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France, Paris, Le Marais | by jlfaurie
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France, Paris, Le Marais

Le Marais est un quartier parisien historique (et non administratif), situé dans une partie des 3e et 4e arrondissements de Paris, sur la rive droite de la Seine. Il est aujourd'hui délimité à l'ouest par la rue Beaubourg, à l'est par le boulevard Beaumarchais, au nord par la rue de Bretagne et au sud par les quais de la Seine et le boulevard Henri IV (hôtels d'Aumont, de Beauvais, de Chalon-Luxembourg au sud de la rue Saint-Antoine).

 

Le Marais est une ancienne zone de marécages occupée depuis le XIIe siècle par des ordres religieux parmi lesquels l'ordre du Temple, qui y installent des établissements. Au début du XVIIe siècle, à la suite de la construction de la place des Vosges, ce quartier, jusque-là périphérique, devient le lieu de résidence de la noblesse parisienne. De nombreux hôtels particuliers y sont construits dont beaucoup subsistent aujourd'hui. Au milieu du XVIIIe siècle le quartier est déserté par l'élite parisienne au profit du faubourg Saint-Honoré et du faubourg Saint-Germain qui offrent plus d'espace. La Révolution française achève de chasser les propriétaires fortunés. Le quartier est dès lors occupé par une population d'artisans et d'ouvriers qui occupe les anciens hôtels et construit des ateliers dans les anciennes cours intérieures.

 

Les grands travaux d'aménagements de Paris du XIXe siècle touchent peu le quartier qui conserve ses rues étroites, mais de nombreux immeubles de qualité sont progressivement détruits. En 1964[réf. nécessaire], André Malraux lance un programme de sauvegarde et de préservation qui se poursuit encore aujourd'hui. Le quartier préservé est désormais, grâce à ses beaux immeubles, fréquenté par les touristes et recherché par les classes aisées. De nombreux musées y sont installés.

 

Plusieurs communautés s'y sont constituées au cours des années : juifs ashkénazes à la fin du XIXe siècle, Chinois après la Première Guerre mondiale, et homosexuels.

 

Ce site est desservi par les stations de métro Arts et Métiers, Chemin Vert, Filles du Calvaire, Hôtel de Ville, Rambuteau, Saint-Paul, Pont-Marie, Saint-Sébastien - Froissart et Temple.

 

 

Le Marais (en español: 'La Marisma') es un barrio parisino, situado en el III y el IV distrito de París, Francia, en la margen derecha. Hoy en día está delimitado al oeste por rue du Temple, al este por el boulevard Beaumarchais, al norte por la rue de Bretagne y al sur por el río Sena. Le Marais es un distrito de moda con negocios y empresas del ámbito legal y bancario. En él reside la población judía más importante de Europa. Se lo considera uno de los barrios más cosmopolitas del viejo continente.

 

El barrio ha experimentado una creciente presencia gay desde la década de 1980, como lo demuestra la existencia de muchas cafeterías, discotecas, cabarets y tiendas para gais con una alta concurrencia para el turismo homosexual. Estos establecimientos se concentran principalmente en la porción suroeste de Le Marais, muchos en o cerca de la calle Sainte-Croix de la Bretonnerie y Vieille du Temple.

 

Este barrio sirvió de inspiración a Gus Van Sant para contar la historia de dos chicos gais en la película Paris, je t'aime.

 

 

Le Marais ("The Marsh", French pronunciation: ​[maʁɛ]) is a historic district in Paris, France. Long the aristocratic district of Paris, it hosts many outstanding buildings of historic and architectural importance. It spreads across parts of the 3rd and 4th arrondissements in Paris (on the Rive Droite, or Right Bank, of the Seine).

 

Paris aristocratic district[edit]

 

In 1240 the Order of the Temple built its fortified church just outside Paris's walls, in the northern part of the Marais. The Temple turned the district into an attractive area, and many religious institutions were built nearby: the des Blancs-Manteaux, de Sainte-Croix-de-la-Bretonnerie and des Carmes-Billettes convents, as well as the church of Sainte-Catherine-du-Val-des-Écoliers.

 

During the mid-13th century, Charles I of Anjou, King of Naples and Sicily, and brother of King Louis IX of France built his residence near the current n°7 rue de Sévigné.[1] In 1361 the King Charles V built a mansion known as the Hôtel Saint-Pol in which the Royal Court settled during his reign as well as his son's.

 

From that time to the 17th century and especially after the Royal Square (Place Royale, current place des Vosges) was designed under King Henri IV in 1605, the Marais was the French nobility's favorite place of residence. French nobles built their urban mansions there[2] such as the Hôtel de Sens, the Hôtel de Sully, the Hôtel de Beauvais, the Hôtel Carnavalet, the Hôtel de Guénégaud, and the Hôtel de Soubise.

 

Jewish community[edit]

 

After the nobility started to move to the Faubourg Saint-Germain, the district became a popular and active commercial area, hosting one of Paris' main Jewish communities. At the end of the 19th century and during the first half of the 20th, the district around the rue des Rosiers, referred to as the "Pletzl", welcomed many Eastern European Jews (Ashkenazi) who reinforced the district's clothing specialization. But, during World War II the Jewish community was targeted by the Nazis who were occupying France.

 

The rue des Rosiers is still a major centre of the Paris Jewish community, which has made a comeback since the 1990s. Public notices announce Jewish events, bookshops specialize in Jewish books, and numerous restaurants and other outlets sell kosher food.

 

The synagogue on 10 rue Pavée is not far from rue des Rosiers. It was designed in 1913 by Art Nouveau architect Hector Guimard, who designed several Paris Metro stations.

 

Post-war rehabilitation[edit]

 

By the 1950s, the district had become a working-class area and most of its architectural masterpieces were in a bad state of repair. In 1964, General de Gaulle's Culture Minister Andre Malraux made the Marais the first secteur sauvegardé (literally safeguarded sector). These were meant to protect and conserve places of special cultural significance. In the following decades the government and the Parisian municipality have led an active restoration and Rehabilitation Policy.

 

The main Hôtels particuliers have been restored and turned into museums: the Hôtel Salé hosts the Picasso Museum, the Hôtel Carnavalet hosts the Paris Historical Museum, the Hôtel Donon hosts the Cognacq-Jay Museum, etc. The site of Beaubourg, the western part of Marais, was chosen for the Centre Georges Pompidou, France's national Museum of Modern Art and one of the world's most important cultural institutions. The building was completed in 1977 with revolutionary architecture by Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers.

 

Today's Marais[edit]

 

The Marais is now one of Paris' main localities for art galleries. Following its rehabilitation, the Marais has become a fashionable district, home to many trendy restaurants, fashion houses, and hip galleries.

 

The neighbourhood has experienced a growing gay presence since the 1980s, as evidenced by the existence of many gay cafés, nightclubs, cabarets and shops. These establishments are mainly concentrated in the southwestern portion of the Marais, many on or near the streets Sainte-Croix de la Bretonnerie and rue des Archives.

 

The Marais is also known for the Chinese community it hosts. The community began to appear during World War I. At that time, France needed workers to replace its at-war soldiers and China decided to send a few thousand of its citizens on the condition that they would not take part in the war. After the 1918 victory, some of them decided to stay in Paris, specifically living around the current rue au Maire. Today, most work in jewelery and leather-related products. The Marais' Chinese community has settled in the north of the district, particularly in the surrounding of Place de la République. Next to it, on the rue du Temple, is the Chinese Church of Paris.

 

Other features of the neighbourhood include the Musée Picasso, the house of Nicolas Flamel, the Musée Cognacq-Jay, the Musée Carnavalet and the new and very popular Café Charlot.

 

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Taken on November 1, 2014