Read the text. A symbol of the eight fold path "Arya Magga" (the noble path of the dhamma) in early Buddhism. An intricate representation of the Dharmachakra, or Buddhist eight spoked Wheel. Dhamma or Dharma
Photo by Chaithanya.krishnan.
Konark Sun temple in Odisha, Odisa, Orissa, India from the 1200's AD.
Source of "Arya Magga" (Pali language) definition: www.buddhanet.net/pdf_file/angulimala6.pdf
In Sanskrit "Arya Marga".
The eightfold path is also called Atthangika-magga (Pali) and Astangika-marga (Sanskrit).
1) Sama-Ditthi - Right view
2) Sama-Sankappa - Right thought
3) Sama-Vaca - Right speech
4) Sama-Kammanta - Right action
5) Sama-Ajiva - Right livelihood
6) Sama-Vayama - Right effort
7) Sama-Sati - Right mindfulness
8) Sama-Samadhi - Right concentration
[Steps 1 + 2 = paññā / Wisdom]
[Steps 3 + 4 + 5 = sīla / Morality]
[Steps 6 + 7 + 8= samādhi / Concentration]
The belief expressed by some people in Europe about Arya or Arian being an ethnic description is erroneous . "Arya" is not an ethnic description.
"Arya" is a word related to Buddhism. "Arya" means "Any individual ennobled by his/her own continuing effort on the path to enlightenment." ref. www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/hartglos.htm Another source: www.buddhanet.net/budsas/ebud/bud-dict/dic3_s.htm
Quote from Wikipedia article pr. 4th june 2012: "The Path to Nirvana":
Who are the Aryans? Aryans are those who have attained one of the four stages of Arya Magga (the path to Nirvana). These four stages are Sovan Phalaya, Sakurdagami Palaya, Anagami Palaya and Arhath Palaya. To attain first step of the Magga, a meditator should obtain Samadhi in his/her mind." (End of quote).
"...Arya Magga is the path to Nirvana. The four steps are Sovan Phalaya, Sakurdagami Palaya, Anagami Palaya and Arhath Palaya" Wikipedia "The path to Nirvana" 2 nov. 2012.
Buddhanet.net: "Each of the aforementioned four stages of Holiness consists of the 'Path' (magga) and the 'Fruition', e.g. 'Path of Stream Entry' (sotaapatti-magga)..." Source: "The word of the Buddha"- Right understanding. www.buddhanet.net/budsas/ebud/word-of-buddha/wob4nt06.htm
"Magga" means "Way" or "Path".
It is interesting because Magga is one of the surnames of my direct line ancestors (Nordic Sami people), not very far back. Many of the Sami people in Norway lost their surnames because of the colonizers new name-policy, and this is the last Sami surname of my ancestors from the first part of 1900's. In the church registers I have observed that Sami surnames started to disappear already in the 17- 1800's.
Remember that both population genetic studies and old texts support that the Sami people is a merge between at least two old people in the Nordic. Very likely the first people of origin and then secondly people from the archaic Roman Empire (the archaic Gallo Romans i.e. early Romans were governed from Rome and are a different and much older culture than the Christian Roman governed from Byzants). The second group of old people in the Nordic who merged with the people of origin came to the Nordic areas from the western archaic Roman Empire during the Nordic Iron Age, they were related to the pagan Gallo Roman Empire.
Pontoppidan wrote in 1753 that the second group of people in the Nordic came from a larger area of Pompeii (present day Italy). According to Pontoppidan these two old groups of Nordic people are the Sami, he used at that time e.g. "Finlapps", "Finner" and "Lapps" (page 356 in the book "Det første forsøg paa Norges Naturlige Historie", by Dr. Erich Pontoppidan, (1753).
The first Nordic people (many were early displaced northwards, to the mountains and forest areas) + The early Nordic Göter i.e. archaic Gallo Romans (came to the Nordic areas from a larger area of Pompeii during the Iron Age) = These two groups of people are the Sami people. They were displaced from particularly the southern Nordic areas since the medieval period by the New Norwegians (colonizers after the Lutheran reformation in the 1500's and pariticular since the 1700-1800's when the present day areas of Norway was a colony under the Danish king). In the mid 1700's the latest arriving people were by Pontoppidan named "the New Norwegians". The colonizing people were mainly heavy agriculturalists and protestant christians.
If it is like Pontoppidan writes the family name Magga of the present Nordic Sami is likely related to old southern European Cultures (ref. larger areas of Pompeii). It might have a history via the hellenistic Indo-Greeks and the people of the related "pagan" archaic western Roman Empire.
Arya Magga (evt. Ariya Magga) also means "The Middle Way" (we all remember the philosophy about that from archaic Greek Platon): www.multifaithcentre.org/buddhism/43-a-short-introduction...
Orissa, Odisha, Odisa: articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2011-03-24/india/291...
Read more about the eight-fold path: www.sgilibrary.org/search_dict.php?id=516
Pali Canon: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/P%C4%81li_Canon
Magadha (The origin): en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magadha
Origins of the Earliest Buddhists Texts: www.palicanon.org/
Roots: The Maurya Empire. Mauryan dynasty. Magadha
Magadhi Prakrit: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magadhi_Prakrit
Chandragupta Maurya: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chandragupta_Maurya