Andrena scotica (Chocolate Mining-bee)
The Honey Bee-sized females are one of a small groups of species with very small flocci on the hind legs and dull, weakly-punctured tergites. They are most easily confused with A. trimmerana and dark rosae but have the tergites entirely black without the red sides of tergite 1 and 2, and reddish basal sternites of the other two. They also look a little darker than trimmerana in the field and have longer body piles than rosae. Northern populations of scotica tend to be more extensively dark-haired than southern populations.

Males belong to the same small group, in which antennal segment 3 is only about half the length of segment 4 and the antennae are relatively long and abdomen relatively narrow. They have the abdomen black and never with extensive red markings or reddish basal sternites (in contrast to most trimmerana and rosae). The mandibles always have an apical tooth and the genae rarely have a spine.

This is a very common spring species in most areas and occurs in many habitats. Much foraging is from spring-blossoming shrubs and trees though various low-growing flowers are used too. A partial second generation can appear in some southern districts, especially in hot summers.

Please note that this species has been called Andrena carantonica in recent literature but is being reassigned to its older name.

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