Thomas Jefferson (The Edgehill Portrait), Third President (1801-1809)
Thomas Jefferson (The Edgehill Portrait), 1805/1821, Oil on mahogany panel by Gilbert Stuart
In 1802, the terms of the 1800 Treaty of San Lorenzo were finalized. The agreement between Carlos IV and Napoleon called for Spain to transfer Louisiana to the French in exchange for Carlos IV's brother-in-law being crowned king of Tuscany. President Thomas Jefferson did not relish having an aggressive Napoleon in charge of this territory and sent Secretary of State James Monroe to join Robert Livingston in Paris to negotiate future relations. To the surprise of the Americans and the outrage of the Spanish-the original treaty had specified that this land could not be sold to a third party-Napoleon, eager for money to support his war with Great Britain, offered to sell the territory to the United States for $15 million. The 1803 Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United States and was the first major step in its continued westward expansion.