The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans all forms of nuclear testing. This makes it almost impossible for countries to develop new or more advanced nuclear weapons or to enhance them in a militarily significant way. The Treaty also makes it extremely difficult for countries that do not have nuclear weapons to develop them.
The Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) is building a verification regime to monitor compliance with the CTBT. 337 facilities worldwide will monitor the oceans, underground and the atmosphere for any sign of a nuclear explosion.
Adherence to the CTBT is almost universal. 183 countries have already signed the Treaty to date and 158 countries have ratified. To enter into force, however, the Treaty must be signed and ratified by the 44 States listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty. These States participated in the negotiations of the Treaty in 1996 and possessed nuclear power or research reactors at the time. Thirty-six of these Annex 2 States have ratified the Treaty, including three of the nuclear weapon States: France, the Russian Federation, and the United Kingdom.
There are eight remaining Annex 2 States which have not ratified the CTBT. These States are: China, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Egypt, India, Iran, Israel, Pakistan, and the United States.
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