The shoes are actually called FLOWER BOWL SHOES.




The purpose of the shoes was to allow the Manchu girls to mimic the swaying, crippled gait of their unfortunate sisters of the HAN CHINESE tribes. Those were the women who had their feet permanently crushed, broken, and folded in half by a barbaric process that was misleadingly called FOOT BINDING.


Why would the Manchu women want to mimic the gait of crippled Han women ?


The simple answer is that Chinese men thought that women crippled by foot binding had TIGHT VAGINAS. They thought this because they believed a little girl who who had her feet crushed and crippled would grow up using her THIGH MUSCLES in an extreme manner to compensate for her torture-induced disability while trying to maintain her balance while walking in extreme pain.


Seeing a woman who walked like she was crippled by foot binding was an instant "turn on". The"swaying gate" caused by the shoes of the Manchu women caused the men who saw them to have instant fantasies of hot, satisfying SEX.


The Manchu woman were no dummies when it came to understanding a nation of men who primarily thought with their peckers rather than their brains, and this SHOE FASHION that promoted their TIGHT VAGINA SEX APPEAL was, unfortunately, a part of what they thought they "needed" to catch a man.


More detail and commentary on the TIGHT VAGINA thing here : www.flickr.com/photos/24443965@N08/3461349265/in/set-7215...


♥ Here's a MANCHU GIRL today ~ ! www.flickr.com/photos/yiovyaakov/6836287891/





She has a book in her right hand. Wonder what it was ?




$29.95 at Book Stores everywhere.


That title would probably have applied to 90% of the world's countries and cultures up until 100 years ago !




In the first comment below, Naomi was the first to comment that the woman in the photo is Manchu "Chinese", rather than a Han Chinese. Westerners tend to lump all Chinese together, but they were NOT one homogenous culture or language. Rather, they were many tribes and cultures within broad boarders. As Naomi says, the Manchu women, although falling under the umbrella of what we now call "Chinese", did not engage in the barbarian practice of foot binding.


Of course, using the term "barbarian" to describe the Han Chinese would probably have made them very indignant --- especially since thought they had a monopoly on that word to describe everybody else who was of a foreign breed or culture. [NOTE: Such would be similar to the Japanese tourists I meet in the USA who get very indignant when I call them GAIJIN (foreigners, or outsiders), which word they feel should never be applied to Japanese, even when they themselves become foreigners and outsiders in another country.] Therefore, I will repeat it for the benefit of those Chinese who tortured and crippled little girls, even though they are all dead now : THE HAN CHINESE WHO PRACTICED FOOT BINDING WERE ALL BARBARIANS IN THEIR OWN LAND.


Inspite of that, cultural brainwashing (being what it is) caused many of the Manchu women to come up with the above shoe for sex-appeal and reasons of jealousy :




".......There was a great pride in the tiny feet [of women with bound feet] once the foot had developed into the lotus shape and this pride was shown in the slippers girls and women made to cover their deformed feet. Walking on these feet necessitated bending the knees slightly and swaying to maintain the proper movement. This swaying walk became known as the Lotus Gait and was considered most exciting to men. Manchu women who were forbidden to bind their feet, envious of the effect of the lotus gait, invented their own type of shoe that caused them also to walk with a swaying gait. They wore 'flower bowl' shoes, shoes on a high platform generally made of wood and also there was a shoe on a small central pedestal that could be maneuvered by young girls. These shoes enabled the wearer to walk with a form of the lotus gait. Bound feet became an important differentiating marker between Manchu and Han......"




By the way, the term "Lotus Gait" is just another fancy euphemism for "Difficult, Hobbled, Painful Walking on Feet that have been Maimed, Crushed, and Permanently Deformed". We humans are really good at making up euphemisms.






Oooops. Did I just mention the honorable practice of FEMALE INFANTICIDE ?


Yes, yes...I know. All of you "time-place" lovers (and forgivers) of all things "cultural" and "anthropological" think that infanticide and foot binding of young girls and women are things that "must be understood in the context of the times in which they occurred".


Uh-huh. If you are a women who actually believes such a thing, please do me a favor and go get your clitoris ripped out with a rusty lid from an old tuna fish can, so that I can understand your GENITAL MUTILATION in the context of the time and place in which it occurred. And after that, when your mate dies, please honor the old cultural ways of India, and throw yourself on the funeral pyre that you may be burned alive for the sake of "cultural context". Thank you!


Oh, and if you are a man who thinks female infanticide is a great thing, please go throw yourself off a very high cliff (or down a very deep well). Thank you !








".......In China, a poor and overcrowded country, females are expendable. Evidence of female infanticide in China dates back to 800 B.C.E. Females are viewed as less desirable in Chinese culture due to the expense involved in the dowry system and the fact that only a son can perpetuate the family line. Additionally, when a girl marries she leaves her family and is unavailable to care for her aging parents.


With the implementation of the "one child per couple" policy in 1978, Chinese parents are unwilling to invest their one opportunity for parenthood on a daughter. The policy provided for enforced abortions, sterilizations, and legal/economic sanctions against families who choose not to comply.


Although illegal, sex-selective abortion is a common practice. Estimates based upon unequal sex ratios suggest that over 30 million females are missing in China.


In India, the practice of female infanticide is even more pervasive. As in China, the birth of a daughter is seen as a liability. Only sons are allowed to perform the funeral rites at the pyre of his father.


The murder of female newborns is so common that it has a special name, kuzhippa, or "baby intended for the burial pit" (Milner 1998, p. 176). Selective abortion is also a common practice. In 1998 Milner reported that in one Bombay clinic, of 8,000 abortions, 7,999 were performed on female fetuses. In 1991 Nicholas Kristof estimated that nearly 30 million females were missing in India....."




That reminds me. I have a bunch of OLD INDIA photos to post here one of these days.




Well, I think I got enough out of THAT photo. Time to move on !!!


The above photo is from a group of original 1895-1935 glass lantern slides depicting scenes and people in pre-WW2 China. The coloring is not mine. They were tinted by hand using fine brushes at the time the slides were made. With only a few exceptions, the size of the slides is 3 1/4 inches x 4 inches, with the centered image being smaller depending on the size of the border matte. I have cropped away the matte for most of these flickr posts. Enjoy..

  • Okinawa Soba (Rob) 6y

    Hi Ralph.

    I appreciate your comments in defense of the position that is twas a "minority" thing.

    However, both at the Wiki entry, the three books they quote, as well as at your links above, none of them use words that imply this was a "minority practice" amongst the Han. To the contrary, they explain quite the opposite --- that this was practiced across the board to the lowest level of the poor, who only adjusted the frequency of the on-and-off bindings.

    Further, at the good links you gave above, all explanations of foot binding use the broadly inclusive term "the Chinese", with the obvious implication that this was a common feature rather than a minority one --- including the statement that "tourists to china would be surprised at the prevalence of foot binding".

    Therefore, as I fly through these posts, and throw up my captions, I am relying on the broad base of "nominal published scholarship" (with their attendant links for the readers to see for themselves).

    Further, I actually question the idea that the RICHER, MORE INTELLIGENT, WIDER EXPOSED, AND AFFLUENT among the Han were the only ones to do this. In most countries it is just that class that aims to be more cosmopolitan, and rise above the brute barbarism and ignorant practices of the superstitions poor.

    Therefore, I would need a LOT MORE convincing that the broad base of scholarship, and the testimony of the Chinese themselves, is wrong by staying clear of calling this a "minority practice"

    On the other hand, when it comes to the "broad base of scholarship" on many things concerning Japanese history, there have been plenty of times when the scholars have been wrong.

    With that, please see that I am not closing the door on your defense of the position that says this was a minority thing, but rather, in light of what I have just said above, I would need some more convincing proof in the light of what all else implies.

    I think this is an important topic of discussion, and have asked for more comments along this line at the main-entry photo for foot binding here :

    CHINESE FOOT BINDING (1) by Okinawa Soba (Rob)

  • ralph repo 6y

    Ok, let's flip what was stated the other way, that is, the scholarly resources do not imply this to be a minority practice. Ergo by default, we must therefore assume that it must have been a majority practice. If the majority of women in China were to have had their feet crippled in such a manner, how effective of a labor force would they be; who would be doing all the work?

    Wiki quotes a figure of 40-50% of the peasantry, with nearly 100% of the affluent adhering to this practice. I'm not saying that there wasn't wide spread desire to do so amongst the Han, but realistically, economics prevented many from doing so. That is about 50-60% (or a majority) of the population did not practice this. I agree that it probably wasn't out of desire, but rather from need; many simply couldn't afford to.

    Additionally, I sense that many looked upon this with an all or none, 'either or' equation when it was probably closer to 'when, where, and how'. I think the phenomenon affected or, if you will, afflicted the various classes differently depending on their dynastic age and the prevailing attitudes of their times. There were marked differences of opinions regarding this between the Tang, Song, Yuan, Ming and Qing.

    I agree that this was mostly an affluent custom irrespective of their access to education or enlightenment. But how much had it affected the other classes? I'm incline to believe, at least anecdotally that it was not as broadly evident as western beliefs. As a matter of fact, in all the years that I've looked at old Chinese photographs, I seem to find that only the very well heeled (no pun intended) Chinese woman to ever have small lotus feet (I purposely take it upon myself to look at all the woman's feet in every photo). On only one occasion, did I see one old peasant woman with such feet. Granted, it isn't being very scientific, however, my feeling is, that it just wasn't as pervasive within the average Chinese community as western scholars believed, at least the available visual record does not seem to support their belief.

    ADDENDUM [091209]: After this intercourse of dialogue, over the last few months, I went back to reviewing many of the period photographs that I've seen before, and have come to the conclusion that my initial commentary (as above) was clearly mistaken; there seems to be a lot more Lotus foot women than I had first noticed, or perhaps cared to see. The rates seems to run about 70/30 (not counting manchu women) evidenced in favor of lotus foot than not. My apologies to all for this error.
  • Okinawa Soba (Rob) 6y

    Ralph -- Good comment ! It's helping me sink my teeth into this in a better way. Thanks for the percentage figures as well.

    I may well have bitten off more than I can chew with folks like you who are more familiar with the subject, and have (and are) making a concerted effort to define the TRUE extent of foot binding among (1) the various ethnic tribes and regions, (2) the percentages expressed by economic or bureaucratic position (as you gave some figures for above), and (3) how the first two fluctuated over the 1000 years and many reign changes of Chinese history.

    Whew ! That's probably WAY BEYOND the intent of depth of my flickr captions. That being said, what I have written is certainly subject to change and eventually should contain a short, pithy explanation of the probable "real numbers" --- which my captions do NOT at the moment.

    As for your comment above, here's some questions.

    What percent of "Han China"'s population was made up of the elite who practiced foot binding nearly 100% of the time ? Your figures abouve rough it out at about 10% or so. Would that be right ?

    If the 50 % of the Wiki's statement that "....40-50% of the peasantry, with nearly 100% of the affluent adhering to this practice..." is a correct one, then tossing in the affluent sector would push the numbers into a "low majority". Even at 40% of the peasantry + the affluent, can we still say in a rough way, "Outside of the Manchu Chinese to the North, a good half of the remaining Chinese to the south practiced the custom of foot binding." ?

    If you think you can come up with a fair statement --- I can add it to my Foot binding caption and credit you for it, while at the same time revising some of the more "blanket statements" of my Op Ed !

    Lastly, your comment to the effect that, "...If the majority of women in China were to have had their feet crippled in such a manner, how effective of a labor force would they be; who would be doing all the work? ....", was an excellent and obvious one that should be stated as well --- as you fairly point out, this observation is well reflected in many of the photographs we have from the 1860s to the 1930s.

    Even a couple my own foot binding photos show "normal Chinese feet" for comparison. Obviously, if everyone was having their feet bound, they couldn't have taken those shots. ;-)

    Thanks again for your great comments and help here. I am learning a lot.

    Now, back to work getting some more of these old pics posted for you (and others who like them) to hopefully find something useful, important, or just plain beautiful or important.
  • Okinawa Soba (Rob) 6y


    CHINESE FOOT BINDING (1) by Okinawa Soba (Rob)

    Comments on the Manchu Women in the above photo, and things relating to her fashions, shoe styles, and etc, can be posted here as usual.

    THANKS !!!
  • Kumiyanagi 6y

    Seeing as the Manchurians were/is a horse riding culture it would also be perfectly logical to assume that the shoes were an imitation of horses hooves. In fact I remember seeing a pair in a shoe history book were the soles were in fact in the U bend shape commonly associated with horses hooves. Probably not right but worth a thought, at least on a psychological level.
  • 201aj 6y

    FYI: the barbaric practice of footbinding started around the 10th century AD. It was not an edict from the emperor, but unfortunately 'lotus feet' became regarded as a status symbol by the upper and well-to-do classes. Apparently, ancient Han Chinese were as much fashion slaves as modern day women who by contrast choose to wear crippling 4" plus stilletos. Take a look at these and the praise from so many fashionistas:

    At best, the Manchus took revenge on Han men by enforcing the pigtail hairstyle and elimination of traditional Chinese clothing as a symbol of subjugation to the new Manchurian rulers. Han men were forced to choose between shaving the front of their heads and plaiting the queue or lose their heads.
  • Okinawa Soba (Rob) 6y

    FIY: That was a good link. Thanks. However, what adult women want to temporarily stick on their full-grown and natural feet as they head off to a Friday night cocktail party is their own concern, not mine.

    If you read what I wrote, and followed all of the links for the well-documented and complete picture, the PROBLEM in old China was the culturally perverse practice of FORCED TORTURE, SMASHING, CRUSHING, MAIMING, AND PERMANENT CRIPPLING OF LITTLE CHILDREN.

    Therefore, the "Ancient Han" were not "Fashion Slaves" as you call them --- they were psychopaths with no empathy for their children or their society. If they had any empathy or understanding at all, they would have mutually BANNED such a horrific and torturous practice of permanently crippling and maiming little girls.

    As I have stated elsewhere, Any male-dominated culture that puts women and young female children in a position to submit to such incredible, horrific torture and stupidity under the "cultural threat" of facing a life without marriage, money, or children, is a culture worthy only of the greatest disdain and disgust.

    Further, any country that promotes or protects such a culture has no reason to be respected, and no claim to pride or greatness among the nations of the Earth.

    Taking that sick madness of PHYSICAL BONE CRUSHING and FOOT MANGLING perpetrated largely by the old Han Tribes on BILLIONS of little girls, and comparing such real TORTURE to a class of modern fashionista women who freely choose as ADULTS to wear heels, tattoo their asses, or lace up corsets till their bodies look like hornets, is NO COMPARISON AT ALL. In fact, such comparisons fly like a lead balloon !

    As for the Manchu cutting half the hair of the heads of the Han men, so what ? They should have CUT THEIR BALLS OFF instead --- as punishment for maiming and crippling half women of old China.

    CHINESE FOOT BINDING (5) by Okinawa Soba (Rob)

    End of story.
  • hisui (jade green) 6y

    Okinawa Soba-san, your comment reminded me of eunuchs(宦官) of China.

    Eunuchs in China: factsanddetails.com/china.php?itemid=43&catid=2

    Then her mother gave her a knife and said, "Cut the toe off; when thou art Queen thou wilt have no more need to go on foot." [Cindellera]

    A horrible tale (and true stories in China...)
  • Okinawa Soba (Rob) 6y

    HISUI --- Thank you for the link. It's a wonder how some folks can be so in love with the notion of "culture" --- endeavoring to explain and defend what our ancestors did, no matter what that culture might be. I'm glad the your link was not one of those "defensive and apologetic" ones !

    Eunuchs were a part of "Royal" life throughout the Asian/Oriental world --- all the way to Turkey, and through Egypt, Ethiopia, and Northern Africa --- and god knows where else. They even played a part in Jewish and Christan history, as I learned from my Bible Stories days. Which just goes to show how screwed up we are as a life form that somehow sprang up from the primordial goo (or were created by a god with a warped sense of temporal justice).

    Here's some of my favorite high-lights from your link :

    Eunuch Operation in China

    Eunuch boy Familes often encouraged their sons to become eunuchs as a means of pulling the family out of poverty and gaining admittance into the imperial court. Many parents even organized their sons' castration at an early age in hopes that they would become imperial eunuchs.

    The castrations were usually performed with one slash of a small knife in a hut outside the Forbidden City for a fee of six silver pieces. The eunuchs lost their testicles and penis ("the three preciouses"). The only local anesthetic used was hot chili sauce. After the procedure a plug was placed in the wound and the urethra and left there for three days. If urine poured out of the wound after the plug was removed the operation was considered a success. If it didn’t the patient usually died a painful death.

    During the Ming dynasty, the Forbidden City contained a special eunuch clinic where candidates had their genitals removed while sitting on a special chair with a hole in it. Candidates that didn't survive were carried way with their penis and testicles in a pouch for reunification in the afterlife.

    Many eunuchs were orphans or sons of prisoners or poor parents. In her book on the famous eunuch Chêng Ho, Treasure Fleet of the Dragon Throne , Louise Levathes wrote: "As was the custom, young sons of prisoners were castrated. Thousands of young boys—some no more than 9 or 10 years of age—were stripped naked, subjected to one brutal stroke of a curved knife...Hundreds never recovered, dying of infection and exposure. Those who did were taken to the capital to serve as court eunuchs."

    The operation cut off the supply of male hormones to the body and gave the eunuchs high voices and soft demeanors. It also left them with less control of their bladder. Eunuchs often wet their beds and their clothes, the source of the old Chinese expression “as smelly as a eunuch.” The operation also left them too weak to perform hard physical work such as farm labor. Eunuchs traditionally preserved their genitals in a jar and carried them in a bag hung on their belt. This way, if a eunuch died he had his genitals on him and could be buried with them and be reincarnated as a "full man".

    Lovely. Just lovely.
  • 201aj 6y

    [As for the Manchu cutting half the hair of the heads of the Han men, so what ? They should have CUT THEIR BALLS OFF instead --- as punishment for maiming and crippling half women of old China.]

    Your desire for revenge was fulfilled when the brave Japanese massacred millions of Chinese in Nanking and used them for live vivisection, among other experiments by the Unit 731 project. Too bad the japanese didn't nuke the whole country. Instead of castigating Mao as anti-chicoms tend to do, he should be praised for destroying the culture.

    Other crimes against women await justice: English women who were forced to confine and distort their waists in tight corsets. The SE Asian women who must stretch their necks by forcing a foot of rings around their necks. Women who were falsely convicted and burned at the Salem witch trials. Indian widows and brides thrown ALIVE into funeral pyres. Mankind just sucks!
  • Okinawa Soba (Rob) 6y

    Hi there, 201

    " .....Mankind just sucks!..... "

    Now you're talkin' !

    I'm glad to see that your own rhetoric agrees with mine. I love it when anonymous posters from outside of the flickr community come here to share their wisdom.

    By the way, you forgot to mention the NAZI minions of Germany who performed live vivisections on the Jews, and other diabolical activities straight from the pit of Hell.

    In any case, thanks for your good response to what was obviously a rhetorical comment about the the foot-binding men of the Han tribes needing their balls to be cut off instead of their hair.

    And YES, every one of those Japanese Military and "Civilian Hire" pin-headed monsters who oversaw, allowed, directed, and performed those atrocities on the Chinese people SHOULD HAVE HAD THEIR BALLS CUT OFF, TOO.

    (By the time we get done here, half of the men who ever lived are going to verbally get their balls cut off --- even if they're dead --- and those wife beaters and child molesters that remain alive should all be rounded up, have their balls cut off, and be sent to Antarctica forever --- wearing only their underwear)

    As for every other instance of injustice that you touched on, I am happy to inform you that I have already covered most of those historical horrors, unjusticies, and stupidities in captions and comments throughout my photostream (which you apparently have not plowed through, yet) -- including plenty of other topics that you failed to mention ! (And I have only gotten started, with lots more to go).

    Of course, that means you will have to read the nearly 2,500 posts I've made, including all captions and complete comment threads, and feast on everything to your hearts content --- which I'm sure you have no plans on doing. Hell, even I have no plans to go back there and read it all.

    Now, please give us a link to your own website where you have posted your own pictures, and made your own comments and opinions available to us all concerning your take on the nature of humanity, and our conduct as a species over the past few millenia.

    I for one will check out what you have to say, and tell you what I think.

    Both on Flickr, and in the world, I love reciprocity (not revenge).

    In the mean time, thanks for above comments. A little spice always keeps things interesting around here.
  • Ayilana 5y

    They still aren't homogeneous! In fact, I know that in far Western China there are people that look more like "Europeans" and speak a language called Uyghur. They use Arabic writing, I believe, and are not at all like "ethnic Chinese." And it's infuriating that people still lump ALL East Asians as being like Chinese! ><

    And why the bashing on Japanese again? I'm so sick of that, too, as though it makes okay what China did and still does to itself!! Like the recent man who won the Nobel Peace Prize and how he's IN JAIL and his wife is under house arrest, too! Just because China can't control them like it wants. It wants a bunch of ZOMBIES I tell you. But I guess I should probably keep my mouth on that, because what Japan did ONE HUNDRED YEARS AGO is FAR more important than what China is doing TODAY to anyone who speaks out against its government or how lots of people still want BOYS instead of GIRLS and so lots of little girls have been killed just because of it. But I'm sorry, I'll shut up about that now and talk about the atrocities Japan did, which there were quite a few.

    And Okinawa-san: If I'm exacerbating your posts with my rants, moushiwake arimasen!! I just love a good rant like you and I TOTALLY agree with you. And it does all come down to the point that all cultures have SOMETHING in them that isn't good. No offense, but some have more than others and the truth is is that some are still doing it or have very recently and are trying to ignore it.
  • Okinawa Soba (Rob) 5y

    AYILANA --- Thanks for your direct and to-the-point comments. If I ever go on vacation from writing Flickr captions, I will hire you to fill in for me !

  • Ayilana 5y

    Sure thing! XD
  • shmooisanut 4y

    Funny! XD you gave me laugh thanks--> your sarcasm is like my sister I show her this^^
  • M.H117 4y


    Even though you have some prejudice against we Chinese culture, I still have to admit, it is understandable since binding and some other behaviors are inhumane indeed. Here is a book named The spirit of the Chinese people for you. It is written by Gu Hongming(辜鸿铭 1857-1928), a great scholar of China. His viewpoint may somehow represent many Chinese. You may try it and get to know the inside world of Chinese people.

  • Okinawa Soba (Rob) 4y

    M.H117 Thanks for the comment. I will try to give a meaningful response that shows I'm not as one-sided as it would appear from reading my captions on foot binding.

    ".....Even though you have some prejudice against we Chinese culture....".

    "Prejudice" is a contraction of sorts form the compound "Pre-Judge". That is, to pass judgment or condemnation before understanding or knowing something about the subject at hand.

    In my case, I've looked at the subject, and read documents about it for years before posting my opinions. And, in posting my opinions (based on my accumulated knowledge of the subject), I have consciously rejected the opinions of others who excuse or defend the practice.

    My captions on the subject are my STRONGLY EXPRESSED OPINIONS based on the documents of history, not a "pre-judging" of the culture without having looked into the matter first.

    You will notice that of the 282 photos of old China I've posted here, ONLY the few depicting (or referring to) FOOT BINDING get the Judicial "hammer slam" of my disdain.

    I have no complain or rant with the BE-HEADING photos, as I think America needs to implement that for some special cases. France had their Guillotine (head chopper), and that never bothered me either. I am a firm believer in capital punishment for certain person-on-person crimes. [EXAMPLE : Men who rape and kill little girls]. Clean, quick, and efficient capital punishment is the way to go. What bothers me is the innocent who get funneled in there with the guilty. This is a another subject for another caption !

    I also defend the Chinese against the Japanese in some of my China captions. Here's one written in a sarcastic mode :


    ...and with the Chinese Opium problem, squarely blame the British, not the Chinese :

    NOT NOAH'S ARK -- An OPIUM Storage Ship off the Coast of SHANGHAI  in OLD CHINA -- A Curse Forced on China by the "Civilized" Nations of the World (1) by Okinawa Soba (Rob)

    When it comes to China, ONLY THE FOOT BINDING gets my ire up. And my captions against it are not born from "prejudice" against China. To the contrary, my comments are against the CUSTOM and CULTURE of CHILD TORTURE.

    To be clear, If it had been AMERICA, FRANCE, ZIMBABWE, or SWEDEN that had been doing the Foot Binding, I would have written the same captions, trading the word "China" for those countries.

    Having lived in Okinawa for almost 40 years, with many Chinese as my neighbors, and a local culture that favors the policies of the Chinese sage Confucius, I can say without prejudice that I am NOT a fan of Confucius.

    To be anti-Confucian is not "prejudice" (not a pre-judgment) on my part. After watching some of his key policies at work for 40 years, and reading extensively about the man, I have formed a personal opinion about him. I don't like him !

    However, I also don't like OBAMA ! ;-)

    To be clear, I "hate" many cultural practices and "social mindsets" that exist around the world TODAY --- including problems in my own native America. See my "SLAVERY SUCKS" comment near the top of this set caption :


    I have no personal prejudice against China or the Chinese --- any more than I do against my own nation of America...or my adopted homeland of Japan. All of these places have GOOD and BAD aspects of culture and thinking...and sometimes bad actions against not only their own people, but against other nations as well.

    It turns out that, in the case of Foot Binding, I am singling out an old, entrenched custom that --- though now past --- is a great example to condemn, while applying the same condemnation and judgment on cultures that STILL suppress and physically maim women and children even today. Thus, the links to other nasty cultural practices outside of China that still plague the world today.

    For what it's worth, I would LOVE to visit China someday. Two of my daughters have made some short visits there, and had a good time making many friends.

    So, rest easy. Hope to see you in China someday !

    PS. Thanks for the link to the book. I will check it out !
  • M.H117 4y

    Thanks for your kind response!! I'm sorry. I didn't realize prejudice means

    to pass judgment or condemnation before understanding or knowing something about the subject at hand.

    I just mix up prejudice with misunderstand. I hope that would not make you unhappy...
    Besides, thanks to your response, now I can keep on enjoying your photos without any unnecessary worries. Thank you! You will be warmly welcomed if you come to China!!
  • Okinawa Soba (Rob) 4y

    M.H117 See you in China !
  • ralph repo 4y

    Loved your response. OS, ever the diplomat. IMHO, you certainly missed your calling; instead of Locke, they should have sent you as the US Ambassador to China ;)
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