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Furryscaly ADMIN November 3, 2012
My only request is that you please try and tag your photos with the country, state, county, or something that lets us know where you found the animal (if it's a wild one). Also, if you tag "millipede" and/or "Diplopoda" for millipedes and "centipede" and/or "Chilopoda" for centipedes, that would help keep the pool organized. Neither are required, but it would be appreciated. And please, only photos of live, dead, fossils, anatomical drawings, etc. No art, toys, etc. Thanks a bunch!

Group Description

Centipedes and millipedes! That's what this group is about. There are tons of groups for spiders and insects, but I've found none specific to myriapods (centipedes, millipedes, pauropods, & symphylans), so I decided to create one.

Group Rules:
- Post any photos or videos of centipedes (Chilopoda), millipedes (Diplopoda), and any other myriapods you may find. Dead or alive, wild or captive, it doesn't matter. Please stick with real myriapods though, and not models or drawings unless they are scientific drawings. You may add as many as you like, as long as they follow this theme. Also, the group is desperately low on symphylan photos and currently has no pauropods, so photos of these would be especially appreciated. And invite any other myriapod photos you come across on Flickr!

What does "Myriapoda" mean?
- Myriapoda is a Subphylum within the Phylum: Arthropoda. It contains the centipedes (Class: Chilopoda), millipedes (Class: Diplopoda), pauropods (Class: Pauropoda), and symphylans (Class: Symphyla). The name "Myriapoda" refers to their "myriad of legs", or many legs. Since they have more than six legs and more than three body segments, they are not insects.

If you need help identifying your subject as either a centipede or millipede (or maybe something else), we can do that too. Just start a discussion and ask! But if you're shy, here is a general description of both to help you, followed by photos of various common types if you scroll down:

What is a centipede?
Centipedes are chilopods (Class: Chilopoda) - Generally flat with long antennae and legs that stick out to the sides. They have one pair of legs per body segment, and the legs are typically proportionally longer than a millipede's. Soil centipedes (order: Geophilomorpha) are small, long, thin, and sometimes round. House/cave centipedes (Scutigeromorpha) have very long thin legs and large compound eyes. "Tropical" and stone centipedes (Scolopendromorpha and Lithobiomorpha) have typical centipede bodies, with stone centipedes being smaller but more robust.
Centipedes are fast, carnivorous hunters and are venomous, but not deadly. They prey on insects and spiders, and larger species will even take rodents and small reptiles. They inject the venom using maxillipeds (large modified legs behind the head that act as fangs). Millipedes lack this feature. Many also have large, forcipulate caudal legs (the last pair of legs) that stick out, looking like another pair of antennae or longer legs at the rear. No millipede possesses this feature.

What is a millipede?
Millipedes are diplopods (Class: Diplopoda) - Generally round in cross-section, with the exception of a few such as polydesmid and pill millipedes. They have two pairs of relatively short legs per body segment, and generally move slowly compared to centipedes. They also have short antennae and are poisonous rather than venomous (meaning they're harmful if swallowed, they don't bite). Polydesmid millipedes are flatter, but still have short antennae and two legs per segment. Pill millipedes are exotic and look like isopods ("pill bugs", "rolly-polies").
Millipedes are herbivorous, fungivorous, and/or detrivorous. This means they feed on decaying plant matter, rotting wood, dead leaves, fallen fruit, fungus, and occasionally some dead animal matter as well, depending on the species. Most millipedes are capable of coiling their bodies in self-defense, which centipedes cannot do.

What other myriapods are there?
The other two myriapods are pauropods (Class: Pauropoda) and symphylans (Class: Symphyla). These two are very small and rarely seen by casual observers, but they generally resemble small whitish or translucent centipedes.

Here are some examples of common myriapod forms. Pay attention to the shape of the animal, as the color will change with each species:

"Tropical" centipede (order Scolopendromorpha):

Photo taken by jpdodd

Stone centipede (order Lithobiomorpha), a very common form:
centipede
Photo taken by Neil Phillips

Stone centipede nymph (baby):
young centipede DSCF3731
Photo taken by shane58

Soil centipede (order Geophilomorpha), note the rounder body, but still 1 pair of legs per segment:
Chilipoda: Geophilomorpha
Photo taken by Mick E. Talbot

House centipede (order Scutigeromorpha), note the long thin legs and large eyes:
Scutigera coleoptrata
Photo taken by dougeee

"Cylinder" millipede (typical small millipedes) (order Julida):
Millipede
Photo taken by Andrew Robertson

Polydesmid millipede (order Polydesmida), note the flatter body, but still 2 pairs of legs per segment:
bug of the day
Photo taken by Urtica

Pill millipede (superorder Oniscomorpha), note the resemblance to a "pill bug". This one is from the order Sphaerotheriida (13 segments):
pill millipede
Photo taken by imbala

Pill millipede (rolled up). This one is from the order Sphaerotheriida (13 segments):
Pill millipede
Photo taken by g-o-u-t-h-a-m

Bristle millipede (order Polyxenida). The only order in the subclass Penicillata:
Two bristle millipedes
Photo taken by Macropixel's

Millipede nymphs (babies), unknown order. They will grow more legs as they get older:
First instar millipedes
Photo taken by cotinis

Symphylan (Class: Symphyla), one of the two lesser-known myriapods. They resemble tiny, translucent, eyeless centipedes, but are neither centipedes nor millipedes:
Symphyla DSCF3655
Photo taken by shane58




Myriapod taxonomy:
- An incomplete breakdown of centipedes and millipedes from Class on down to Species (when possible). Links will take you to photo examples of that type of myriapod.

Further breakdown of class Chilopoda (centipedes). Two subclasses, Pleurostigmophora and Notostigmophora

Sublass Pleurostigmophora (Spiracles "breathing holes" are located laterally)
Orders:
-Craterostigmomorpha: (Tasmanian centipedes. Found only in Tasmania and New Zealand. Only one family and 1-2 species.)
--Craterostigmidae (One genus.)
------Craterostigmus
---------------Craterostigmus tasmanianus
-Geophilomorpha (Soil centipedes. Standard group tags: centipede myriapod Myriapoda Chilopoda Pleurostigmophora Geophilomorpha geophilomorph "soil centipede")
--Geophilidae
------Geophilus
--Himantariidae
------Himantarium
--Linotaeniidae
------Strigamia
--Oryidae
-Lithobiomorpha: ("Stone centipedes". Two families. Adults have 18 segments & 15 pairs of legs. Segments alternate between large and small.)
--Henicopidae (mostly southern temperate: southern Africa, southern South America, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, etc)
------Anopsobius
------Dichelobius
------Esastigmatobius
------Haasiella
------Henicops
------Lamyctes
------Lamyctinus
------Paralamyctes
------Remylamyctes
------Shikokuobius
------Zygethobius
--Lithobiidae
------Australobius
------Lithobius
---------------L. forficatus "European brown centipede"
---------------L. variegatus "European banded centipede"
-Scolopendromorpha: ("Typical" centipedes. Three families. 21-23 segments. Standard group tags: centipede myriapod Myriapoda Chilopoda Pleurostigmophora Scolopendromorpha scolopendromorph)
--Cryptopidae: (Small. 21 pairs of legs)
------Cryptops
------Theatops (large caudal legs and ultimate "last" segment, unlike Cryptops. 4 species in US. 2 east of Mississipi River, 2 west)
---------------T. posticus (lacks spines on caudal legs. East of Mississippi River)
---------------T. spinicaudus (spines on 1st segments of caudal legs. East of Mississippi River)
?--Otostigmidae
------Otostigmus
?--Plutoniumidae
--Scolopendridae (giant/ tropical centipedes)
------Alipes "feather-tail centipedes"
---------------A. grandidieri
------Ethmostigmus
---------------E. rubripes
---------------Ethmostigmus trigonopodus "Tanzanian yellowleg / Tanzanian bluering leg"
------Scolopendra
---------------S. cingulata "Megarian banded centipede"
---------------S. gigantea "Peruvian giant centipede"
---------------S. heros "Arizona centipede"
---------------S. polymorpha "American tiger centipede"
---------------S. subspinipes "Vietnamese giant centipede"
--Scolopocryptopidae (similar to Cryptopidae, but with 23 segments)
------Scolopocryptops

Sublass Notostigmophora (Spiracles "breathing holes" are located middorsally. One order, Scutigeromorpha)
Orders:
-Scutigeromorpha: Cave/ house centipedes. (Tags: centipede myriapod Myriapoda Chilopoda Notostigmophora Scutigeromorpha)
?--Pselliodidae
------Sphenodononema
--Scutigeridae
------Allothereua
---------------A. maculata "Australian house centipede"
------Parascutigera
------Pesvarus
------Prionopodella
------Prothereua
------Scutigera "house centipedes"
---------------S. coleoptrata "common house centipede"
---------------S. homa "Arizona house centipede"
------Thereuopoda "cave centipedes"
---------------T. longicornis (SE Asia to N Australia)
------Thereuopodina
--Scutigerinidae
------Scutigerina
---------------S. weberi




Further breakdown of class Diplopoda (millipedes). Two subclasses, Chilognatha and Penicillata.

Sublass Chilognatha (hard-bodied millipedes with gonopods)

Infraclass Helminthomorpha (Elongate bodies. Males have 1 or 2 pairs of gonopods on the 7th or 8th segment. Contains all millipedes except the pill millipedes and tufted millipedes.) Standard group tags: millipede myriapod Myriapoda Diplopoda Chilognatha Helminthomorpha
Orders:
-Callipodida: (One pair of gonopods on 7th segment, partially tucked into pouch, followed by functional legs, same as Siphoniulida. 40+ segments, often heavily textured. Found in Europe, N. America, & Asia.)
--Abacionidae (eastern N. America)
------Abacion
--Callipodidae (Europe: France, Italy, etc)
--Caspiopetalidae (western Asia)
--Dorypetalidae (Europe: Spain, Portugal, Greece, Turkey, etc)
--Paracortinidae (China: Yunnan province)
--Schizopetalidae (N. America, Asia, Europe)
--Sinocallipodidae (China, Laos)
-Chordeumatida: (Often have keeled segments, with a tapering girth toward the rear. Have spinnerets, like Stemmiulida. Found in Europe, N. America, N. Africa, Madagascar, parts of Asia, Australia, & New Zealand.)
--Adritylidae (USA: Montana, Wyoming, Utah)
--Altajellidae (Kyrgyzstan, Siberian Russia)
--Anthroleucosomatidae (Europe, Asia)
--Apterouridae (Cajon Pass San Bernardino Co California)
------Apterourus (only genus in this family)
---------------A. horizontalis (only species in this genus)
--Attemsiidae
--Biokoviellidae
--Brachychaeteumatidae
--Branneriidae
?--Caseyidae
------Underwoodia
--Chamaesomatidae
--Chordeumatidae
--Cleidogonidae
?--Conotylidae
------Conotyla
--Craspedosomatidae
--Entomobielziidae
--Golovatchiidae
--Haaseidae
--Haasiidae
--Haplobainosomatidae
--Heterolatzeliidae
--Hoffmaneumatidae
--Kashmireumatidae
--Lusitaniosomatidae
--Mastigophorophyllidae
--Microlympiidae
--Macrochaeteumatidae
--Neoatractosomatidae
--Niponiosomatidae
--Opisthocheiridae
--Origmatogonidae
?--Speophilosomatidae
--Tingupidae
--Trachygonidae
--Trichopetalidae
--Vandeleumatidae
--Verhoeffiidae
-Julida: ("Cylinder millipedes". 2 pairs of gonopods on 7th segment, rear pair functional. Both partially tucked inside pouch, same as Spirobolida. Typically small. Found in N. America, Europe, & parts of Asia.)
--Aprosphylosomatidae
--Blaniulidae
------Blaniulus
---------------B. guttulatus "spotted snake millipede"
--Chelojulidae
--Galliobatidae
--Julidae (Native to palaearctic zone. Introduced to North America from Europe. Segments horizontally grooved)
------Brachyiulus (pale mid-dorsal stripe containing thinner black stripe)
------Cylindroiulus
---------------C. londinensis (similar to Tachypodoiulus niger, but no pointed telson)
------Ommatoiulus
---------------O. sabulosus "European striped millipede"
------Ophyiulus
---------------O. pilosus (pointed 'telson' on last segment)
------Tachypodoiulus
---------------T. niger "white-legged snake millipede" (pointed telson)
--Mongoliulidae
--Nemasomatidae
--Okeanobatidae
--Paeromopodidae
------Paeromopus
---------------P. angustatus "long millipede" (California)
--Parajulidae (most dominant N. American family of millipedes)
------Bollmaniulus
------Kateroiulus
------Ptyoiulus
------Uroblaniulus
---------------U. carolinensis
--Pseudonemasomatidae
--Rhopaloiulidae
--Telsonemasomatidae
--Trichoblaniulidae
--Trichonemasomatidae
--Zosteractinidae
-Platydesmida: (Flat with small heads. Very thin groove running down the "back". Most are pinkish. Two pairs of gonopods. Functional pair at rear of 7th segment, extra pair at front of 8th, same as Polyzoniida and Siphonophorida. Tergites have lateral expansions "paranota". Found in N. America, Europe, parts of Asia & Indonesia.)
--Andrognathidae
------Brachycybe
---------------B. lecontii
--Platydesmidae
-Polydesmida (1 pair of functional gonopods at front of 7th segment, followed by functional legs. Flat-ish and short. Found worldwide. Some secrete cyanide. "Flat-backed millipedes")
?--Dalodesmidae (found in moist habitats in Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, South America, South Africa, & Madagascar)
------Atalopharetra
------Atrophotergum
?------Bromodesmus
?------Dasystigma
------Gasterogramma
------Gephyrodesmus
------Ginglymodesmus
------Lissodesmus
------Orthorhachis
?------Paredrodesmus
------Paurodesmus
?------Procophorella
?------Queenslandesmus
?------Sphaerotrichopus
?------Tasmaniosoma
------Tasmanodesmus
?------Tasmanopeltis
------Victoriombrus
--Eurydesmidae (see Xystodesmidae)
--Eurymerodesmidae (Found only in SE United States. 1 genus, 28 species.)
------Eurymerodesmus (Only genus in Eurymerodesmidae)
--Euryuridae (N. American family. Only 2 genera. Found in decaying hardwood near water.)
------Auturus
------Euryurus
------------E. leachii
?--Haplodesmidae
?------Agathodesmus
?------Asphalidesmus
?------Atopogonus
--Paradoxosomatidae (All have a lateral groove in the middle of each segment)
------Aethalosoma
------Akamptogonus
?------Antichiropus
?------Archicladosoma
------Asiomorpha
---------------A. coarctata (Native to Asia, introduced elsewhere. Common in S. America, far less in N. America. Similar to Oxidus gracilis, but with more pointed paranota)
------Atropisoma
?------Aulacoporus
------Australiosoma
?------Australodesmus
?------Boreohesperus
?------Brochopeltis
?------Cladethosoma
?------Desmoxytoides
?------Dicladosoma
------Oxidus
---------------O. gracilis "greenhouse millipede" (Native to Asia, introduced worldwide. Most common Paradoxosomatid seen in N. america. Similar to less common Asiomorpha coarctata, but with blunter paranota)
?--Platyrhacidae
------Nyssodesmus
--Polydesmidae
------Brachydesmus
---------------B. superus
------Polydesmus (European genus. Introduced elsewhere, including US)
---------------P. angustus
------Pseudopolydesmus (Native N. American genus. Similar to Polydesmus)
---------------P. branneri (brownish-red paranota)
---------------P. canadensis
------Scytonotus
---------------S. granulatus "granulated millipede"
--Pyrgodesmidae
--Sphaeriodesmidae
--Xystodesmidae (18-22 segments (usually 20) with large paranota "keels", no eyes)
------Apheloria
---------------A. tigana "yellow-and-black flat millipede"
------Appalachioria (formerly Brachoria)
------Boraria
------Brachoria (see Appalachioria)
------Cherokia
------Deltotaria
------Dicellarius
------Furcillaria
------Harpaphe
---------------H. haydeniana "Pacific yellow-spotted millipede"
------Isaphe
?------Luminodesmus (luminescent. Possibly merged with Motyxia, or vice versa)
---------------L. sequoiae "Sierra luminous millipede"
------Montaphe
?------Motyxia (luminescent. Orange under normal light, unlike Xystocheir)
------Nannaria
------Orophe
------Pachydesmus
------Parafontaria
------Pleuroloma
---------------P. flavipes
------Rhysodesmus
------Sigmoria (15 species)
------Xystocheir (luminescent)
-Polyzoniida: (Flat with small heads. Smooth "back", lacking the groove of Platydesmida, often arched. Most are cream colored. Two pairs of gonopods. Functional pair at rear of 7th segment, extra pair at front of 8th, same as Platydesmida & Siphonophorida. Tergites have no lateral expansions "paranota". Some have beaks. Found in N. America, Caribbean, Europe, & parts of Asia.)
--Hirudisomatidae
------Octoglena
---------------O. anura
--Polyzoniidae
------Petaserpes
--Siphonotidae
?-Siphoniulida: (One pair of gonopods on 7th segment, partially tucked into pouch, followed by functional legs, same as Callipodida. Beaked head & cylyndrical body. Found only in Guatemala, Mexico, & Sumatra.)
--Siphoniulidae
?-Siphonocryptida: (This order may be defunct.)
--Siphonocryptidae
-Siphonophorida: (Small, long, round, & thin with beaked head. Two pairs of gonopods. Functional pair at rear of 7th segment, extra pair at front of 8th, same as Platydesmida & Polyzoniida. Tergites have no paranota. Most legs of all millipedes. Found in N. & S. America, S. Africa, & SE Asia.)
--Siphonophoridae
--Siphonorhinidae
-Spirobolida: (Large cylindrical millipedes. 2 pairs of gonopods on 7th segment, rear pair functional. Both partially tucked inside pouch, like Julida. Only 1 pair of legs on 5th segment, all others have 2. Found in N. & S. America, parts of Africa, Asia, & Australia.)
--Allopocockiidae
--Atopetholidae
------Comanchelus
--Floridobolidae
--Hoffmanobolidae?
--Messicobolidae
------Messicobolus
------Petenobolus
--Pachybolidae
------Aphistogoniulus "fire millipedes"
------Aulacobolus
---------------A. rubropunctatus "Vietnamese rainbow millipede"
------Epibolus
---------------E. pulchripes "Tanzanian red-legged millipede"
------Pachybolus
--Pseudospirobolellidae
--Rhinocricidae
------Anadenobolus
------Eurhinocricus
?------Rhinocricus (possible subgenus of Spirobolus?)
--Spirobolellidae
--Spirobolidae
------Chicobolus
---------------C. spinigerus "Florida ivory millipede"
------ Narceus "North American giant millipedes"
------Tylobolus
--Trigoniulidae
------Trigoniulus
---------------T. corallinus "rusty millipede"
--Typhlobolellidae
-Spirostreptida: (Large & cylindrical, like Spirobolida. Suborders Epinannolenidea & Spirostreptidea have 1 pair of gonopods on 7th segment, partially tucked into pouch, followed by extremely reduced legs. Suborder Cambalidea has 2 pairs of gonopods on 7th segment, front pair functional. Found in Africa, Asia, Australia, N. America and parts of S. America. Mainly tropical, some desert.)
--Adiaphorostreptidae
--Atopogestidae
--Cambalidae
------Cambala
------Nannolene
--Cambalopsidae
--Choctellidae
--Glyphiulidae
--Harpagophoridae
--Iulomorphidae
--Odontopygidae
--Pericambalidae
--Pseudonannolenidae
--Spirostreptidae
------Archispirostreptus
---------------A. gigas "African giant black millipede"
------Doratogonus "South African black millipedes" (80–200 mm/ 3–8 in)
------Mardonius
------Ophistreptus "chocolate millipedes"
------Orthoporus (large genus, only 4 species in US "American desert millipedes")
---------------O. ornatus "ornate desert millipede"
---------------O. texicolens
------Scaphiostrephus
------Spirostreptus
---------------S. brachycerus
------Telodeinopus
---------------T. aoutii
---------------T. assiensis
---------------T. villiersi
-Stemmiulida: (Long bodies with 39-60 segments. Has spinnerets, like Chordeumatida. 1 pair of functional gonopods at front of 7th segment, followed by reduced legs. Found in tropical areas of Mexico, Central America, Africa, India, & New Guinea.)
--Stemmiulidae

Infraclass Pentozonia (Short millipedes. Last pair(s) of legs modified into clasping "telopods".)
Orders (3):
Superorder Oniscomorpha (Pill millipedes. Short bodies with 12-13 segments. Resemble isopods or "pill bugs". Capable of rolling into a ball.) Standard group tags: millipede myriapod Myriapoda Diplopoda Chilognatha Pentozonia Oniscomorpha "pill millipede"
-Glomerida: (Smaller pill millipedes with 11-12 segments (10-11 visible when rolled). 17-19 pairs of legs. Found in the Northern Hemisphere, including Europe, N. Africa, N. America, & SE Asia.)
--Doderiidae
--Glomeridae
------Glomeris
---------------G. marginata "common European pill millipede"
------Glomeroides
---------------G. primus (found in at least California)
--Glomeridellidae
--Trachysphaeridae
------Adenomeris
---------------A. gibbosa (found at least in Europe)
-Sphaerotheriida: ("Giant" pill millipedes with 13 segments (12 visible when rolled). No poison glands. 1st segment (collum) greatly reduced. Larger body size than Glomerida. 21-23 pairs of legs. Males have telopods under anal shield. Found in the Southern Hemisphere including Africa, Madagascar, tropical Asia, Australasia, Australia, & New Zealand.)
?--Arthrosphaeridae (Found in south India & Madagascar. Either merged into or branched from Sphaerotheriidae. 4 genera. All members have stridulating abilities.)
------Arthrosphaera (India)
------Microsphaerotherium (Madagascar. Smallest members of Sphaerotheriida, less than 10mm.)
------Sphaeromimus (Madagascar)
------Zoosphaerium (Madagascar. Overwhelming majority of Malagasy Arthrosphaeridae in this genus. Largest members of Sphaerotheriida.)
---------------Z. neptunus (Largest Sphaerotheriid species)
?--Procyliosomatidae (Found in Australia & New Zealand. Either merged into or branched from Sphaerotheriidae.)
------Epicyliosoma
------Procyliosoma
?--Sphaeropoeidae (See Zephroniidae)
--Sphaerotheriidae (Found in S. Africa. Possible merger of other families into this one.)
------Sphaerotherium
--Zephroniidae (Found in SE Asia: N. India, China, Borneo, Sumatra, Philippines, Sulawesi, etc)
------Zephronia
Superorder Limacomorpha (Primitive millipedes. One order.)
-Glomeridesmida: (Flat, primitive, and unable to roll into a ball. 22 segments. Found in tropical regions, with the exception of Africa. 1 family)
--Glomeridesmidae
------Glomeridesmus

Subclass Penicillata (Soft-bodied, bristled millipedes without gonopods.)
Orders (1):
-Polyxenida: (Body has hair-like bristles, especially at the "tail", used to defend themselves from ants (not all have said "bristle tail"). Members are unique in appearance among millipedes and rather small. (Standard group tags: millipede myriapod Myriapoda Diplopoda Penicillata Polyxenida "bristle millipede" "tufted millipede")
--Hypogexenidae
--Lophoproctidae
--Polyxenidae
------Polyxenus
---------------P. lagurus (North America & Europe, pair of bristles in midline of head)
------Propolyxenus (13 pairs legs)
---------------P. australis
---------------P. forsteri
------Unixenus (13 pairs of legs, rear bristles in single bundle, no fan of bristles above bundle)
--Synxenidae
------Phryssonotus
---------------P. novaehollandiae (17 pairs of legs, body tapers, dorsal surface scaly, rear bristles not arranged as in Polyxenus)




MyriaLinks:
- Helpful links where you can learn more about myriapods.

Australian millipedes
www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/online-resources... rel="nofollow rel="nofollow

Centipedes and Millipedes with Emphasis on North America Fauna
by Rowland M. Shelley
www.emporia.edu/ksn/v45n3-march1999/index.html rel="nofollow rel="nofollow

Centipedes and millipedes
www.myriapoda.org/ rel="nofollow rel="nofollow

Good for identifying myriapods in the U.S.
bugguide.net" rel="nofollow

What is a Myriapod?
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Myriapod rel="nofollow rel="nofollow

Search a catalogue of life, including Chilopoda and Diplopoda
www.catalogueoflife.org/browse_taxa.php?path=0,1,134,317&... rel="nofollow rel="nofollow

Nice PDF relating to Myriapods
www.amonline.net.au/invertebrates/other/Edgecombe_Giribet... rel="nofollow rel="nofollow

Millipedes of Australia by order, family, genus, and species
www.qvmag.tas.gov.au/zoology/millipedes/polydesm/paradoxo... rel="nofollow rel="nofollow

Millipedes made easy, including downloadable guide to millipede orders
www.fieldmuseum.org/research_collections/zoology/zoo_site... rel="nofollow rel="nofollow

Common and scientific names of millipedes in the pet trade
pic2.piczo.com/millipede-mayhem/?g=21485869&cr=2 rel="nofollow rel="nofollow

Millipede PDF
www.fieldmuseum.org/research_collections/zoology/zoo_site... rel="nofollow rel="nofollow

Search results for Myriapoda
webs.lander.edu/search.html?q=myriapoda rel="nofollow rel="nofollow

Describes subclasses and orders of both millipedes and centipedes
atshq.org/arthro/myria/myria.shtml rel="nofollow rel="nofollow

Catalogue of centipede taxonomy
chilobase.bio.unipd.it" rel="nofollow

Coding guide I used to design some of Myriapoda's main page. (Not Myriapod related)
neo-faeriewings.co.nr/ rel="nofollow rel="nofollow

Millipedes and centipedes in captivity
www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Hangar/2437/millipede.html rel="nofollow rel="nofollow

Extensive guide to centipedes as pets
www.scolopendromorpha.com" rel="nofollow

Centipede forum
www.scolopendra.eu" rel="nofollow

Photos of possible Sphaeriodesmidae, though incorrectly labeled as "Glomeridae", they are interesting in that the millipede rolls like a pill millipede
www.dkimages.com/discover/DKIMAGES/Discover/Home/Animals/... rel="nofollow rel="nofollow

Page with several interesting millipede links
www.herper.com/myriapods/millipedes.html rel="nofollow rel="nofollow

Page with several interesting centipede links
www.herper.com/myriapods/centipedes.html rel="nofollow rel="nofollow

Millipedes of California
www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.3398/1545-0228-1.1.90

51-page slideshow on myriapods by Dr. Vinod Khanna
www.authorstream.com/presentation/Vinodkhanna-91275-soil-...

Preview of "The Biology of Centipedes", by J. G. E. Lewis, on Google Books
books.google.com/books?id=AEp22u6tJgsC&lpg=PP1&pg...

Details of Sphaerotheriida pill millipede species of Madagascar
www.thefreelibrary.com/Madagascar%27s+living+giants%3A+di...

PDF on millipede family distribution around the world
www.fieldmuseum.org/research_collections/zoology/zoo_site...

Preview of Millipedes, by J. Gordon Blowe: keys and notes for the identification of the species. (Lots of stuff on European millipedes)
books.google.com/books?id=VQsVAAAAIAAJ&printsec=front...


MyriaTags:
- Default tags you can add to your (or others') relevant photos to make tagging faster, easier, and much more thorough.

Millipedes:

Apheloria tigana "yellow-and-black flat millipede"
millipede myriapod Myriapoda Diplopoda Chilognatha Helminthomorpha Polydesmida "polydesmid millipede" Xystodesmidae Apheloria "Apheloria tigana" "A. tigana" "yellow-and-black flat millipede" "yellow and black flat millipede" "taxonomy:binomial=Apheloria tigana"
---Aphistogoniulus sp. "Madagascar fire millipede"
millipede myriapod Myriapoda Diplopoda Chilognatha Helminthomorpha Spirobolida Pachybolidae Aphistogoniulus "Aphistogoniulus sp." "Madagascar fire millipede" "fire millipede" taxonomy:genus=Aphistogoniulus
---Archispirostreptus gigas "African giant black millipede"
millipede myriapod Myriapoda Diplopoda Chilognatha Helminthomorpha Spirostreptida Spirostreptidae Archispirostreptus "Archispirostreptus gigas" "A. gigas" "African giant black millipede" "giant African black millipede" "giant black millipede" "African black millipede" AGB "taxonomy:binomial=Archispirostreptus gigas"
---Aulacobolus rubropunctatus "Vietnamese rainbow millipede"
millipede myriapod Myriapoda Diplopoda Chilognatha Helminthomorpha Spirobolida Pachybolidae "Aulacobolus rubropunctatus" "A. rubropunctatus" "Vietnamese rainbow millipede" "rainbow millipede" "taxonomy:binomial=Aulacobolus rubropunctatus"
---Chicobolus spinigerus "Florida ivory millipede"
millipede myriapod Myriapoda Diplopoda Chilognatha Helminthomorpha Spirobolida Spirobolidae Chicobolus "Chicobolus spinigerus" "C. spinigerus" "Florida ivory millipede" "ivory millipede" "ivory banded millipede" "Florida banded millipede" "Florida white millipede" "Florida ivory-banded millipede" "Florida millipede" "taxonomy:binomial=Chicobolus spinigerus"
---Epibolus pulchripes "Tanzanian red-legged millipede"
millipede myriapod Myriapoda Diplopoda Chilognatha Helminthomorpha Spirobolida Pachybolidae Epibolus "Epibolus pulchripes" "E. pulchripes" "often misspelled Ephibolus pulchripes" "Tanzanian red-legged millipede" "red-legged millipede" "Mombassan train millipede" "giant red-legged millipede" "African red-legged millipede" "giant African red-legged millipede" "taxonomy:binomial=Epibolus pulchripes"
---Glomeris marginata "European common pill millipede"
millipede myriapod Myriapoda Diplopoda Chilognatha Pentozonia Oniscomorpha "pill millipede" Glomerida Glomeridae Glomeris "Glomeris marginata" "G. marginata" "European common pill millipede" "common European pill millipede" "European pill millipede" "common pill millipede" "taxonomy:binomial=Glomeris marginata"
---Harpaphe haydeniana "Pacific yellow-spotted millipede"
millipede myriapod Myriapoda Diplopoda Chilognatha Helminthomorpha Polydesmida "polydesmid millipede" Xystodesmidae Harpaphe "Harpaphe haydeniana" "H. haydeniana" "Pacific yellow-spotted millipede" "Pacific forest millipede" "yellow-spotted millipede" "taxonomy:binomial=Harpaphe haydeniana"
---Narceus americanus "North American giant millipedes"
millipede myriapod Myriapoda Diplopoda Chilognatha Helminthomorpha Spirobolida Spirobolidae Narceus "Narceus sp." "Narceus americanus/annularis complex" "Narceus americanus" "North American giant millipede" "American giant millipede" "North American millipede" "American millipede" "giant American millipede" "giant North American millipede" taxonomy:genus=Narceus
---Ommatoiulus sabulosus "European striped millipede"
millipede myriapod Myriapoda Diplopoda Chilognatha Helminthomorpha Julida "cylinder millipede" Julidae Ommatoiulus "Ommatoiulus sabulosus" "O. sabulosus" "European striped millipede" "striped millipede" "taxonomy:binomial=Ommatoiulus sabulosus"
---Orthoporus sp. "North American desert millipedes"
millipede myriapod Myriapoda Diplopoda Chilognatha Helminthomorpha Spirostreptida Spirostreptidae Orthoporus "Orthoporus sp." "North American desert millipede" "desert millipede" "American desert millipede" "Sonoran desert millipede" "ornate desert millipede" taxonomy:genus=Orthoporus
---Oxidus gracilis "greenhouse millipede"
millipede myriapod Myriapoda Diplopoda Chilognatha Helminthomorpha Polydesmida "polydesmid millipede" Paradoxosomatidae Oxidus "Oxidus gracilis" "O. gracilis" "greenhouse millipede" "taxonomy:binomial=Oxidus gracilis"
---Tachypodoiulus niger "white-legged snake millipede"
millipede myriapod Myriapoda Diplopoda Chilognatha Helminthomorpha Julida "cylinder millipede" Julidae Tachypodoiulus "Tachypodoiulus niger" "T. niger" "white-legged snake millipede" "European black millipede" "taxonomy:binomial=Tachypodoiulus niger"


Centipedes:

---Lithobius forficatus "European brown centipede"
centipede myriapod Myriapoda Chilopoda Pleurostigmophora Lithobiomorpha lithobiomorph "stone centipede" Lithobius "Lithobius forficatus" "L. forficatus" "European brown centipede" "common brown centipede" "brown centipede"
---Lithobius variegatus "European banded centipede"
centipede myriapod Myriapoda Chilopoda Pleurostigmophora Lithobiomorpha lithobiomorph "stone centipede" Lithobius "Lithobius variegatus" "L. variegatus" "European banded centipede" "common banded centipede" "banded centipede"
---Scolopendra cingulata "Megarian banded centipede"
centipede myriapod Myriapoda Chilopoda Pleurostigmophora Scolopendromorpha scolopendromorph Scolopendridae Scolopendra "Scolopendra cingulata" "S. cingulata" "Megarian banded centipede" "Mediterranean banded centipede" "taxonomy:binomial=Scolopendra cingulata"
---Scolopendra heros arizonensis "Arizona centipede"
centipede myriapod Myriapoda Chilopoda Pleurostigmophora Scolopendromorpha scolopendromorph Scolopendridae Scolopendra "Scolopendra heros" "S. heros" "Scolopendra heros arizonensis" "S. heros arizonensis" "Arizona centipede" "taxonomy:binomial=Scolopendra heros" "taxonomy:trinomial=Scolopendra heros arizonensis"
---Scolopendra heros castaneiceps "red-headed centipede"
centipede myriapod Myriapoda Chilopoda Pleurostigmophora Scolopendromorpha scolopendromorph Scolopendridae Scolopendra "Scolopendra heros" "S. heros" "Scolopendra heros castaneiceps" "S. heros castaneiceps" "red-headed centipede" "giant red-headed centipede" "American red-headed centipede" "Arizona red-headed centipede" "redhead centipede" "taxonomy:binomial=Scolopendra heros" "taxonomy:trinomial=Scolopendra heros castaneiceps"
---Scolopendra polymorpha "American tiger centipede"
centipede myriapod Myriapoda Chilopoda Pleurostigmophora Scolopendromorpha scolopendromorph Scolopendridae Scolopendra "Scolopendra polymorpha" "S. polymorpha" "American tiger centipede" "North American tiger centipede" "tiger centipede" "American desert centipede" "North American desert centipede" "common desert centipede" "Sonoran desert centipede" "desert centipede" "banded desert centipede" "tiger-stripe centipede" "taxonomy:binomial=Scolopendra polymorpha"
---Scolopendra subspinipes "Vietnamese giant centipede"
centipede myriapod Myriapoda Chilopoda Pleurostigmophora Scolopendromorpha scolopendromorph Scolopendridae Scolopendra "Scolopendra subspinipes" "S. subspinipes" "Vietnamese giant centipede" "Asian giant centipede" "Vietnamese centipede" "Asian centipede" "giant centipede" "Asian forest centipede" "orange-legged jungle centipede" "taxonomy:binomial=Scolopendra subspinipes"
---Scutigera coleoptrata "common house centipede"
centipede myriapod Myriapoda Chilopoda Notostigmophora Scutigeromorpha scutigeromorph Scutigeridae Scutigera "Scutigera coleoptrata" "S. coleoptrata" "common house centipede" "house centipede" "taxonomy:binomial=Scutigera coleoptrata"


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