New Zealand Robin
This is the New Zealand Robin (Petroica australis), or Toutouwai in Māori. This species is thought to have emerged from the Petroica genus from Australia after arriving and diverging in the Pleistocene era. It is an endemic bird that suffered reductions in population size due to introduced predators and habitat loss. Like many of the birds in New Zealand, this bird has been banded as part of an effort to track the life cycle of the bird (birth rate, death rate, dispersal, etc). Each bird receives a single metal band engraved with a unique number and several colored bands. The colored bands seen here are read from top to bottom and represent a unique code that corresponds to the breading season during which the bird was hatched.
Department of Conservation – Bird Banding Overview
Museum of New Zealand – Bird Banding Scheme and History