replaced by the SVR.[8][9]

Iraq disarmament crisis: The U.N. Security Council passes Resolution 715, which demands that Iraq "accept unconditionally the inspectors and all other personnel designated by the Special Commission". Iraq rejects the resolution, calling it "unlawful".

October 11 – 13 – The U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee interviews both Supreme Court candidate Clarence Thomas and former aide Anita Hill, who alleges that Thomas sexually harassed her while she worked for him.

October 12 – Askar Akayev, previously chosen President of Kyrgyzstan by its Supreme Soviet, is confirmed president in an uncontested poll.

October 13 – In the Bulgarian parliamentary election, the Union of Democratic Forces defeats the Bulgarian Socialist Party, leaving no remaining Communist governments in Eastern Europe.

October 14 – Aung San Suu Kyi, a Burmese opposition politician, won the Nobel Peace prize.

October 15 – The United States Senate votes 52–48 to confirm Judge Clarence Thomas to the Supreme Court of the United States.

October 16 – George Hennard murders 23 people in Killeen, Texas, before killing himself.

October 18 – The Soviet Union restores diplomatic relations with Israel, which had been suspended since the 1967 Six-Day War.

October 20

The Oakland Hills firestorm kills 25 and destroys 3,469 homes and apartments.

The Harare Declaration lays down the membership criteria for the Commonwealth of Nations.

Former Ku Klux Klan Grand Wizard David Duke wins a spot in the runoff election for governor of Louisiana, ultimately losing to Edwin Edwards.

October 21 – Lebanese kidnappers release Jesse Turner, a mathematics professor who had been held hostage for more than four years.

October 23 – In Paris, the Vietnam-backed government of the state of Cambodia signs an agreement with the Khmer Rouge to end the civil war and bring the Khmer Rouge into government in spite of its role in the Cambodian genocide which ends the Cambodian–Vietnamese War. The deal results in the creation of the United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia.

October 27

The first free parliamentary elections are held in Poland.

Turkmenistan declares its independence from the Soviet Union.

October 28 – November 4 – The 1991 Perfect Storm strikes the northeastern United States and Atlantic Canada, causing over $200 million of damage and resulting in 12 direct fatalities.

October 29

The American Galileo spacecraft makes its closest approach to 951 Gaspra, becoming the first probe to visit an asteroid.

The U.S. expands trade sanctions on Haiti to include all goods except food and medicine, in an effort to encourage the leaders of the 1991 Haitian coup d'état to restore democracy.

October 30 – In Madrid, the Middle East Peace Conference opens, the first direct negotiations between Israel and nearly all its Arab adversaries.

October 31 – November 3 – The Halloween Blizzard hits the Upper Midwest of the United States, causing around $100 million of damage and killing 22.


A severely damaged brick and concrete tower, pierced with numerous shell holes

Symbol of Vukovar; Croatian War of Independence

November 4 – 5 – In South Africa, the African National Congress leads a general strike, demanding a role in governing and an end to a value-added tax.

November 5

The body of publishing tycoon Robert Maxwell is found floating in the Atlantic Ocean near the Canary Islands.

In a special election for the U.S. Senate, Harris Wofford scores an electoral upset against Dick Thornburgh, who had led him by 44 points in an August opinion poll.

The United States Senate confirms Robert Gates as Director of Central Intelligence.

China–Vietnam relations: China and Vietnam restore diplomatic relations after a 13-year rift which followed the 1979 Sino-Vietnamese War.

November 6

The KGB officially stops operations.

The CPSU and its republic-level division, the Communist Party of the Russian SFSR, are banned in the Russian SFSR by Presidential decree N 169.

November 7

Los Angeles Lakers point guard Magic Johnson announces he has HIV, effectively ending his NBA career.

The last oil well fire in Kuwait is extinguished.

The first report on carbon nanotubes is published by Sumio Iijima in the journal Nature.

November 8 – Hong Kong begins the forcible repatriation of Vietnamese boat people, starting with a group of 59 who were flown to Hanoi.

November 9

The British JET fusion reactor generates 1.5 MW output power.

On the anniversary of Kristallnacht, tens of thousands of protestors demonstrate against attacks on immigrant workers.[importance?]

November 12 – June Rowlands is elected the first female Mayor of Toronto, Canada.

November 14

American and British authorities announce indictments against two Libyan intelligence officials, in connection with the downing of the Pan Am Flight 103.

Cambodian Prince Norodom Sihanouk returns to Phnom Penh after 13 years of exile.

Kidnappers in Lebanon set Anglican Church envoys Terry Waite and Thomas Sutherland free.

November 18

The forces of the Yugoslav People's Army (JNA) and Serb paramilitaries take the Croatian town of Vukovar after an 87-day siege, and kill more than 260 Croatian prisoners of war.[10]

An Azerbaijani MI-8 helicopter carrying a 19-member peacekeeping mission team with officials and journalists from Russia, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan is shot down by Armenian military forces in Khojavend district of Azerbaijan.

Süleyman Demirel of DYP forms the new government of Turkey (49th government, coalition partner CHP).

November 21 – The United Nations Security Council recommends Egypt's deputy prime minister Boutros Boutros-Ghali to be the next Secretary-General of the United Nations.

November 23 – Members of the Communist Party of Great Britain vote to dissolve the party and found the think-tank Democratic Left in its place.

November 24 – Queen lead singer Freddie Mercury dies from pneumonia induced by AIDS.

November 26 – The National Assembly of Azerbaijan abolishes the autonomous status of Nagorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast of Azerbaijan and renames several cities according to their Azeri names.

November 27 – The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopts a resolution opening the way to the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia.



December 8: The signing of the agreement ending the USSR's existence and the founding of the Commonwealth of Independent States.

December 1 – Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Ukrainians vote overwhelmingly for independence from the Soviet Union in a referendum.

December 4

Journalist Terry A. Anderson is released after seven years' captivity as a hostage in Beirut (the last and longest-held American hostage in Lebanon).

Pan American World Airways ends operations.

John Leonard Orr, one of the most prolific serial arsonists of the 20th century, is arrested in California. In the ensuing years, Orr is convicted in both Federal and state court.

December 8

Leaders of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine meet and sign an agreement ending the Soviet Union and establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), in the Białowieża Forest Nature Reserve in Belarus.

A referendum on the constitution of Romania is accepted as valid.

December 11 – Croatian forces kill 18 Serbs and one Hungarian in the village of Paulin Dvor, Croatia.

December 12

The Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR denounces the Union Treaty of 1922 and ratifies the Belavezha Accords instead.

The government of Nigeria changes the capital of the nation from Lagos to Abuja.

Ukraine becomes the first post-Soviet republic to decriminalize homosexuality.

December 15 – The Egyptian ferry Salem Express sinks in the Red Sea, killing more than 450.

December 16

Kazakhstan declares its independence from the Soviet Union.

United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379: The United Nations General Assembly adopts United Nations General Assembly Resolution 46/86 which states that Zionism is not racism, repealing United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3379 (adopted 1975). The resolution is favoured by 111 nations and opposed by 25.

December 19

Paul Keating defeats Bob Hawke in a Labor Party leadership ballot. Consequently, Keating becomes Prime Minister of Australia, being sworn in the following day.[11]

Skarnsund Bridge opens in Norway. With a span of 530 metres (1,739 ft), it will be the world's longest cable-stayed bridge for two years.

December 20 – A Missouri court passes the death sentence on Palestinian militant Zein Isa and his wife Maria, for the honor killing of their daughter Palestina.

December 21

The North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NAC-C) meets for the first time, the day on which the Soviet Union ceases to exist. source

Charilaos Florakis is elected honorary president of the Communist Party of Greece. source

December 22 – 1991-92 Georgian coup d'état: Armed opposition groups launch a military coup against President of Georgia Zviad Gamsakhurdia.

December 24 – Russian SFSR President Boris Yeltsin sends a letter to UN Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, stating that Russia should be a successor to the collapsing Soviet Union within the United Nations Organization.

December 25

Dissolution of the Soviet Union: Mikhail Gorbachev resigns as president of the Soviet Union, from which most republics have already seceded, anticipating the dissolution of the 74-year-old state.

The Russian SFSR officially renames itself the Russian Federation.

December 26 – The Supreme Soviet meets for a final time, formally dissolves the Soviet Union, and adjourns sine die, ending the Cold War. All remaining Soviet institutions eventually cease operation on December 31.



January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December



Pixie Lott


Erin Sanders

January 2

Ben Hardy, English actor

Sergei Petrov, Russian football player

Davide Santon, Italian footballer

January 4 – Charles Melton, American actor and model

January 5 – Rahel Kiwic, Swiss footballer

January 7

Eden Hazard, Belgian football player

Alen Stevanović, Swiss-Serbian footballer

Caster Semenya, South African athlete

January 8 – Asuka Hinoi, Japanese singer

January 9 – Álvaro Soler, Spanish-German singer

January 12 – Pixie Lott, British singer

January 13 – Goo Ha-ra, South Korean singer and actress (d. 2019)

January 14 – Jeanine Mason, American actress and dancer

January 15 – Darya Klishina, Russian athlete and model

January 18 – Britt McKillip, Canadian actress and musician

January 19

Erin Sanders, American actress

Yu Takahashi, Japanese actress and model

January 20

Ciara Hanna, American actress and model

Jolyon Palmer, British racing driver

January 24 – Ali Kireş, Turkish footballer

January 28 – Calum Worthy, Canadian actor and musician

January 31 – Amy Jackson, English actress and model



Emma Roberts


Ed Sheeran


Malese Jow

February 1 – Jasmine Tookes, American model

February 4 – Mathew Leckie, Australian footballer

February 5 – Alba Riquelme, Paraguayan model

February 6 – Maxi Iglesias, Spanish actor and model

February 8

Genzebe Dibaba, Ethiopian middle- and long-distance runner

Wahbi Khazri, Tunisian footballer

Nam Woo-hyun, South Korean singer, dancer, and actor

February 10 – Emma Roberts, American actress and singer

February 11 – Shanina Shaik, Australian model

February 14

Raquel Calderón Argandoña, Chilean actress, singer and lawyer

Karol G, Colombian reggaeton singer and songwriter

February 16

Sergio Canales, Spanish football player

Micah Stephen Williams, American actor

February 17

Ed Sheeran, English singer, songwriter, guitarist, record producer, and actor

Bonnie Wright, English actress, film director, screenwriter, model and producer

February 18

Malese Jow, American actress and singer

Henry Surtees, British racing driver (d. 2009)

February 21

Riyad Mahrez, French-Algerian footballer

Solar, South Korean singer, songwriter, and actress

February 22

Khalil Mack, American football player

Robin Stjernberg, Swedish pop singer

February 24

Emily DiDonato, American model

O'Shea Jackson Jr., American rapper and actor

February 25 – Tony Oller, American actor and singer

February 26 – CL, South Korean singer and dancer

February 28 – Sarah Bolger, Irish actress



Devon Werkheiser


Luan Santana


Antoine Griezmann

March 3 – Park Cho-rong, South Korean singer-songwriter and actress

March 4 – Aoi Nakamura, Japanese actor

March 5

Ramiro Funes Mori, Argentine footballer

Rogelio Funes Mori, Argentine footballer

March 6

Nicole Fox, American fashion model and actress

Tyler, The Creator, American rapper

March 7 – Ian Clark, American basketball player

March 8 – Devon Werkheiser, American actor, voice actor, singer-songwriter and musician

March 10 – Landon Liboiron, Canadian actor

March 11

Linlin, Chinese singer

Jack Rodwell, English footballer

Poonam Pandey, Indian Bollywood actress

March 13

Luan Santana, Brazilian singer-songwriter

Tristan Thompson, Canadian basketball player

March 15 – Kie Kitano, Japanese actress

March 16 – Wolfgang Van Halen, American musician

March 19 – Garrett Clayton, American actor and singer

March 21 – Antoine Griezmann, French footballer

March 25 – Seychelle Gabriel, American actress

March 28

Amy Bruckner, American actress and singer

Hoya, South Korean singer and actor

March 29

Irene, South Korean singer, rapper, television host, and model

N'Golo Kanté, French footballer

Hayley McFarland, American actress, singer and dancer



AJ Michalka


Thiago Alcântara

April 3 – Hayley Kiyoko, American singer and actress

April 4

Jamie Lynn Spears, American singer and actress

Yui Koike, Japanese actress and singer

April 8 – Minami Takahashi, Japanese singer

April 10 – AJ Michalka, American singer and actress

April 11

Thiago Alcântara, Spanish footballer

James Magnussen, Australian swimmer

April 13 – Dylan Penn, American model and actress

April 15

Javier Fernandez, Spanish figure skater

Ghostemane, American rapper and singer

Anastasia Vinnikova, Belarusian singer

April 19 – Kelly Olynyk, Canadian basketball player

April 20

Luke Kuechly, American football player

Yuko Shintake, Japanese artistic gymnast

April 25 – Alex Shibutani, American ice dancer

April 30 – Travis Scott, American rapper



Lena Meyer-Landrut


Alexandre Lacazette

May 2 – Ilya Zakharov, Russian diver

May 5 – Raúl Jiménez, Mexican footballer

May 9

Majlinda Kelmendi, Kosovan joduka

Christy Mack, American pornographic actress and model

May 16 – Grigor Dimitrov, Bulgarian tennis player

May 17

Johanna Konta, Australian-born tennis player

Daniel Curtis Lee, American actor and rapper

May 22

Sophia Abrahão, Brazilian actress

Suho, South Korean singer, songwriter, actor, and model

May 23

Aaron Donald, American football player

Lena Meyer-Landrut, German singer

May 24

Sarah Ramos, American actress

Erika Umeda, Japanese singer

May 25 – Derrick Williams, American basketball player

May 27 – Beauden Barrett, New Zealand rugby union player

May 28 – Alexandre Lacazette, French footballer

May 31 – Azealia Banks, American singer-songwriter



Natasha Dupeyrón


Willa Holland


Christa Theret

June 3 – Natasha Dupeyrón, Mexican actress and singer

June 4 – Lorenzo Insigne, Italian footballer

June 6 – Son Dong-woon, Korean pop singer

June 7

Emily Ratajkowski, American model and actress

Fetty Wap, American rapper

June 10 – Pol Espargaró, Spanish motorcycle racer

June 12 – Louisa Gummer, American model

June 14

André Carrillo, Peruvian footballer

Kostas Manolas, Greek footballer

June 15 – Rina Takeda, Japanese actress and black belt

June 16

Siya Kolisi, South African rugby union player

Joe McElderry, British singer and model

June 17 – Yusei Kikuchi, Japanese baseball pitcher

June 18 – Willa Holland, American model and actress

June 20 – Kalidou Koulibaly, French-Senegalese footballer

June 21

J. C. Greyling, Namibian rugby union player

Gaël Kakuta, Congolese professional footballer

César Taján, Colombian footballer

Min, South Korean singer, actress and model

June 23

Katie Armiger, American singer

Fakhreddine Ben Youssef, Tunisian footballer

June 24

Max Ehrich, American actor, singer and dancer

Yasmin Paige, English actress

June 25

Kyousuke Hamao, Japanese actor, singer and model

Christa Theret, French actress

Victor Wanyama, Kenyan footballer

June 27 – Germán Pezzella, Argentine footballer

June 28

Kevin De Bruyne, Belgian footballer

Kang Min-hyuk, South Korean drummer, actor and singer

Seohyun, South Korean singer and actress

June 29

Kawhi Leonard, American basketball player

Suk Hyun-jun, South Korean footballer

Addison Timlin, American actress

Tajja Isen, Canadian actress and singer-songwriter



Jason Dolley


Mitchel Musso


James Rodríguez


Seppe Smits


Alexandra Shipp


Sara Sampaio

July 1

Serenay Sarıkaya, Turkish actress and model

Lucas Vázquez, Spanish footballer

July 2 – Kim Go-eun, South Korean actress

July 3

Tomomi Itano, Japanese singer and actress

Anastasia Pavlyuchenkova, Russian tennis player

Grant Rosenmeyer, American film and television actor

July 5 – Jason Dolley, American actor and musician

July 6 – Victoire Thivisol, French actress

July 7

Alesso, Swedish DJ and music producer

Cody Garbrandt, American mixed martial artist

Eve Hewson, Irish actress

Choi Tae-joon, South Korean actor

July 8 – Virgil van Dijk, Dutch footballer

July 9

Clara Mae, Swedish singer

Mitchel Musso, American actor, musician and singer

Riley Reid, American pornographic actress

July 10 – Atsuko Maeda, Japanese singer and actress

July 11 – Kentaro Sakaguchi, Japanese model and actor

July 12

James Rodríguez, Colombian football player

Erik Per Sullivan, American actor

July 13

Seppe Smits, Belgian snowboarder

Khairu Azrin Khazali, Malaysian footballer

July 15

Derrick Favors, American basketball player

Yuki Kashiwagi, Japanese singer and actress

Evgeny Tishchenko, Russian heavyweight boxer

July 16

Alexandra Shipp, American actress

Andros Townsend, English footballer

July 20

Merxat, Chinese actor

Tawan Vihokratana, Thai actor, model and travel vlogger

July 21 – Sara Sampaio, Portuguese model

July 22 – Tomi Juric, Australian footballer

July 23

BiBi Jones, American pornographic actress

Lauren Mitchell, Australian artistic gymnast

Kianoush Rostami, Iranian weightlifter

July 24

Riku Matsuda, Japanese footballer

Emily Bett Rickards, Canadian actress

July 25 – Amanda Kurtović, Norwegian handball player

July 27

Matt DiBenedetto, American race car driver

Rena Matsui, Japanese singer and idol

July 28 – Rina Aizawa, Japanese actress and gravure idol

July 31 – Filipa Azevedo, Portuguese singer



Lakeith Stanfield


Young Thug


Dylan O'Brien

August 2 – Skyler Day, American actress and singer

August 3 – Ismail Juma, Tanzanian long-distance runner (d. 2017)

August 6

Irina Kulikova, Russian fashion model

Jiao Liuyang, Chinese swimmer

August 7 – Mike Trout, American baseball player

August 9

Alexa Bliss, American professional wrestler

Hansika Motwani, Indian actress

August 11 – Estelle Nze Minko, French handball player

August 12 – Lakeith Stanfield, American actor and rapper

August 15 – Filip Mladenović, Serbian football player

August 16

Evanna Lynch, Irish actress

Kwon Ri-se, South Korean singer (d. 2014)

Young Thug, American hip hop artist

August 17 – Austin Butler, American actor, singer, and model

August 18

Richard Harmon, Canadian actor

Brianna Rollins-McNeal, American track and field athlete

August 20 – Cory Joseph, Canadian basketball player

August 22 – Brayden Schenn, Canadian ice hockey player

August 23 – Jennifer Abel, Canadian diver

August 25 – Gershon Koffie, Ghanaian soccer player

August 26 – Dylan O'Brien, American actor

August 28

Kyle Massey, American actor, rapper and singer

Samuel Larsen, American actor and singer

August 30 – Gaia Weiss, French model and actress



Jennifer Veal


Mena Massoud

September 4 – Carter Jenkins, American actor

September 7 – Jennifer Veal, English actress and comedian

September 8 – Joe Sugg, English Youtuber

September 9

Kelsey Chow, American actress

Hunter Hayes, American country musician

Oscar dos Santos Emboaba Júnior, Brazilian footballer

September 11

Jordan Ayew, Ghanaian footballer

Kygo, Norwegian DJ and record producer

September 12 – Thomas Meunier, Belgian footballer

September 13 – Ksenia Afanasyeva, Russian artistic gymnast

September 14 – Nana, South Korean singer, actress and model

September 15 – Alex Florea, Romanian singer

September 16 – Marlon Teixeira, Brazilian model

September 17

An Byeong-hun, Korean golfer

Minako Kotobuki, Japanese actress and singer

Mena Massoud, Canadian actor

Sanne Wevers, Dutch gymnast

September 20 – Spencer Locke, American actress

September 22 – Khairul Anuar Mohamad, Malaysian archer

September 23 – Key, Korean singer

September 27 – Simona Halep, Romanian tennis player

September 30 – Thomas Röhler, German track and field athlete (javelin)



Roshon Fegan


Tyler Posey


Princess Mako of Akishino

October 2 – Roberto Firmino, Brazilian footballer

October 4 – Nicolai Kielstrup, Danish singer

October 6 – Roshon Fegan, American actor, rapper and dancer

October 7

Nicole Jung, Korean-American singer

Lay Zhang, Chinese singer-songwriter, record producer, dancer, and actor

October 10

Michael Carter-Williams, American basketball player

Gabriella Cilmi, Australian singer-songwriter

Lali Espósito, Argentine actress, singer, dancer and model

Mariana Pajón, Colombian cyclist

Xherdan Shaqiri, Swiss footballer

October 13 – Diego Domínguez, Spanish actor and singer

October 16

Phan Thi Ha Thanh, Vietnamese artistic gymnast

Miori Takimoto, Japanese actress

Jedward, Irish pop duo

October 17 – Brenda Asnicar, Argentine actress and singer

October 18 – Tyler Posey, American actor and musician

October 20 – Zulfahmi Khairuddin, Malaysian motocycle racer

October 21 – Artur Aleksanyan, Armenian Greco-Roman wrestler

October 22 – Tatiana Martínez, Mexican actress

October 23

Emil Forsberg, Swedish footballer

Princess Mako of Akishino, Japanese princess

Sophie Oda, Japanese-American actress

October 26 – Amala Paul, Indian film actress

October 30

Artemi Panarin, Russian ice hockey player

Tomáš Satoranský, Czech basketball player



Jiang Yuyuan


Shailene Woodley


Christian Cueva

November 1

Jiang Yuyuan, Chinese gymnast

Anthony Ramos, American actor

November 4

Olta Boka, Albanian singer

Bee Vang, American actor

Adriana Chechik, American pornographic actress

November 6

Camila Finn, Brazilian model

Pierson Fodé, American actor and model

November 8 – Riker Lynch, American actor and singer

November 11

Christa B. Allen, American actress

Tanvi Hegde, Indian actress

November 12 – Takatoshi Abe, Japanese track and field athlete

November 13

Matt Bennett, American actor and singer

Devon Bostick, Canadian actor

November 14

Taylor Hall, Canadian ice hockey player

Graham Patrick Martin, American film and television actor

November 15 – Shailene Woodley, American actress, producer and activist

November 16 – Tomomi Kasai, Japanese singer

November 20 – Kim Se-yong, South Korean singer and actor

November 21

Almaz Ayana, Ethiopian long-distance runner

Dmitry Martynov, Russian actor

November 22 – Saki Shimizu, Japanese singer

November 23 – Christian Cueva, Peruvian footballer

November 29 – Becky James, British professional racing cyclist



Jillian Rose Reed


Louis Tomlinson

December 1 – Sun Yang, Chinese Olympic swimmer

December 2

Chloe Dufour-Lapointe, Canadian freestyle skier

Brandon Knight, American basketball player

Charlie Puth, American singer

December 3 – Masahiro Usui, Japanese actor

December 4 – André Roberson, American basketball player

December 5 – Christian Yelich, American baseball player

December 6

Milica Mandić, Serbian taekwondo athlete

CoCo Vandeweghe, American tennis player

December 9

Prince Joachim of Belgium, Archduke of Austria-Este, Belgian prince

Choi Minho, South Korean rapper and TV host

December 10 – Kiki Bertens, Dutch tennis player

December 11 – Anna Bergendahl, Swedish singer

December 14 – Mitsuki Takahata, Japanese actress and singer

December 15 – Eunice Cho, Korean-American actress

December 19

Jorge Blanco, Mexican musician, singer, dancer, and actor

Declan Galbraith, English singer

Keiynan Lonsdale, Australian actor

Sumire Uesaka, Japanese voice actress and singer

December 20

Jorginho, Brazilian-Italian footballer

Jillian Rose Reed, American actress

December 24

Vincent Caso, American actor and writer[importance?]

Louis Tomlinson, British singer and songwriter

December 26 – Eden Sher, American actress

December 27 – Chloe Bridges, American actress

December 28 – Belime, Lebanon singer-songwriter, pop musician, and music producer

December 30 – Camila Giorgi, Italian tennis player


Further information: Category:1991 deaths


January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December



Steve Clark


Olav V of Norway

January 2 – Renato Rascel, Italian actor and singer (b. 1912)

January 3

Luke Appling, American baseball player (Chicago White Sox) and member of the MLB Hall of Fame (b. 1907)

Doris Zinkeisen, Scottish theatrical stage and costume designer, painter, commercial artist and writer (b. 1898)

January 5 – Vasko Popa, Yugoslavian poet (b. 1922)

January 8 – Steve Clark, English guitarist (b. 1960)

January 11 – Carl David Anderson, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1905)

January 12

Keye Luke, Chinese-born actor (b. 1904)

Vasco Pratolini, Italian writer (b. 1913)

January 14 – Salah Khalaf (a.k.a. Abu Iyad), Palestinian officer (b. 1933)

January 17 – King Olav V of Norway (b. 1903)

January 18 – Hamilton Fish III, American soldier and politician (b. 1888)

January 19 – John Russell, American actor (b. 1921)

January 22 – Kenas Aroi, Nauruan politician (b. 1942)

January 25 – Frank Soo, English footballer and manager (b. 1914)

January 28 – Red Grange, American football player (Chicago Bears) and member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame (b. 1903)

January 29 – Yasushi Inoue, Japanese historian (b. 1907)

January 30

John Bardeen, American physicist, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1908)

John McIntire, American actor (b. 1907)



Salvador Luria


Margot Fonteyn

February 1 – Carol Dempster, American actress (b. 1901)

February 3 – Nancy Kulp, American actress (b. 1921)

February 5

Pedro Arrupe, Spanish priest (b. 1907)

Dean Jagger, American actor (b. 1903)

Sergio Méndez Arceo, Mexican bishop (b. 1907)[12]

February 6

Salvador Luria, Italian-born American Nobel biologist (b. 1912)

Danny Thomas, American singer, comedian, and actor (b. 1912)

María Zambrano, Spanish essayist and philosopher (b. 1904)

February 13 – Arno Breker, German sculptor (b. 1900)

February 14

John A. McCone, American politician, 6th Director of Central Intelligence (b. 1902)

February 21

John Sherman Cooper, American politician (b. 1901)

Margot Fonteyn, English ballet dancer (b. 1919)

February 24 – Jean Rogers, American actress (b. 1916)

February 25 – Sverre Hansen, Norwegian long jumper (b. 1899)



Ragnar Granit


John Kerr

March 1

Katherine Blake, South African-born British actress (b. 1921)

Edwin H. Land, inventor of the Polaroid instant camera (b. 1909)

March 2 – Serge Gainsbourg, French singer (b. 1928)

March 3 – William Penney, Baron Penney, British nuclear physicist (b. 1909)

March 12 – Ragnar Granit, Finnish neuroscientist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (b. 1900)

March 14

Howard Ashman, American lyricist (b. 1950)

Doc Pomus, American composer (b. 1925)

March 15

G. Aravindan, Indian film director and screenwriter (b. 1935)

Robin Hill, British plant biochemist (b. 1899)

George Sherman, American film director (b. 1908)

March 18 – Vilma Bánky, Hungarian-born actress (b. 1901)

March 21 – Leo Fender, American instrument maker (b. 1909)

March 23 –

Elisaveta Bagriana, Bulgarian poet, Nobel Prize in Literature (b. 1893)

Neta Snook, American aviator (b. 1896)

March 24 – Sir John Kerr, former Governor-General of Australia (b. 1914)

March 25 – Marcel Lefebvre, French Roman Catholic bishop who fought for Catholic Tradition (b. 1905)

March 27

Aldo Ray, American actor (b. 1926)

Ralph Bates, English film and television actor (b. 1940)

March 29 – Lee Atwater, American political consultant and strategist (b. 1951)



David Lean


Steve Marriott


Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal

April 1

Martha Graham, American dancer and choreographer (b. 1894)

Jaime Guzmán, Chilean right-wing senator (assassinated) (b. 1946)

Paulo Muwanga, Ugandan military officer and statesman, 3rd Prime Minister of Uganda and 6th President of Uganda (b. 1921)

April 3 – Graham Greene, English writer (b. 1904)

April 4

Max Frisch, Swiss writer (b. 1911)

John Heinz, American politician (b. 1938)

April 5

Sonny Carter, American astronaut (b. 1947)

John Tower, American politician (b. 1925)

William Sidney, 1st Viscount De L'Isle, former Governor-General of Australia (b. 1909)

April 9 – Forrest Towns, American Olympic athlete (b. 1914)

April 10

Kevin Peter Hall, American actor (b. 1955)

Natalie Schafer, American actress (b. 1900)

April 16 – David Lean, English film director (b. 1908)

April 20

Steve Marriott, English musician (b. 1947)

Don Siegel, American film director (b. 1912)

Yumjaagiin Tsedenbal, Mongolian Communist leader, former Party General Secretary, Prime Minister of Mongolia (b. 1916)

April 23 – Johnny Thunders, American guitarist, singer and songwriter (b. 1952)

April 26 – Carmine Coppola, American composer and conductor (b. 1910)

April 27 – Robert Velter, French cartoonist (b. 1909)

April 28

Paul E. Klopsteg, American physicist (b. 1889)

Lee Wulff, American conservationist and fisherman (b. 1905)

April 29 – Claude Gallimard, French editor (b. 1914)



Mohammed Abdel Wahab


Shintaro Abe


Rajiv Gandhi

May 1

Cesare Merzagora, Italian politician (b. 1898)

Richard Thorpe, American film director (b. 1896)

May 3 – Jerzy Kosiński, Polish-American writer (b. 1933)

May 4 – Mohammed Abdel Wahab, Egyptian singer and composer (b. 1902)

May 6 – Wilfrid Hyde-White, British actor (b. 1903)

May 8

Jean Langlais, French composer and organist (b. 1907)

Rudolf Serkin, Austrian pianist (b. 1903)

May 9 – Yanka Dyagileva, Siberian poet and singer-songwriter (b. 1966)

May 14 – Jiang Qing, Chinese radical revolutionary, widow of Mao Zedong (b. 1914)

May 15

Shintaro Abe, Japanese politician (b. 1924)

Andreas Floer, German mathematician (b. 1956)

Ronald Lacey, English actor (b. 1935)

May 18

Gerd Achgelis, German aviator, test pilot, and pioneer in the development of helicopters (b. 1908)

Betty Alberge, English actress (b. 1922)

May 21

Lino Brocka, Filipino film director (b. 1939)

Rajiv Gandhi, 6th Prime Minister of India (b. 1944)

May 22

Derrick Henry Lehmer, American mathematician (b. 1905)

Stan Mortensen, English footballer (b. 1921)

May 23

Jean Van Houtte, Belgian politician, 38th Prime Minister of Belgium (b. 1907)

Wilhelm Kempff, German pianist (b. 1895)

May 24 – Gene Clark, American singer-songwriter (b. 1944)

May 29 – Coral Browne, Australian actress (b. 1913)

May 30 – Manolo Gómez Bur, Spanish actor (b. 1917)



Happy Chandler


Jean Arthur

June 1 – David Ruffin, American singer (b. 1941)

June 2 – Hailu Yimenu, Ethiopian politician, acting Prime Minister of Ethiopia

June 3 – Eva Le Gallienne, English-born actress (b. 1899)

June 5

Evelyn Boucher, British silent film actress (b. 1892)

Min Chueh Chang, Chinese-born American reproductive biologist (b. 1908)

Larry Kert, American actor (b. 1930)

June 6 – Stan Getz, American jazz saxophonist (b. 1927)

June 9 – Claudio Arrau, Chilean-born pianist (b. 1903)

June 14 – Peggy Ashcroft, British actress (b. 1907)

June 15

Happy Chandler, 2nd commissioner of Major League Baseball (b. 1898)

W. Arthur Lewis, Saint Lucian economist, Nobel Prize laureat

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Taken on May 5, 2013