Tenby, Pembrokeshire, Wales
Tenby (Welsh: Dinbych-y-Pysgod, meaning little town of the fishes or little fortress of the fish) is a walled seaside town in Pembrokeshire, South West Wales, on the west side of Carmarthen Bay.
Notable features of Tenby include 2.5 miles (4.0 km) of sandy beaches; the 13th century medieval town walls, including the Five Arches barbican gatehouse ; 15th century St. Mary's Church; the Tudor Merchant's House (National Trust); a museum with art gallery; and the Pembrokeshire Coast Path, part of Wales' only coastal National Park. Boats sail from Tenby's harbour to the offshore monastic Caldey Island, while St Catherine's Island is linked to the town at low tide. The town is served by Tenby railway station.
With its strategic position on the far west coast of the British Isles, and a natural sheltered harbour from both the Atlantic Ocean and the Irish Sea, Tenby was a natural settlement point.
The earliest reference to a settlement at Tenby is in Etmic Dinbych, a poem probably of 9th century date, preserved in the 14th century Book of Taliesin. At this point the settlement was likely a hill fort, the mercantile nature of the settlement possibly developing under Hiberno-Norse influence.
After the Norman Conquest, the lands came under the control of the Earls of Pembroke, who strengthened the easy to defend but hard to attack hill fort on Castle Hill, by building the first stone walled castle. This enabled the town to grow as a seaport. But the need for additional defences was shown, when attacked by Welsh forces in 1187 and again in 1260 by Llewelyn the Great. The town walls were built by William de Valence, 1st Earl of Pembroke, in the late 13th century.
 Medieval walled town, trading port
This spurred the landowners to develop extensive city walls, enclosing a large part of the settlement into what is now termed the "old town." Although the actual wooden gates into Tenby no longer exist, the Five Arches at the edge of old town give an insight into what the merchants would have marvelled at as they entered.
During the Wars of the Roses, the future King Henry VII sheltered within Tenby before sailing into exile in 1471. Resultantly, in late medieval times through the 14th and 15th centuries, Tenby was awarded various royal grants which financed the maintenance and improvement of the town walls and the enclosure of Tenby harbour. The harbour during this period became a busy and important national port. Originally based on fish trading, traders sailing along the coast to Bristol and Ireland, and further afield to France, Spain and Portugal. Exports from Tenby included wool, skins, canvas, coal, iron and oil; while in 1566 Portuguese seamen landed the first oranges to be brought to Wales.
However, two events caused the town to quickly and permanently decline in importance. Firstly, in the English Civil War, the town declared for Parliament, and resisted two attempts by Charles Gerard, 1st Earl of Macclesfield, to capture it for the King, Charles I. In 1648, the Royalists captured the castle for ten weeks before surrendering to Colonel Thomas Horton, who welcomed Oliver Cromwell to the town shortly afterwards. In the following year, 1650, a plague epidemic killed half its population.
Resultantly bereft of trade, the town was abandoned by the merchants, and slid inexorably into decay and ruin. By the end of the eighteenth century, the visiting John Wesley noted how: "Two-thirds of the old town is in ruins or has entirely vanished. Pigs roam among the abandoned houses and Tenby presents a dismal spectacle."
With the Napoleonic wars restricting rich tourists from visiting the spa resorts in Europe, the need for home-based sea bathing grew. In 1802, locally resident merchant banker and politician Sir William Paxton bought his first property in the old town. From this point onwards he invested heavily in the town, with the full approval of the town council. Engaging the team who had built his home at Middleton Hall, engineer James Grier and architect Samuel Pepys Cockerell were briefed to ceate a "fashionable bathing establishment suitable for the highest society." His baths came into operation in July 1806, and after acquiring the Globe Inn transformed it into "a most lofty, elegant and convenient style" to lodge the more elegant visitors to his baths. Cottages were erected adjoining the baths, and livery stables with an adjoining coach house. In 1814 a road built on arches overlooking the harbour was built at Paxton's full expense. However, although he later got passed a Bill in Parliament to enable fresh water to be piped through the town, his 1809 theatre was closed in 1818 due to lack of patronage.
Paxton also took in "tour" developments in the area, as required by rich Victorian tourists. This included the discovery of a chalybeate spring in his own park at Middleton Hall, and coaching inns from Swansea to Narberth. He also built Paxton's Tower, in memorial to Lord Nelson whom he had met in 1802 when mayor of Carmarthen. Paxton's efforts to revive the town succeeded, and even when victory at the Battle of Trafalgar reopened Europe, the growth of Victorian Tenby was inevitable. Through both the Georgian and Victorian eras Tenby was renowned as a health resort and centre for botanical and geological study. With many features of the town being constructed to provide areas for healthy seaside walks, due to the walkways being built to accommodate Victorian nannies pushing prams, many of the beaches today still retain good disabled access. In 1856 writer Mary Ann Evans (pen-name George Eliot) accompanied George Henry Lewes to Tenby to gather materials for his work Seaside Studies published in 1858.
In 1852, The Shipwrecked Fishermen and Mariners' Royal Benevolent Society deployed a lifeboat to the town, taken over in 1854 by the Royal National Lifeboat Institution. This led in 1905 to the building of the first slip-way equipped Lifeboat Station, which was replaced in 2008.
Tenby railway station was opened by the Pembroke and Tenby Railway as the terminus of the branch from the Pembroke direction in 1863, with the section eastwards to join the main line at Whitland following three years later.
In 1867, the construction of the Palmerston Fort on St Catherine's Island began. It was built to protect the coastline from a potential landing force.
Modern Tenby provides many items and activities for both the local resident and out of season tourists to enjoy.
The old town castle walls still survive, as does the Victorian revival architecture which has been retained and maintained, often in a high-light orientated pastel colour scheme, making the town more French Riviera-esque in nature and feel.
The economy is still highly based around tourism, supported by the provision of a range of craft, art and local goods stores, which has been created by a thriving artist community.