Andrena scotica (Chocolate Mining Bee)
The Honey Bee-sized females are one of a small groups of mining bees with very small flocci on the hind trochanters and dull, weakly-punctured tergites. They are most easily confused with A. trimmerana and dark A. rosae but have the tergites entirely black without the red sides of tergite 1 and 2, and reddish basal sternites of the other two. They also look a little darker than trimmerana in the field and have longer body piles than rosae. Northern populations of scotica tend to be darker-haired than southern ones.

Males belong to the same small group, in which antennal segment 3 is only about half the length of segment 4 and the antennae are relatively long and abdomen relatively narrow. They have the abdomen black and never with extensive red markings or reddish basal sternites (in contrast to most trimmerana and rosae). The mandibles always have an apical tooth and the genae only rarely have a spine (and this is never longer than half the basal width of a mandible).

Andrena scotica is a very common spring species in most areas and occurs in many habitats. Much foraging is from spring-blossoming shrubs and trees though various low-growing flowers are used too. A partial second generation can appear in late June and July in some southern districts, especially in hot summers. It is also increasingly seen visiting Ivy blossom in September and early October, sometimes gathering pollen.

It is attacked by two nomad bees, Marsham's Nomad Bee Nomada marshamella and the Flavous Nomad Bee N. flava.

Please note that this species has been called Andrena carantonica in recent literature but has been reassigned to its older name (scotica).

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