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Lviv Citadel : (one of two) : impressive Austro-Hungarian - 1850 - fortification - overlooking the city. Became a Nazi Death Camp (Stalag 325). Now a ruin in the woods. Perhaps library storage?? The other Citadel : Nazi Death Camp 328 has been turned into a Five Star Hotel. #stalag325 #stalag325 #nazideathcamp #towerofdeath #lviv #lwow #lemberg #citadel #deathcamp #nazideathcamp #stalag #westernukraine #austrohungarianempire #fortification

Silhouette of a safety platform at the Port of Belfast. I thought it looked more like a watch tower from a P.O.W camp.

LATO EST della RISIERA

 

La Risiera di San Sabba (in sloveno Rižarna pri Sveti Soboti) è stato un lager nazista, situato nella città di Trieste. È stato l'unico campo di concentramento in Italia ad avere un forno crematorio. In esso le autorità tedesche compirono uccisioni, in un primo momento mediante gas (usando i motori diesel degli autocarri), in seguito per fucilazione o con colpo di mazza alla nuca.

In seguito all'armistizio di Cassibile dell' 8 settembre 1943, le province italiane di Udine, Trieste, Gorizia, Pola, Fiume e Lubiana vennero sottoposte al diretto controllo del Terzo Reich con il nome di Zona di operazione dell'Adriatisches Küstenland (Litorale Adriatico).

Tale zona faceva parte formalmente della Repubblica sociale italiana, ma l'amministrazione del territorio - considerato come zona d'operazione bellica - fu però affidata e sottomessa al controllo dell'Alto Commissario Friedrich Rainer, già Gauleiter della Carinzia.

Il complesso di edifici che costituivano lo stabilimento per la pilatura del riso era stato costruito nel 1913 nel rione di San Sabba, alla periferia della città e fu trasformato inizialmente in un campo di prigionia provvisorio per i militari italiani catturati dopo l'8 settembre: venne denominato Stalag 339.

Successivamente, al termine dell'ottobre 1943, il complesso diviene un Polizeihaftlager (Campo di detenzione di polizia), utilizzato come centro di raccolta di detenuti in attesa di essere deportati in Germania ed in Polonia e come deposito dei beni razziati e sequestrati ai deportati ed ai condannati a morte.

I nazisti, dopo aver utilizzato per le esecuzioni i più svariati metodi, come la morte per gassazione utilizzando automezzi appositamente attrezzati, si servirono all'inizio del 1944 dell'essiccatoio della risiera, prima di trasformarlo definitivamente in un forno crematorio

L'impianto venne utilizzato per lo smaltimento dei cadaveri e la sua prima utilizzazione si ebbe il 4 aprile 1944 con la cremazione di una settantina di cadaveri di ostaggi fucilati il giorno precedente in località limitrofe Villa Opicina (Trieste).

Questo luogo è di assoluta importanza in quanto fu l'unico campo di deportazione dell'Europa meridionale. Il forno crematorio e la connessa ciminiera furono abbattuti con esplosivi dai nazisti in fuga nella notte tra il 29 e il30 aprile 1945, nel tentativo di eliminare le prove dei loro crimini. Tra le rovine furono ritrovate ossa e ceneri umane. Sul medesimo luogo, a ricordo, sorge oggi una struttura commemorativa costituita da una piastra metallica sul posto dove sorgeva il forno crematorio e da una stele che ricorda la presenza della ciminiera.

 

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Risiera di San Sabba (Slovene: Rižarna pri Sveti Soboti) was a Nazi concentration camp for the detention and killing of jewish and politic prisoners during World War II, located in Trieste, northern Italy.

 

The edifice was built in 1913 and first used as a rice-husking facility (hence the name "Risiera"). During World War II Nazi occupation forces in Trieste used the building to transport, detain and exterminate prisoners. Many occupants of Risiera di San Sabba were transported to the Nazi concentration camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau in Poland. Historians estimate that over 3.000 people were killed at the camp and thousands more imprisoned and transported elsewhere. The majority of prisoners came from Friuli, the Julian March, and the Province of Ljubljana.

 

SS members Odilo Globocnik, and Karl Frenzel, and Ivan Marchenko are all said to have participated in the killings at this camp.

 

Today the former concentration camp is dedicated as a civic museum.

 

PARIS.- Boulevard Saint-Denis ...

 

My Fluidr

 

This photograph may not be used in any commercial materials, advertisements, emails, products, or promotions without my approval.

30 January 1944 mission to Brunswick, Germany.

 

NEAREST:

"Mary K" (DF-K)

Lockheed/Vega B-17G-10-VE Flying Fortress

s/n 42-39967

324th BS, 91st BG, 8th AF

On loan to 323rd BS for this mission.

1st Lt. Ken Sutherland crew.

 

Aircraft was lost on 18 March 1944 mission to Oberpfaffenhofen. 6 POW, 4 KIA

MACR 3224

1st Lt. Harry L. Theophilus - Pilot (O-676877) Ohio

....................KIA - buried in Ardennes American Cemetery, Belgium

2nd Lt. John DeLavore - Co-Pilot (O-806955) New York

....................KIA - buried in Ardennes American Cemetery, Belgium

2nd John G. Herr - Navigator (O-809603) Montana

....................KIA - buried in Epinal American Cemetery, France

2nd Lt. Joseph H. Pletta - Bombardier (O-673886) Illinois

....................POW - Stalag 7a, Moosburg

T/Sgt. Joachim P. Vizinho - Engineer/Top Turret Gunner (32559807) New Jersey

....................POW - Stalag Luft 4, Gross Tychow

T/Sgt. James L. Norris - Radio Operator (35613046) Ohio

....................POW - Stalag Luft 4, Gross Tychow

S/Sgt. Eldon Newman - Ball Turret Gunner (17159756) Missouri

....................POW - Stalag Luft 4, Gross Tychow

S/Sgt. Charles W. Perry - Right Waist Gunner (32466333) New Jersey

....................POW - Stalag Luft 4, Gross Tychow

S/Sgt. Marion A. Porter - Left Waist Gunner (35562744) Indiana

....................POW - Stalag Luft 4, Gross Tychow

S/Sgt. Charles L. Jochmann - Tail Gunner (32558182) New Jersey

....................KIA - buried in Lorraine American Cemetery, France

 

FARTHEST:

"The Village Flirt" (OR-M)

Boeing B-17F-70-BO Flying Fortress

s/n 42-29739

323rd BS, 91st BG, 8th AF

Capt. Dave Bramble crew.

Hover over each room to hyperlink to closeup photo

 

Link to main overview pic: flic.kr/p/f78mS6

 

Ripe with political satire, Hogan's Heroes ran for six popular seasons on CBS 1965-1971 following the hilarious exploits of a group of allied soldiers operating a secret intelligence operation behind enemy lines in a German POW camp during World War II. This MOC depicts a section of Stalag 13 from the show complete with German and Allied offices/living quarters, along with the extensive tunnel network built underneath the camp. 11 fully equipped rooms are modeled in detail depicting how these POWs operated. Included are numerous elements from the show's episodes.

 

This diorama won "Best Vignette" at Brickworld Chicago 2014. It also won "First Place for Small Dioramas" in the 2013 Lego Military Annual Build on Flicker: www.flickr.com/groups/legomilitaryannualbuildcompetition/...

It was also chosen as the "Brickarms Model Of the Month" for July 2013:

www.brickarmsforums.com/viewtopic.php?f=30&t=13829

 

The extensive lighting (see www.flickr.com/photos/brian_williams/9270781157/) is by Brickstuff. Their system of thin wires and LED panels is well-suited for interior lighting and a lot of fun to install.

In 1939, a large POW camp (Stalag X B Sandbostel) was established in Sandbostel near Bremervörde. This camp was a transit station for hundreds of thousands of prisoners from many different nations.

 

In April 1945, the SS housed prisoners from the Neuengamme concentration camp in a separate part of this POW camp. Around 9,000 men, many of them from the satellite camps in Bremen, Wilhelmshaven and the Emsland region, spent the last weeks of their imprisonment in Sandbostel. There were insufficient provisions, and a typhus epidemic broke out as well, so many prisoners died in Sandbostel.

 

During an air-raid alarm on the night of 19 April 1945, several hundred prisoners stormed a kitchen hut to find food. During the same night, the SS left the camp and headed in the direction of Flensburg with several hundred prisoners who were still “able to march”.

Until the British army arrived on 29 April, the remaining concentration camp prisoners were largely left to their own devices and were given emergency rations by the POWs in the neighbouring camp.

 

More than 40,000 Russian soldiers and soldiers from other nations tortured to death in Nazi imprisonment!

 

Mamiya 7 / Mamiya N 50mm/4.5 L / Washi W 25 at 25 ASA / Eukobrom/1+1/20°/3min

There is a quote from the movie, Streetcar Named Desire that goes something like, ”I’ve always depended on the kindness of strangers.” The term, ‘kindness of strangers’ is one that resonates with many of us and tends to be the go-to in demonstrating the goodness of this here humanity we are all part of. A person buys a hot coffee for a homeless man on the street corner at Christmas time, someone gets up from their seat on a crowded subway car in order to allow the elderly lady who just boarded to rest her weary bones, two guys leaving the park after yet another Aston Villa loss, happen upon some punk threatening a young lady and intervene to chase him off…these kind of examples are usually trumpeted and given a prominence in the media that when heard about, give us hope. And rightly so!

 

Recently, I was in Toronto to take some photos at the International Auto Show. It was the coldest day of our dear Canadian winter and as we made our way along the street - the high, surrounding buildings acting like a wind tunnel and whipping the frigid air right through any and all protective clothing been worn - I noticed a homeless person sitting on the pavement. As we passed, whilst cursing how damned cold it was, I could see, peeking out beneath the many, grungy layers of coats and blankets was the head of the man’s dog…keeping each other alive in the bitter, freezing temperatures. I, as did everyone else I saw, just kept on scurrying right by. Where was the kindness of strangers there? Where was my kindness to strangers? At least some money in the used coffee cup in front of him surely! Moments later, I was photographing a Lamborghini Huracán (that would set its new owner back roughly $275,000 dollars), as well as many other similar exotic sports cars. The irony wasn’t totally lost on me, thank goodness.

 

Anyway, what is sometimes overlooked, or underappreciated is another version of kindness…that being the one of friends. “Hey, he’s my friend, he should lend me his power mower whilst mine is being serviced”, or, “She’s my friend, of course I can call her and ask if she can pick up little Vicki from school.” It is to be expected, or else, like how can you call me your friend. As a few of you will know, from time to time, I get together with a few fellows to snap a few photos, trash-talk opposing brands of cameras and guzzle back liquids produced from roasted coffee beans. A number of weeks back, I retired from my regular day gig and so, we planned an evening at “our local” for a festive pint of The Goodness to celebrate my liberation…the job wasn’t quite Stalag 17 but, some days it felt like it. Lo’ and behold (if you type the word lo’, it is standard writing procedure that ‘behold’ should follow and no one ever questions this), as the only chap of “The Bando” not owning a film camera, my fellow Kvarers presented this to me. To say the least, I was blown away.

 

So, I am here to trumpet the Kindness of Friends! Thank you guys…it is so much appreciated!

 

Or, as a great man once said, “We're nihilists, we believe in nothing! Except our friends!”

 

All Saints' Day in the Rakowicki Cemetery in Kraków.

 

Grave of Lance Corporal Ernest Arthur William Hartree (1915-1944), the soldier of the 1st Battalion of the South Wales Borderers.

www.cwgc.org/find-war-dead/casualty/2193679/HARTREE,%20ER...

 

L/Cpl E. Hartree was a PoW in E715 Stalag VIII B, a camp in Monowitz (Monowice) near Auschwitz established for British prisoners of war. By the end of 1943 there were 1200 British Prisoners of War at the camp. Monowitz was a sub-camp of KL Auschwitz, and its prisoners worked in IG Farbenindustrie chemical factory. The 38 British POWs, including L/Cpl E. Hartree, died on the 20 August 1944 when an Allied bomber destroyed parts of the factory.

A group of B-17s from the 524th and 525th Bomb Squadrons, 379th Bomb Group. (U.S. Air Force photo)

 

(FR-F)

Douglas-Long Beach B-17F-25-DL Flying Fortress

S/N 42-3113

525th BS, 379th BG, 8th AF

Lost on May 29,1943 mission to bomb the sub pens at St. Nazaire, France. A combination of flak and fighters took it down.

MACR 1292

1st Lt. Arthur P. Hale - Pilot (O-731861) Oregon

--- POW - Stalag 7a, Moosburg

2nd Lt. Stuart M. Sharp - Co-Pilot (O-736384) Illinois

--- POW - Stalag 7a, Moosburg

2nd Lt. Bernard Andruskiewicz - Navigator (O-793267) Rhode Island

--- POW - Stalag Luft 3, Sagan

2nd Lt. Jerry B. Ahorn - Bombardier (O-733252) Texas

--- POW - Stalag 7a, Moosburg

T/Sgt. Charles M. Ford - Engineer/Top Turret Gunner (33131072) Maryland

--- POW - Stalag Luft 3, Sagan

Sgt. Joseph E. Lasitor - Radio Operator (36349322) Illinois

--- POW - Stalag Luft 3, Sagan

S/Sgt. Chester A. Whitney - Ball Turret Gunner (33274768) Pennsylvania

--- POW - Stalag 17b, Braunau

Sgt. Lee S. Hilton - Right Waist Gunner (18165459) Arkansas

--- POW - Stalag 17b, Braunau

S/Sgt. Chester T. Moore - Left Waist Gunner (18108335) Oklahoma

--- POW - Stalag 17b, Braunau

Sgt. Lawrence E. Josselyn - Tail Gunner (11015827) Vermont

--- POW - Stalag Luft 3, Sagan

 

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

"Dangerous Dan"(WA-N)

B-17F-75-BO Flying Fortress

S/N 42-29891

524th BS, 379th BG, 8th AF

Crash-landed at Ubbeston,UK on December 22,1943. Salvaged 2 days later.

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

"El Diablo" (WA-Q)

B-17F-75-BO Flying Fortress

S/N 42-29893

524th BS, 379th BG, 8th AF

Shot down on Sept.16,1943 by Feldwebel Josef Lorey in an Fw 190A from JG 2/1.

MACR 1346 2 KIA, 6 POW, 2 Evaded

2nd Lt. Floyd H. Jamerson - Pilot (O-734095)

--- KIA

2nd Lt. Earl H. Guyette - Co-Pilot (O-738145) Connecticut

--- POW - Stalag Luft 3, Sagan

2nd Lt. Joseph E. Burkowski - Navigator (O-794097)

--- POW - Stalag Luft 1, Barth

1st Lt. John N. Beilstein - Bombardier (O-733514)

--- EVADED

S/Sgt. Alvin M. Rabun - Engineer/Top Turret Gunner (18103146) Texas

--- POW - Stalag 3b, Furstenberg

T/Sgt. John F. Paznar - Radio Operator (37271654)

--- POW/DOW

T/Sgt. Charles T. Gray - Ball Turret Gunner (38148633)

--- POW - Stalag Luft 3, Sagan

S/Sgt. Howard E. Moody - Right Waist Gunner (34128635) South Carolina

--- POW - Stalag 9c, Bad Sulza

S/Sgt. James P. Reid - Left Waist Gunner (31140922) Connecticut

--- POW - Stalag Luft 3, Sagan

S/Sgt. John Semach - Tail Gunner (15320292)

--- EVADED

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

"The Sweater Girl" (WA-O)

Lockheed/Vega B-17F-25-VE Flying Fortress

S/N 42-5828

524th BS, 379th BG, 8th AF

Lost on Feb. 22,1944. 10 POW

MACR 2868

1st Lt. John E. Morse - Pilot (O-429970) Tucson, Arizona

--- POW - Stalag Luft 1, Barth

F/O Robert J. Philips - Co-Pilot (T-121892) Van Alstyne, Texas

--- POW - Stalag Luft 1, Barth

2nd Lt. Leonard R. Lovelace - Navigator (O-809389) Gaffney, South Carolina

--- POW - Stalag Luft 1, Barth

2nd Lt. Robert Y. Daniels - Bombardier (O-682077) Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

--- POW - Stalag Luft 1, Barth

S/Sgt. Charles S. Sechrist - Engineer/Top Turret Gunner (33236836) Williamsport, Pennsylvania

--- POW - Stalag Luft 4, Gross Tychow

T/Sgt. Willard H. Clothier - Radio Operator (37228451) Sylvia, Kansas

--- POW - Stalag 9c, Bad Sulza

S/Sgt. Homer L. Neill - Ball Turret Gunner (16192627) Holdenville, Oklahoma

--- POW - Stalag Luft 4, Gross Tychow

S/Sgt. Charles E. Cox - Right Waist Gunner (15333377) Dayton, Ohio

--- POW - Stalag Luft 4, Gross Tychow

S/Sgt. Andrew L. Allen - Left Waist Gunner (34407381) Largo, Florida

--- POW - Stalag Luft 4, Gross Tychow

Sgt. Edward T. Pate - Tail Gunner (16002844) Lyons, Georgia

--- POW - Stalag 6j, Krefeld

All Saints' Day in the Rakowicki Cemetery in Kraków.

 

The tombstone of Private Samuel Sanders (1920-1944), a soldier of the 5th Battalion of the Northamptonshire Regiment.

www.cwgc.org/search/certificate.aspx?casualty=2193863

 

Pvt. S. Sanders was a PoW in E715 Stalag VIII B, a camp in Monowitz (Monowice) near Auschwitz established for British prisoners of war. By the end of 1943 there were 1200 British Prisoners of War at the camp. Monowitz was a sub-camp of KL Auschwitz, and its prisoners worked in IG Farbenindustrie chemical factory. The 38 British POWs, including Samuel Sanders, died on the 20 August 1944 when an Allied bomber destroyed parts of the factory.

les titres ne correspondent pas forcément aux lieux où ont été prises les photos

La Risiera come luogo di sterminio

È stato uno dei tanti campi di concentramento in Italia . In esso le autorità tedesche compirono uccisioni, in un primo momento mediante gas (usando i motori diesel degli autocarri), in seguito per fucilazione o con colpo di mazza alla nuca. Nel campo di sterminio italiano si contano una camera a gas e un forno crematorio. Questo forno venne ricavato da un essiccatoio in cui veniva asciugato il riso; all'interno di esso potevano morire 1000/1100 persone alla volta a causa dell'elevatissima temperatura alta del calore all'interno. Qui i cadaveri bruciavano e diventavano polvere e cenere in meno di 1 minuto. Oggi la risiera è un vero e proprio museo. Metà del campo venne distrutto dai soldati nazifascisti (l'alleanza fra nazisti e fascisti nella Seconda guerra mondiale).

 

In seguito all'armistizio di Cassibile dell'8 settembre 1943, le province italiane di Udine, Trieste, Gorizia, Pola, Fiume e Lubiana vennero sottoposte al diretto controllo del Terzo Reich con il nome di Zona di operazione dell'Adriatisches Küstenland (OZAK).

 

Tale zona faceva parte formalmente della Repubblica sociale italiana, ma l'amministrazione del territorio - considerato come zona d'operazione bellica - fu però affidata e sottomessa al controllo dell'Alto Commissario Friedrich Rainer, già Gauleiter della Carinzia.

 

Il complesso di edifici che costituivano lo stabilimento per la pilatura del riso era stato costruito nel 1913 nel rione di San Sabba (più correttamente san Saba), alla periferia della città e fu trasformato inizialmente in un campo di prigionia provvisorio per i militari italiani catturati dopo l'8 settembre: venne denominato Stalag 339.

 

Successivamente, al termine dell'ottobre 1943, il complesso diviene un Polizeihaftlager (Campo di detenzione di polizia), utilizzato come centro di raccolta di detenuti in attesa di essere deportati in Germania ed in Polonia e come deposito dei beni razziati e sequestrati ai deportati ed ai condannati a morte. Nel campo venivano anche detenuti ed eliminati Sloveni, Croati, partigiani, detenuti politici ed ebrei.

 

Supervisore della Risiera fu l'ufficiale delle SS Odilo Globocnik, triestino di nascita, che ebbe un importante ruolo in molti campi di concentramento.

 

Per i cittadini incarcerati nella Risiera, intervenne in molti casi, presso le autorità germaniche, il vescovo di Trieste, monsignor Santin; in alcuni casi con una soluzione positiva (liberazione di Giani Stuparich e famiglia) ma in altri senza successo.

  

Luogo dove si trova il forno crematorioI nazisti, dopo aver utilizzato per le esecuzioni i più svariati metodi, come la morte per gassazione utilizzando automezzi appositamente attrezzati, si servirono all'inizio del 1944 dell'essiccatoio della risiera, prima di trasformarlo definitivamente in un forno crematorio.

 

L'impianto venne utilizzato per lo smaltimento dei cadaveri e la sua prima utilizzazione si ebbe il 4 aprile 1944 con la cremazione di una settantina di cadaveri di ostaggi fucilati il giorno precedente in località limitrofe Villa Opicina (Trieste).

 

Questo luogo è di assoluta importanza in quanto fu l'unico campo di deportazione dell'Europa meridionale. Il forno crematorio e la connessa ciminiera furono abbattuti con esplosivi dai nazisti in fuga nella notte tra il 29 e il 30 aprile 1945, nel tentativo di eliminare le prove dei loro crimini ma il crematorio e la ciminiera sono stati ricostruiti dai prigionieri testimoni del campo. Tra le rovine furono ritrovate ossa e ceneri umane[3]. Sul medesimo luogo, a ricordo, sorge oggi una struttura commemorativa costituita da una piastra metallica sul posto dove sorge il forno crematorio e da una stele che ricorda la presenza della ciminiera.

 

Riguardo alle ipotesi sui metodi di esecuzione, esse sarebbero avvenute o per gassazione attraverso automezzi appositamente attrezzati, o con un colpo di mazza alla nuca (ritrovata e custodita sino al 1977 nel museo della risiera. È stata rubata sicuramente su commissione l'anno successivo) o per fucilazione. Nel complesso le esecuzioni sarebbero state almeno cinquemila, secondo una stima approssimativa, sebbene non si disponga di dati certi.

La Risiera come luogo di sterminio

È stato uno dei tanti campi di concentramento in Italia . In esso le autorità tedesche compirono uccisioni, in un primo momento mediante gas (usando i motori diesel degli autocarri), in seguito per fucilazione o con colpo di mazza alla nuca. Nel campo di sterminio italiano si contano una camera a gas e un forno crematorio. Questo forno venne ricavato da un essiccatoio in cui veniva asciugato il riso; all'interno di esso potevano morire 1000/1100 persone alla volta a causa dell'elevatissima temperatura alta del calore all'interno. Qui i cadaveri bruciavano e diventavano polvere e cenere in meno di 1 minuto. Oggi la risiera è un vero e proprio museo. Metà del campo venne distrutto dai soldati nazifascisti (l'alleanza fra nazisti e fascisti nella Seconda guerra mondiale).

 

In seguito all'armistizio di Cassibile dell'8 settembre 1943, le province italiane di Udine, Trieste, Gorizia, Pola, Fiume e Lubiana vennero sottoposte al diretto controllo del Terzo Reich con il nome di Zona di operazione dell'Adriatisches Küstenland (OZAK).

 

Tale zona faceva parte formalmente della Repubblica sociale italiana, ma l'amministrazione del territorio - considerato come zona d'operazione bellica - fu però affidata e sottomessa al controllo dell'Alto Commissario Friedrich Rainer, già Gauleiter della Carinzia.

 

Il complesso di edifici che costituivano lo stabilimento per la pilatura del riso era stato costruito nel 1913 nel rione di San Sabba (più correttamente san Saba), alla periferia della città e fu trasformato inizialmente in un campo di prigionia provvisorio per i militari italiani catturati dopo l'8 settembre: venne denominato Stalag 339.

 

Successivamente, al termine dell'ottobre 1943, il complesso diviene un Polizeihaftlager (Campo di detenzione di polizia), utilizzato come centro di raccolta di detenuti in attesa di essere deportati in Germania ed in Polonia e come deposito dei beni razziati e sequestrati ai deportati ed ai condannati a morte. Nel campo venivano anche detenuti ed eliminati Sloveni, Croati, partigiani, detenuti politici ed ebrei.

 

Supervisore della Risiera fu l'ufficiale delle SS Odilo Globocnik, triestino di nascita, che ebbe un importante ruolo in molti campi di concentramento.

 

Per i cittadini incarcerati nella Risiera, intervenne in molti casi, presso le autorità germaniche, il vescovo di Trieste, monsignor Santin; in alcuni casi con una soluzione positiva (liberazione di Giani Stuparich e famiglia) ma in altri senza successo.

  

Luogo dove si trova il forno crematorioI nazisti, dopo aver utilizzato per le esecuzioni i più svariati metodi, come la morte per gassazione utilizzando automezzi appositamente attrezzati, si servirono all'inizio del 1944 dell'essiccatoio della risiera, prima di trasformarlo definitivamente in un forno crematorio.

 

L'impianto venne utilizzato per lo smaltimento dei cadaveri e la sua prima utilizzazione si ebbe il 4 aprile 1944 con la cremazione di una settantina di cadaveri di ostaggi fucilati il giorno precedente in località limitrofe Villa Opicina (Trieste).

 

Questo luogo è di assoluta importanza in quanto fu l'unico campo di deportazione dell'Europa meridionale. Il forno crematorio e la connessa ciminiera furono abbattuti con esplosivi dai nazisti in fuga nella notte tra il 29 e il 30 aprile 1945, nel tentativo di eliminare le prove dei loro crimini ma il crematorio e la ciminiera sono stati ricostruiti dai prigionieri testimoni del campo. Tra le rovine furono ritrovate ossa e ceneri umane. Sul medesimo luogo, a ricordo, sorge oggi una struttura commemorativa costituita da una piastra metallica sul posto dove sorge il forno crematorio e da una stele che ricorda la presenza della ciminiera.

 

Riguardo alle ipotesi sui metodi di esecuzione, esse sarebbero avvenute o per gassazione attraverso automezzi appositamente attrezzati, o con un colpo di mazza alla nuca (ritrovata e custodita sino al 1977 nel museo della risiera. È stata rubata sicuramente su commissione l'anno successivo) o per fucilazione. Nel complesso le esecuzioni sarebbero state almeno cinquemila, secondo una stima approssimativa, sebbene non si disponga di dati certi.

   

les titres ne correspondent pas forcément aux lieux où ont été prises les photos

All Saints' Day in the Commonwealth Section of the Rakowicki Cemetery in Kraków.

 

There are now almost five hundred Commonwealth casualties of the Second World War buried or commemorated in the cemetery. Some of those buried here died while prisoners of war during the German occupation, in the large camp Stalag VIIIB at Lamsdorf.

 

Other graves brought into the cemetery were those of 168 South African (SAAF), British (RAF), Polish (PSP), Canadian (RCAF) and Australian (RAAF) airmen who lost their lives in summer of 1944 during the so-called 'Warsaw Concerto' operation, which was a desparately needed supply drop for the Polish Home Army fighting fiercely on the streets of the Polish capital, during the tragic and doomed Warsaw Uprising 1944.

 

...At the going down of the sun and in the morning,

We will remember them.

Title: The American Museum journal

Identifier: americanmuseumjo17amer

Year: c1900-[1918] (c190s)

Authors: American Museum of Natural History

Subjects: Natural history

Publisher: New York : American Museum of Natural History

Contributing Library: American Museum of Natural History Library

Digitizing Sponsor: Biodiversity Heritage Library

  

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About This Book: Catalog Entry

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Text Appearing Before Image:

 

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"Violet Cit.v" is icai !., i .s; iln .ml of ;i long walk '.'---■■ -^-- urk . ni i idurs and mysterious side chambers. When the guide throws his lighted brands into the dark corners, a thousand fairy beams are reflected from the many colored stalactites which drop from the ceiling to meet the up-springing stalag- mites of the floor. On one side of the chamber a veritable pipe organ is formed, called the "Chimes," the stalactites giving forth musical sounds when struck. Courte,^y of John P. Morton db Company, LouinriHc > ' ■■ k. 1 w^s^^immmmmmMi *. ^,^^^^^^^^^^1 ll ,;. I^^AA ll 2^' 1 i^^^^^mv^^^^ "^^' ^^^^K/F'HjaaLjSF ^ A distinctly new experience is the short ride on the Echo River, deep down in the Mammoth Cave. We sang "My Old Kentucky Home" and "Way Down upon tlie Suwanee River" and were answered by hundreds of musical murmurs as the great resonance chamber above us reverberated the sounds again and again. Courtesy of John P. Morton rf Company, Louisville 228

  

Note About Images

Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

"Mary Ruth,Memories of Mobile"

Boeing B-17F-60-BO Flying Fortress

s/n 42-29536

401st BS, 91st BG, 8th AF.

She was shot down by Fw 190s from JG1, based in the Netherlands, on June 22,1943 mission to bomb the synthetic rubber plant at Huls, Germany. 2 of the crew were KIA and 8 became POW's. No MACR was issued.

1st Lt. Kenneth L. Brown - Pilot (O-663475) Kentucky

~~ POW - Stalag Luft 3, Sagan then moved to Stalag 7a, Moosburg

2nd Lt. James H. Quenin - Co-Pilot (O-736356) Arkansas

~~ POW - Stalag Luft 3, Sagan / Repatriated on 16 Feb. 1944 due to injuries received while jumping.

2nd Lt. Vincent J. Bliley - Navigator (O-735972) Iowa

~~ POW - Stalag Luft 3, Sagan then moved to Stalag 7a, Moosburg

2nd Lt. James P. Feerdick - Bombardier (O-733296) New York

~~ POW - Stalag Luft 3, Sagan then moved to Stalag 7a, Moosburg

T/Sgt. James O. Akers - Engineer/Top Turret Gunner (39381640) Minnesota

~~ POW - Stalag 7a, Moosburg then to Stalag 17b, Krems, Austria

T/Sgt. Richard O. Maculley - Radio Operator (13079563) Pennsylvania

~~ KIA - Netherlands American Cemetery - Margraten, Netherlands

S/Sgt. Henry M. Crain - Ball Turret Gunner (12085302) Texas

~~ POW - Stalag 7a, Moosburg then to Stalag 17b, Krems, Austria

S/Sgt. William R. Brown - Right Waist Gunner (36066246) Illinois

~~ POW - Stalag 7a, Moosburg then to Stalag 17b, Krems, Austria

S/Sgt. William G. Allen - Left Waist Gunner (14104154) Georgia

~~ KIA - Oconee Hills Cemetery - Athens, Georgia

S/Sgt. Raymond Litzo - Tail Gunner (37331985) Colorado

~~ POW - Stalag 7a, Moosburg then to 17b, Krems, Austria

Camp guard talks to the Russian pows

SICKNESS

 

at STALAG V

 

for kolapse productions

La texture de cette image est la couverture d'un livre que mon père lisait lorsqu'il était prisonnier en Allemagne durant la seconde guerre mondiale, et qu'il a rapporté malgré les difficultés du long périple du retour en partie à pied.

A droite le tampon du "stalag".

Risiera di San Sabba, Trieste - Friuli Venezia Giulia (Italy)

 

an italian lager: www.retecivica.trieste.it/triestecultura/musei/civicimuse...

 

ABOUT THE RISIERA

 

The large complex of buildings making up the rice-husking factory - constructed in 1913 in San Sabba on the outskirts of Trieste - was first used by the German forces of occupation as a temporary prison camp for the detention of Italian servicemen captured after 8th September 1943. It was designated Stalag 339. In late October it was converted into a Polizeihaftlager (Police internment camp) to be used for the transit of deportees bound for Germany and Poland, for the storage of confiscated property and for the internment and execution of hostages, partisans, political

prisoners and Jews.In the underground entry passage the first room on the left was known as the ”death cell”. In it were kept internees transported from prisons or captured in round-ups and earmarked for execution and cremation within a few hours. According to eye-witness accounts new arrivals in the cell

often found themselves in the company of bodies awaiting cremation.

On the left side of the ground floor of the three-storey building housing the dressmaking and shoe-making shops where prisoners worked and quarters for the SS officers and other ranks, were 17 mini-cells used for the detention of up to six inmates each. These were set aside mainly

for partisans, political prisoners and Jews scheduled for execution in the space of a few days, or sometimes weeks. The first two cells were used for torture or the collection of property confiscated from the prisoners. The articles found there included thousands of identity papers taken from prisoners, deportees and individuals sent for forced labour. (All the papers, collected by the Yugoslav troops who were the first to enter the Risiera after the Germans fled, were tranferred to Ljubljana, where they are at present kept in the Archive of the Slovenian Republic).

The doors and walls of these ante-chambers of death were covered with graffiti. The occupation of the site by Allied troops, its subsequent conversion into a camp for Italian and non-Italian refugees, damp, dust and - above all - human neglect led to the disappearance of most of the graffiti.

The diaries of the scholar and collector, Diego de Henriquez (which are now conserved in the Civic Museum of War and Peace that bears his name) provide evidence of this and contain an accurate transcription. Several pages of this diary are reproduced in the historical exhibition.

The next building, four storeys high, was made up of large rooms used for the detention of Jews, other civilian prisoners and prisoners-of-war destined for the most part to be deported to Germany- men and women of all ages, children and babies of just a few months. From here they

were transported to Dachau, Auschwitz and Mauthausen. Only a few were able to avoid the tragic hate that awaited them.

The Bishop of Trieste, Monsignor Santin, attempted to intercede with the German authorities on behalf of certain individuals imprisoned in the Risiera - particularly Jews who were married to Catholics. In some cases he was successful (Giani Stuparich and his family were released), in

others (Pia Rimini) he was not.

In the inner courtyard, opposite the cells, on the site now marked by a metal plate, was the building housing the oven in which bodies were cremated - its outline is still visible on the main building. The oven, built below ground level, was reached by means of a stair. An underground

passage, now also marked by the metal plate, joined the oven to the chimney stack. The base of the chimney is now the metal base of a symbolic Pietà composed of three metal sheets representing the smoke spiralling out of the stack.

 

After using the existing rice-drying facility from January to March 1944 the Germans converted it

into a crematorium capable of incinerating a larger number of bodies. The plan was drawn up by

the ”expert” Erwin Lambert, who had already designed a number of ovens for concentration

camps in Poland. It was tested out on 4th April 1944 with the cremation of the bodies of seventy

hostages, shot the day before at the Opicina shooting range.

On the night of 29th April 1945 the building housing the crematorium and the chimney stack

connected to it were dynamited by the fleeing Germans to remove the evidence of their crimes, as

was their practice. Human bones and ashes were found among the rubble in three paper sacks of

the sort used for cement. The club was also found amid the rubble and a replica of this object,

made and donated by Giuseppe Novelli in 2000, is now on display in the Museum (the original

was stolen in 1981).

There are several theories about the methods of execution used, and all of them are probably

right: gassing in specially-equipped vehicles, a blow with a club at the base of the skull, shooting.

A single blow from a club was not always fatal, so some of the people swallowed by the oven must

have been alive. The revving of engines, the baying of deliberately-excited dogs and the playing

of music served to smother the screams and the noises of the executions. The central building, six

storeys high, was used as a barracks: on the upper floors were quarters for German, Austrian,

Ukrainian and Italian SS troops (the Italians were employed as guards), while the lower floor, now

the Museum, housed the kitchens and mess. The building which is now a chapel for all religions

was used as a garage for the SS vehicles stationed there. It also contained the black vans, with

exhausts connected to the inside, probably used for gassing some of the inmates.

The small building outside the complex on the left was the guardhouse and Commandant’s quarters.

On the right, in what is now a green area, was a three-storey building with offices, NCOs’

quarters and accommodation for the Ukrainian women.

How many people were done to death in the Risiera? Estimates based on eye-witness accounts

range from three to five thousand. But a much greater number of prisoners or people taken in

roundups passed through there for transportation to other concentration camps or forced labour

camps. Triestini, Friulani, Istrians, Slovenes, Croats, servicemen, Jews - some of the finest cadres

of the Resistance and the anti-Fascist movement burned in the Risiera.

The Litorale Adriatico

After 8th September 1943, when the Italian king disavowed his country’s alliance with Germany

and an armistice was prclaimed, the Region of Venezia Giulia was no longer part of the Italian

State. With the constitution of the operational zone called ”Adriatisches Küstenland” (Adriatic

Coastal Area - Litorale Adriatico) it came under the direct administration of the Reich. The institution

of the ”Litorale Adriatico”, comprising the provinces of Udine, Trieste, Gorizia, Pola (now

Pula), Fiume (Rijeka) and Lubiana (Ljubljana), thus marked the de facto annexation to Germany

of a broad area straddling the Upper Adriatic and the Sava basin.

Hitler entrusted the government of the ”Litorale” to Gauleiter of Carinthia Friedrich Rainer, an

Austrian Nazi with an intense dislike for Italy. His ethnic assessment of Friuli and Venezia Giulia

was that these two Regions were largely alien to the Italian race, which constituted an additional

justification for their separation from the rest of Italy.

On 1st October 1943 High Commissioner Rainer took office with full political and administrative

powers. He quickly established the nerve centres of his almost unlimited sovereignty by subjecting

prefects and local authorities to the supervision of German ”advisers” and laying down rules for

the employment of militias composed of local collaborators - Italian, Slovene and Croat - which,

for various purposes and under various names, were placed in the service of the occupying power.

The units of the Fascist Militia thus came under the aegis of the SS. They did not, as was the case

in the newly-constituted Republic of Salò, become the National Republican Guard, but took the

name Territorial Defence Militia. The various branches of the police, all of which were used in

searches and round-ups, also came under the SS.

One of these was the Special Inspectorate of the Venezia Giulia State Police, headed by Inspector

General Giuseppe Gueli, whose headquarters were in a house known as ”Villa Triste” (Sad Villa)

on via Bellosguardo. This body was founded in April 1942 with the specific task of repressing

partisan operations and controlling workers in large factories. The Inspectorate - whose operational

section became notorious as the ”Collotti Band” (after its head, Commissioner Gaetano

Collotti) - continued service after 8th September, giving invaluable collaboration to the Germans

in operations against anti-Fascists and in rounding up Jews.

In the late 1930s there were about 5,000 Jews in Trieste. In 1938, when the Fascists introduced

race legislation and one of the notorious ”Centres for the Study of the Jewish Question” was

opened in Trieste (there were four in Italy), many Jews decided to leave the country. Nonetheless,

the Nazis managed to deport more than 700 Trieste Jews to extermination camps. No more

than twenty returned. The Risiera was also used for the detention, pending deportation, of many

more Jews captured in Veneto, Friuli, Fiume and Dalmatia.

Policing, political and racist repression and anti-partisan operations were under the general control

of the SS, commanded by Trieste-born Odilo Lotario Globocnik. An associate of Heinrich Himmler,

Globocnik had been involved in organising ”Aktion Reinhard”, the massacre of two and a half

million Jews in Poland. With him he brought to Trieste a large number of experienced killers who

had distinguished records from various extermination operations in Germany, the Soviet Union and the death camps at Belzec, Sobibor and Treblinka. They included the 92 specialists of Einsatzkommando Reinhard, many of whom were Ukrainian SS troops, male and female.

Einsatzgruppen or Einsatzkommandos were special units created for the purpose of ”dealing with elements hostile to the Reich behind the front-line troops” and carrying out particularly ”demanding”tasks in the implementation of the policies of occupation, repression and extermination

practised by the Third Reich in the territories it had conquered. These units were under theauthority of the Central State Security Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt - RSHA) which in turn was controlled by the Ministry of the Interior, headed by Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler.

A few days after 8th September 1943 Christian Wirth arrived in Trieste. With him were some of

the men who had taken part in ”Aktion Tiergarten 4” - the liquidation, started in 1939, of Germans suffering from ”incurable diseases” and, subsequently, of concentration camp inmates designated as ”incurable” on bogus certificates made out by camp doctors. Einsatzkommando Reinhard was divided into three geographical areas, the headquarters for each of which was officially denoted with a variation of the letter R - R1 for Trieste, R2 for Udine and R3 for Fiume.

This letter was embossed on papers found in the Risiera and was stamped on the cells there.Christian Wirth was in charge of the first Einsatzkommando in Trieste. After his death in a partisan ambush at Erpelle on 26th May 1944 he was replaced by August Dietrich Allers. Allers’ righthand man and Commandant of the Risiera was Joseph Oberhauser. The presence in the Litorale Adriatico of a staff so highly specialised in the direction and organisation of extermination policies in Europe is explained by the vital importance of the area for the Third Reich.

The Litorale was the last territory in Europe to be conquered by Nazi imperialism. Friuli, Trieste and Istria were to be an economic and political platform for German expansion in southern Europe and the Mediterranean area. At the same time they constituted an essential strategic fulcrum

between the Balkans, convulsed by the partisan war and threatened by the advance of the Red Army, the Italian front and southern Germany. The course of the war in Europe and the heroic fight put up by the peoples living side by side in the area finally forced the machine of Nazi

repression to abandon its last territorial conquest.

 

The Trial

 

In Trieste in April 1976, thirty years after the events outlined above, the trial was completed of those responsible for the crimes committed at the Risiera di San Sabba under the German occupation. Among the accused were two Nazis - Joseph Oberhauser, a brewer from Munich, and August

Dietrich Allers, a lawyer from Hamburg. The former was Commandant of the Risiera, the latter his immediate superior during the period of “Aktion Tiergarten 4”, the “euthanasia” operation carried out on mentally and physically handicapped people in Germany and Austria. By the time this

operation was suspended following the courageous protests raised by German churchmen, approximately 100,000 ”unproductive mouths” had been liquidated in the name of ”racial hygiene” (these figures were cited at the Nuremburg War Crimes Trials). The Tiergarten 4 staff was subsequently

transferred to Poland, where it organised the extermination camps at Treblinka, Sobibor and Belzec as part of the “final solution” to the Jewish question.

Official Polish estimates - and they are the most conservative - put the number of Jews killed in these camps at about two and half million and the number of gypsies at 52,000 (of which about a third were children). When their work in Poland was completed these men were sent to Italy and

stationed in Trieste. Among them was Franz Stangl, the ”Hangman of Treblinka”, held responsible by a German court for the death of 900,000 people, and Erwin Lambert, the specialist in crematorium design. None of the defendants was present at the trial held to establish responsibility for the crimes

perpetrated at the Risiera di San Sabba. Several had been executed by partisans, others had died of natural causes. August Dietrich Allers died in March 1975; Joseph Oberhauser continued to sell beer in Munich. The Italian authorities did not request his extradition since the Italo-German extradition treaty does not cover crimes committed before 1948. The trial ended with Joseph Oberhauser being sentenced to life imprisonment for his crimes. He died on 22nd November 1979 at the age of 65.

A pointless trial? Aside from the original framework of the proceedings, based on a preposterous distinction between ”innocent victims” and ”non-innocent victims”, aside from a formalism designed to dissociate the crimes from their historical and political roots and aside from a sentence

which was never served, there remains the breach that was finally made in the cloak of silence that had covered the concentration camp of San Sabba for over thirty years.Simon Wiesenthal, a Jew who has devoted his life to exposing Nazi crimes and hunting down their perpetrators, said of the trial, ”There is not only a need for justice, it is also a question of education. Everybody should know that crimes like these do not disappear from memory, they are not

statute-barred. Anybody thinking of starting up a new Nazi or Fascist movement should know that in the end justice will always win. Even though the wheels of justice turn slowly”.

 

The Monument

Romano Boico, the architect who won the competition organised by Trieste City Council in 1966 to convert the Risiera into a museum (opened in 1975), explained his plans as follows: ”The Risiera, half destroyed by the fleeing Nazis, was squalid, like its surroundings. I thought that this total

squalor could rise as a symbol and itself become a monument. I decided to remove and restore rather than add. After removing the ruined buildings I demarcated the context with 11-metre high concrete walls arranged so as to form a disquieting entrance on the same spot as the existing

entrance. The walled courtyard is intended as an open-air non-denominational basilica. The building where prisoners were kept was completely emptied and the load-bearing wooden structures pared down as much as seemed necessary. The seventeen cells and the death cell are

unchanged. In the central building, level with the courtyard, is the Museum of the Resistance, minimal but alive. Above the Museum, the rooms of the Deportees’ Association. In the courtyard is a terrible path of steel, slightly sunken - the trace of the oven, the smoke channel and the base

of the chimney.”

 

The Museum

 

Through documents and other exhibits, the San Sabba Risiera Civic Museum (inaugurated in 1975) and the adjacent photographic-documentary exhibition (prepared by the curator Elio Apih in 1982 and expanded in 1998) illustrate the history of the Risiera, and reconstruct the historical,

political and military events of the entire region during the first half of the 20th Century.

Thanks to several important donations made on 27th January 2002, the Day of Remembrance, the Museum has changed its original didactic connotation in order to become a site for the conservation of memory, a place where the visitor comes into direct, tangible contact with human

suffering and tragedy.

In the Hall of Crosses, display cases set in the walls contain personal objects stolen from Triestine Jews by Nazi troops who were intending to flee with them to Carinzia in 1945. These objects were found by the Allies stashed in burlap bags and were sent to Rome, where for decades they lay

forgotten in the underground vaults of the Treasury Ministry. In 2000, they were finally restored to the Jewish Community of Trieste, which decided to display a portion of them in the Carlo and Vera Wagner Museum, and donate another small but significant selection to the Civic Museum of the San Sabba Risiera and to the “Yad Vashem” Museum in Jerusalem. The items include watches, eyeglasses, combs, a ring, a compact, a pin, a cigarette-holder and

some silverware, all simple personal objects the very ’normality’ of which makes the drama of so many lives tragically crushed and interrupted in their equally ’normal’ flow appear even more tangible and intolerable.

The Museum also contains donations by the local section of the National Association of former Political Deportees to Nazi Camps (ANED) and by some of its members of Trieste who were deported to Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Dachau, Mauthausen and Ravensbrck (Riccardo Goruppi,

Jolanda Marchesich, Antonio Marega through his heirs, Rosalia Poropat and Ferdinando Zidar). These objects confirm a special characteristic of the San Sabba Risiera which, while also a death camp where 3000-5000 people were killed, was primarily a transit camp. In fact, of the 123

convoys which left Italy bound for the death camps, 69 departed from Trieste. To these should be added another 30 convoys bound for the labour camps.

Displayed next to an urn containing ashes from the crematory ovens at Auschwitz (donated by the ANED) are personal objects preserved and offered in undying memory by deportees of Trieste.

Here we find a uniform worn by a deportee to Auschwitz and Mauthausen and one worn by a deportee to Buchenwald, maps and documents taken from the SS at Buchenwald, passes, identification documents, photographs, documents printed after the Liberation, drawings and maps of the

camps and burial places. The will never to forget the immeasurable tragedy of the Nazi extermination or its victims is especially evident in the long paper roll upon which a deportee at Ravensbrck wrote the names and addresses of her companions, and which she succeeded in

bringing back into Italy, concealing it for months under her uniform. Alongside these precious relicts are the reproductions (in order to conserve the originals) of a number of graphics by Anton Zoran Music, which were donated by the artist in 1997.

Various ceremonies also testify to the enduring, vital link between the San Sabba Risiera and the local and international Jewish communities. These include the ceremony which preceded the burial in the Jewish Cemetery of Trieste of prostheses stripped from the bodies of Jews who perished in

the Nazi concentration camps (18th June 1999), the transfer to the “Yad Vashem” Museum of Jerusalem of a box containing earth from the San Sabba Risiera and a stone taken from the wall of the building where Jews were segregated before being sent to the Nazi camps (27th January

2002) and the deposition of a small flask containing earth from Jerusalem, donated by the Keren Hayeson Foundation of Italy, and consigned by Diamantina Salonicchio, a former deportee to Bergen Belsen (27th January 2003).

In recent years, the Risiera, with over 100,000 visitors annually from all over the world, has become increasingly recognised as a place for knowledge and reflection. In addition to its didactic services the San Sabba Risiera also hosts exhibitions, commemorations (in particular, those

connected with the Day of Remembrance and the Liberation), performances, concerts and scholarly conferences and presentations. In 2001 and 2002, it was used as the office of Italian Study Camp 3.3, of the International Civil Service. Since 2003, the adjacent building (entrance on Via

Rio Primario 1) houses the main offices of ANED - Trieste section and of the International Committee of the Nazi Lager of Risiera di San Sabba, Trieste.

 

(Thanks for information to www.retecivica.trieste.it)

  

les titres ne correspondent pas forcément aux lieux où ont été prises les photos

'Stalag Mythes' On Black

 

Picture taken after sunset near Crystal Mountain, WA. Icicles formed on top of the roots of a tree. The level of the current was lower than usual which makes it look like they are above river level. I am struggling finding the right setting on my monitor, this picture is NOT supposed to be dark, so if it is, blame my monitor, or yours ;-)

Recensione: 25 Aprile 1944 settant’anni dopo LA BATTAGLIA SUI CIELI DI MARRADI E PALAZZUOLO -FORTEZZA VOLANTE DI PIAN DELLE FAGGE e gli uomini e le donne eroiche di quei giorni nella ricostruzione di Rodolfo Ridolfi

Quando con mio nonno andavamo da Marradi a Firenze, mi indicava, a un certo punto sulla destra della provinciale, nel territorio di Spedina, un capanno-stalla per i muli e mi diceva: “Vedi quella porta azzurra con la grande stella bianca? L’hanno fatta con la lamiera dell’aereo americano B 24 H fortezza volante colpito da caccia tedeschi e precipitato il 25 aprile 1944 nel podere di “Pian della Fagge”, proprietà di zio Arturo, proprio nello spiazzo antistante il capanno da caccia del podere stesso. Gli aviatori americani, il capitano Chester Kingsman ed il tenente Leslie J. Paul furono soccorsi, aiutati, nascosti e protetti per la fuga da me, da zio Arturo, da Mario Mancorti, sua moglie Maria, suo fratello Lorenzo, sua nipote Leonia, da Gino Lippi e da altri”. I fatti vanno inquadrati nella battaglia aerea di martedì 25 aprile 1944, quel giorno fu abbattuta una fortezza volante anche sopra Lischeta al Passo dell’Eremo, la numero 42-7728 Miss fortune. L’intero equipaggio con la sola eccezione del sergente mitragliere Joseph Bernstein, riuscì a lanciarsi, ma fu catturato immediatamente dai tedeschi e tradotto allo Stalag tre a Sagan compresi i due feriti, che furono prima medicati all’ospedale di Mantova. Ma la fortezza volante che ci interessa è la numero 42-29272 che faceva parte del 15° Air Force 450a BRG 721 Squadrone Bombardieri decollato da Manduria,Taranto, in missione verso Varese con l’obiettivo di bombardare la fabbrica di aerei Macchi. “Quel giorno c’erano nuvole, piuttosto basse attorno alla zona, ma i ragazzi decollarono”. Le condizioni del tempo ruppero la formazione come raccontarono i cinque sopravvissuti e come si legge nella scheda-rapporto n. 4631 del Quartier Generale Air-Force di Washington. Il bombardiere con undici uomini di equipaggio a bordo, pilotato dal primo tenente Abner Harwy decollò alle 11,20. Nei pressi di Marradi-Crespino alle ore 12,55 furono attaccati da caccia tedeschi

Messerschmitt. Il primo luogotenente, Chester F. Kingsman, professore di scuola superiore e allenatore, scrisse: “Il mitragliere fu ucciso immediatamente, allora sganciai il carico di bombe. I nemici continuarono

il loro attacco ed il motore dell’aereo si incendiò. Il pilota ordinò di lanciarsi. Insieme ad altri quattro membri dell’equipaggio ci paracadutammo e subito l’aereo esplose sull’area di Marradi. Piombai al suolo

sulle braccia ferendomi alla coscia e rompendomi due costole. Nell’area di Marradi venni rintracciato da Domenico Vanni che mi ricongiunse con due membri del mio equipaggio: il sergente Shergold ed il tenente

Paul. Tutti nascosti da una famiglia italiana in quest’area fino a quando non guarimmo; ed il 25 maggio 1944 ancora in uniforme mi diressi verso il fronte. Seppi in seguito che l’italiano, Vanni, era stato preso dai fascisti SS proprio il 25 maggio e portato nel campo di Modena. Gli americani viaggiarono per due settimane cercando cibo presso i civili e raggiunsero l’area del Falterona. Quest’area era piena di

tedeschi e fascisti e carabinieri italiani. Dei contadini li avvisarono di non oltrepassare le linee tedesche mentre i tedeschi stavano controllando i carabinieri italiani che cercavano di scappare. Dopo aver rasentato il pericolo di essere intercettati dai tedeschi tutti e tre ritornarono a Marradi presso la famiglia che conoscevano nella speranza di contattare i partigiani italiani (fine giugno 1944). I partigiani furono contattati ma l’aiuto a Kingsman procurò problemi, così che egli rimase con la famiglia italiana

mentre gli altri due compagni andarono con i partigiani nei monti circostanti. Ai primi di luglio del 1944 Kingsman raggiunse gli uomini della banda Corbella (Corbari). Dopo uno scontro con truppe tedesche durato tre giorni, durante il quale la banda Corbari perse metà degli equipaggiamenti lanciati e

scomparsi nelle montagne, Kingsman ritornò lievemente ferito a Marradi dove visse nei dintorni e nel centro fino a quando fu catturato dai tedeschi, il 5 agosto del 1944, a Biforco. Kingsman fornì ai tedeschi il suo nome e soltanto il numero di matricola, fu ben trattato e non interrogato. Il 6 agosto Kingsman fuggì mentre la guardia stava dormendo, avvolto nella sua coperta. Egli tornò presso la famiglia di contadini, ma trovò molte pattuglie tedesche. Il 18 settembre 1944 a Biforco, i tedeschi bussarono alla porta e chiesero informazioni su Crespino. Gli inglesi bombardarono ed una pattuglia di indiani gurka liberò Biforco il 23 settembre e aggregò Kingsman nel 7° Indian IFY Bdr. Kingsman fu interrogato a lungo e fornì molte informazioni utili riguardo alle posizioni dei tedeschi, prima di essere rimandato a Bari: “Mario Mancorti Valdimora 23 Cardeto, fornì cibo e alloggio per due ufficiali ed un sergente, un ufficiale un mese, un ufficiale ed un sergente due mesi. Quattro mesi in tutto. Dal primo maggio 1944 al 23 settembre del 1944 sfamò curò e ricoverò Kingsman lo avvisò e lo nascose ogni qualvolta i tedeschi erano nell’area. La moglie medicò Kingsman. Un uomo molto povero ha fatto tutto quello che poteva anche a rischio della propria vita. Gino Lippi (padrone) a Villa Valdimora fornì il cibo a Mario senza chiedergli soldi. Leonia la nipote di Mancorti fornì a Kingsman i vestiti del marito e procurò 8 lire. Durante l’ultima settimana di giugno aerei inglesi lanciarono i Kit ai partigiani della Banda Corbella (Corbari) nell’area di Campigno Monte Lavane. Tutti i kit giunsero nelle mani dei partigiani e comprendevano 40 quintali di pistole 50 calibro Mg, granate, bombe, esplosivo, mine anti carro. Nello stesso giorno i kit furono lanciati anche sulla Faggiola per la brigata Garibaldi. Quaranta kit paracadutati con pistole, esplosivi, divise da battaglia, cibo arrivarono in mano ai partigiani. Questo materiale in parte fu nascosto e così andò perduto e consentì una battaglia di soli tre o quattro giorni”. Il copilota Leslie Paul segnalò un danno, Kingsman liberò il navigatore Ray Barthelmy e si lanciò dopo di lui. L’aereo precipitò e si fracassò a sud di Lozzole, presso il podere di Pian delle Fagge a 725 metri sul livello del mare, di proprietà di Arturo Scalini di Marradi, proprio nell’area fra il podere ed il capanno di caccia (N 44° 03,143' E11°. 31.561'). L’equipaggio del bombardiere era composto dal pilota 1 st Lt. Abner D. Hervey, copilota 1 st Lt. Leslie J. Paul, puntatore Ist Lt. Chester F. Kingsman, navigatore Ist Lt. Raymond E. Barthelmy, motorista S/Sgt. Charles T. Wernett, marconista S/Sgt. Benjamin A. Stock e dai mitraglieri Franck R. Collinge, John O. Brown, William W.J. Shergold, Stephen Malarik e Tilman J. Thompson. Giunti all’altezza di Marradi, il copilota Paul diede ordine di lancio immediato: complessivamente cinque paracadute si aprirono nel cielo, gli unici superstiti furono Leslie, Kingsman, Barthelmy, Shergold e Thompson. Nella caccia all’uomo che ne seguì, fu catturato solamente il navigatore Raymond Barthelmy che fu internato nel campo Stalag Luft in Germania dal quale fu liberato e ritornò negli Stati Uniti come raccontò Chester Kingsman nella lettera a Domenico Vanni del 12 febbraio 1946 “Raymond mi ha scritto una lettera anche lui sta bene ed è congedato. È stato prigioniero in Germania”. Il tenente pilota Paul Leslie J. di Hollywood, camionista californiano da civile, 11 missioni all’attivo riferì: “cinque uomini si lanciarono con successo io riportai una distorsione alla caviglia cercai di raggiungere delle caverne dove mi nascosi per circa cinque ore prima di essere trovato e portato a ricongiungermi con i miei commilitoni. I Partigiani ci portarono alla vicina caverna fino a notte fonda in seguito fummo sfamati e portati in una cantina dove passammo la notte”. La mattina dopo i due ufficiali furono portati in una un’altra grotta. Dal 25 aprile fino al 25 maggio gli uomini si mossero da un nascondiglio all’altro nella stessa zona. Verso la fine di maggio Marradi fu occupata dai tedeschi ed i due ufficiali ed il sergente partirono dirigendosi verso sud nell’intento di oltrepassare le linee Trovarono i tedeschi che stavano lavorando alla linea gotica. Così tornarono a Marradi che era stata liberata dai tedeschi. Paul contattò i partigiani tramite dei contadini e si nascose in una casa abbandonata per 10 giorni sfamato dai contadini a quell’epoca ci furono bombardamenti ed i cittadini furono costretti a sfollare. Nello sforzo di andar via dalla regione l’uomo raggiunse i partigiani combattendo con loro. La banda dei partigiani fu sparpagliata dall’attacco dei tedeschi e Paul partì per il fronte con un componente della banda partigiana combattendo a Firenzuola contro i tedeschi e da là si diresse a Casola Valsenio e verso l’area di Brisighella. Fu obbligato a muoversi

verso sud per molti giorni ma alla fine tornò nella regione.Quando i partigiani ritornarono a Firenzuola Paul riuscì ad oltrepassare le linee con l’espediente di attendere in una cantina l’avanzata delle forze britanniche. Il ventinovenne sergente canadese Shergold William, riferì “Persone che mi hanno aiutato Mengone ex amministratore di Marradi amico di Paul fu preso prigioniero dai tedeschi e consegnato ai fascisti ed ora è di nuovo coi partigiani. Gino Lippi capitalista di Marradi che aiutò alcuni come meglio poteva. Mario Catani ha recentemente rinvenuto alcuni documenti del Comune di Marradi del 5 ottobre 1945 riguardanti l’assistenza ai militari alleati da parte di partigiani e cittadini marradesi. In questi documenti sono riportati i dati già forniti, nell’ottobre del 1944, al capitanoTorcellini autorità militare alleata AMG di Marradi. In particolare la relazione “sull’attivita assistenziale a favore dei militari alleati svolta in questo Comune prima della Liberazione” ci conferma circostanze che già conoscevamo ed una nuova: “La famiglia di Cerchierini Guido alloggiò e portò assistenza a due paracadutisti inglesi che si erano lanciati con il paracadute nei pressi di La Spezia i quali, nel 1943 si trovavano di passaggio nel Comune di Marradi”. Si trattava del tenente del Royal Medical Corps Thomas Wedderburn detto Tojo di Edimburgo e del ventunenne caporal maggiore M.P. Challenor di Watford, come si legge in una lettera del 28/1/1947 che il sindaco Zacchini scrive ai due per conto di Ada Bambi in Cerchierini per avere notizie dei due paracadutisti britannici che furono alloggiati a Villanova dal 10 al 13 agosto ’43. Harold Gordon “Tanky” Challenor, per il suo eroismo sarà decorato al valor militare il 9 novembre 1944 e diventerà un famoso detective della Scotland Yard’s Flying Squad. La stessa relazione conferma come “La famiglia di Mancorti Mario alloggiò quattro aviatori americani e li tenne nascosti per vari mesi somministrando loro anche vitto”. Ed ancora si legge testualmente: “Scalini Arturo si adoperò per il ricupero delle salme di cinque aviatori americani”. Ed infine: “I sopravvissuti all’incidente aviatorio del 25 aprile 1944 vennero posti in salvo da un gruppo di partigiani diretti dal sig. Vanni Domenico di questo Comune, che li sottrasse alla cattura da parte dei nazifascisti”. In una lettera del 18 gennaio 1947 la Commissione di Controllo del Quartier Generale degli Alleati scrive al Sindaco di Marradi: “Egregio Signor Sindaco, un ufficiale di questa commissione giungerà al suo Comune il giorno martedì 21 alle ore 11,30 per effettuare il pagamento a quelle persone che dettero aiuto ai Prigionieri Alleati. Si prega di far pervenire alle persone di cui è acclusa la lista, al suo Comune nel giorno e l’ora indicata, ed saremo grati, se Lei od altra persona competente potrà essere presente al momento che verrà effettuato il pagamento”. Nell’elenco figurano cinque nominativi: Visani Gaetano fu Gesualdo, Marradi Val della Meta-Mancorti Mario fu Sa-batino, Case di Sopra Biforco- Bambi Ada, Biforco Podere Villa Nova-Vanni Domenico fu Antonio, Teatro Animosi-Lippi Gino di Giuseppe Villa Valdimora.

RICORDO DAI MIEI APPUNTI:

MARRADI(FI)”Sovversivo per la Libertà”..Evento Culturale marradese anno 2012 Approda a FIRENZE, scrigno indiscusso di Eterna Cultura delle Genti :PRESENTAZIONE DEL LIBRO “Domenico Vanni” di Rodolfo RIDOLFI in PALAZZO VECCHIO nello scenario delle sue affascinanti SALE GRANDUCALI.

Venerdì 23 Marzo 2012 ore 16,30 PALAZZOVECCHIO – SALA MINIATURE –

Interverranno : Eugenio GIANI, Presidente Consiglio Comunale di Firenze, Nicola Cariglia,Rodolfo Ridolfi.

Conduce : Sandro Bennucci giornalista de LA NAZIONE

BREVE RIEPILOGO della Presentazione del Libro in Marradi addì 10 Dicembre 2012

al DINO CAMPANA di Marradi(FI)10. 12 .2011 UN LIBRO “Domenico Vanni sovversivo per la Libertà” Ingresso Libero ore 15,30 PRESENTAZIONE AL PUBBLICO nel suggestivo Palazzo del Centro Studi del Poeta.

Centro Studi Campaniani “E. Consolini” Via Castelnaudary,5 MARRADI

Con il patrocinio del Comune di Marradi

MARRADI FREE-NEWS Presenta il Libro DOMENICO VANNI Sovversivo per la Libertà - Edizioni Marradi Free News -

Insieme all’Autore Dr. Rodolfo Ridolfi interverranno: Dr.ssa Mirna Gentilini, Presidente del Centro Studi Dino Campana, Paolo Bassetti SINDACO di Marradi, On. Stefania Fuscagni, Eugenio Giani Consigliere Regionale, conduce il Giornalista Dario Borriello

   

Postcard. Postally unused.

 

Published by Levy et Neurdein Reunis, 44 Rue Letellier, Paris, Imp.

 

Bought from an eBay seller in Chantecorps, France.

 

Undated, but the firm of Levy et Neurdein Reunis operated between 1920 and 1932.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saint-Valery-en-Caux

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/51st_(Highland)_Infantry_Division#France_1940

 

The Beaches of St. Valery by The Battlefield Band ♫ youtu.be/SaaJAaEQ2a8

 

It was in 1940 the last days of spring

We were sent to the Maginot line

A fortress in France built to halt the advance

Of an army from a different time

But we were soon overrun out-thought and outgunned

And pushed further back every day

But we never believed High Command would just leave us

So we fought every inch of the way.

 

'Til the 51st Highlanders found themselves back

On the banks of the Somme one more time

It still bore the scars of that war to end wars

The old soldier's scars deep in their minds

But we couldn't stay long for the Panzers rolled on

And the battle raged west t'wards the sea

Then on June the 10th when sapped of all strength

I entered St. Valery.

 

CHORUS

And all I recall was the last boat leavin'

My brother on board waving and calling to me

And the Jocks stranded there wi' their hands in the air

On the beaches of St. Valery.

 

So I huddled all night in a hammered old house

Where the shells and the bullets rained down

Just before dawn my hope was still strong

For we moved to the beach from the town

But the boat that had left on the day we arrived

Was the last one that we'd ever see

With no ammo or food we had done all we could

So we surrendered at St. Valery.

 

CHORUS

 

When I returned at the end of the war

From the Stalag where I'd been confined

I read of the battles the allies had fought

Stalingrad, Alamein, and the Rhine

And wi' pride in their hearts people spoke of Dunkirk

How defeat had become victory

But nobody mentioned the Highland Division

They'd never heard of St. Valery.

 

No stories no statues for those that were killed

No honors for those that were caught

Just a deep sense of shame as though we were to blame

Though I knew in my heart we were not

So I've moved to a country I've come to call home

But my homeland is far o'er the sea

I will never return while my memories still burn

On the beaches of St. Valery.

 

CHORUS

 

- words & music by the late great Davy Steele (1948-2001). The song is written from his uncle Robert's perspective. His father was evacuated on the only boat that came for them. A memorial to the 51st Highland Infantry Division was unveiled on 10 June 1950, the 10th anniversary. Here Stood the 51st, Pathé newsreel - www.britishpathe.com/record.php?id=33855

Boeing B-17G-75-BO (s/n 43-37877) from the 836th BS, 487th BG. Direct hit by flak set the right wing on fire, stretching back to the tail, burning off the horizontal stabilizer. Plane flipped over on its back and down, the wing coming off shortly after. Only the two men in the nose were able to escape before the plane broke up. 7 KIA, 2 POW. MACR 11154

 

1st Lt. Lloyd W. Kersten - Pilot (O-819918) Logan, Iowa

.....KIA, buried at Magnolia Cemetery in Magnolia, Iowa

 

1st Lt. Henry E. Gerland - Co-Pilot (O-714691) Pontiac, Illinois

.....KIA, buried at Lorraine American Cemetery

.....Plot K, Row 42, Grave 20

 

1st Lt. James W. Hyland, Jr. - Nav. (O-722852) Cleveland, Ohio

.....POW, Stalag 9c

 

1st Lt. Warren H. Ritchhart - Bombardier (O-706636)

.....Richmond Heights, Missouri

.....POW, Stalag Luft 1

 

T/Sgt. Arnold R. Shegal - Engineer/Top Turret (36532061)

.....Detroit, Michigan

.....KIA, buried at Lorraine American Cemetery

.....Plot A, Row 16, Grave 34

 

T/Sgt. John D. Eberhart - Radio Operator (17131159)

.....Lincoln, Nebraska

.....KIA, buried at Lorraine American Cemetery

.....Plot A, Row 27, Grave 39

 

S/Sgt. Everett S. Morrison - Ball Turret Gunner (15406190)

.....Sciotoville, Ohio

.....KIA, buried at Lorraine American Cemetery

.....Plot J, Row 22, Grave 35

 

S/Sgt. Joseph M. Miller - Waist Gunner (11057709)

.....Worcester, Massachusetts

.....KIA, buried at Temple Israel Cemetery in Greenfield, MA

 

S/Sgt. Maurice J. Sullivan - Tail Gunner (36593871)

.....Detroit, Michigan

.....KIA, buried at Lorraine American Cemetery

.....Plot A, Row 26, Grave 39

Particolare dell'ingresso a una cella della Risiera

 

La Risiera di San Sabba (in sloveno Rižarna pri Sveti Soboti) è stato un lager nazista, situato nella città di Trieste. È stato l'unico campo di concentramento in Italia ad avere un forno crematorio. In esso le autorità tedesche compirono uccisioni, in un primo momento mediante gas (usando i motori diesel degli autocarri), in seguito per fucilazione o con colpo di mazza alla nuca.

In seguito all'armistizio di Cassibile dell' 8 settembre 1943, le province italiane di Udine, Trieste, Gorizia, Pola, Fiume e Lubiana vennero sottoposte al diretto controllo del Terzo Reich con il nome di Zona di operazione dell'Adriatisches Küstenland (Litorale Adriatico).

Tale zona faceva parte formalmente della Repubblica sociale italiana, ma l'amministrazione del territorio - considerato come zona d'operazione bellica - fu però affidata e sottomessa al controllo dell'Alto Commissario Friedrich Rainer, già Gauleiter della Carinzia.

Il complesso di edifici che costituivano lo stabilimento per la pilatura del riso era stato costruito nel 1913 nel rione di San Sabba, alla periferia della città e fu trasformato inizialmente in un campo di prigionia provvisorio per i militari italiani catturati dopo l'8 settembre: venne denominato Stalag 339.

Successivamente, al termine dell'ottobre 1943, il complesso diviene un Polizeihaftlager (Campo di detenzione di polizia), utilizzato come centro di raccolta di detenuti in attesa di essere deportati in Germania ed in Polonia e come deposito dei beni razziati e sequestrati ai deportati ed ai condannati a morte.

I nazisti, dopo aver utilizzato per le esecuzioni i più svariati metodi, come la morte per gassazione utilizzando automezzi appositamente attrezzati, si servirono all'inizio del 1944 dell'essiccatoio della risiera, prima di trasformarlo definitivamente in un forno crematorio

L'impianto venne utilizzato per lo smaltimento dei cadaveri e la sua prima utilizzazione si ebbe il 4 aprile 1944 con la cremazione di una settantina di cadaveri di ostaggi fucilati il giorno precedente in località limitrofe Villa Opicina (Trieste).

Questo luogo è di assoluta importanza in quanto fu l'unico campo di deportazione dell'Europa meridionale. Il forno crematorio e la connessa ciminiera furono abbattuti con esplosivi dai nazisti in fuga nella notte tra il 29 e il30 aprile 1945, nel tentativo di eliminare le prove dei loro crimini. Tra le rovine furono ritrovate ossa e ceneri umane. Sul medesimo luogo, a ricordo, sorge oggi una struttura commemorativa costituita da una piastra metallica sul posto dove sorgeva il forno crematorio e da una stele che ricorda la presenza della ciminiera.

( Da Wikipedia )

 

93rd Bomb Group formation flight. Near aircraft is Consolidated B-24D-25-CO (S/N 41-24226) "Joisey Bounce" and second aircraft is (S/N 41-24147) "The Duchess." (U.S. Air Force photo)

 

FRONT TO BACK:

"Joisey Bounce"/"Utah Man" (L)

B-24D-25-CO Liberator

s/n 41-24226

330th BS, 93rd BG, 8th AF

Lost November 13,1943 on mission to Bremen, Germany when it was involved in a mid-air collision with 42-40765 over Husum, Germany. Was named "Utah Man" at time of loss.

MACR 2176

2nd Lt. Loren J. Koon - Pilot

(O-2044710) South Carolina

KIA - buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri

 

2nd Lt. Robert Timmer - Co-Pilot

(O-2044427) Michigan

KIA - buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri

 

Sgt. Benjamin Caplan - Navigator

(10600460) California

KIA - buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri

 

1st Lt. Ralph W. Cummings - Bombardier

(O-733155) Montana

KIA - buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri

 

Sgt. Robert L. Cox - Engineer/Top Turret Gunner

(18064516)

POW - Stalag 17b, Braunau

 

T/Sgt. Paul E. Johnston - Radio Operator

(35258734) Kentucky

POW - Stalag Luft 3, Sagan

 

S/Sgt. William E. Major - Right Waist Gunner

(15104438) Indiana

KIA - buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri

 

S/Sgt. John E. Connolly - Left Waist Gunner

(16042975) Michigan

KIA - buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri

 

S/Sgt. Joseph R. Doyle - Tail Gunner

(13039348) Pennsylvania

KIA - buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri

 

S/Sgt. Richard E. Bartlett - Tunnel Gunner

(19056154) Montana

KIA - buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri

 

"The Duchess"/"Evelyn" (A)

s/n 41-24147

330th BS, 93rd BG, 8th AF

Lost on mission over Germany on Feb. 25,1944 mission to Furth Germany. Mechanical troubles caused them to fall back out of the formation where they were jumped by fighters.

MACR 2924

1st Lt. David W. Thompson - Pilot

(O-675380)

POW - Stalag Luft 1, Barth

 

Capt. Miles R. League - Co-Pilot/Deputy Formation Commander

(O-734111) South Carolina

POW - Stalag Luft 1, Barth

 

1st Lt. James A. Ivain - Navigator

(O-798811) Connecticut

POW - Stalag Luft 1, Barth

 

1st Lt. Robert L. Warner - Bombardier

(O-734768)

POW - Stalag Luft 1, Barth

 

2nd Lt. Waldron L. Snyder, Jr. - Co-Pilot/Observer/Photographer

(O-795658) Massachusetts

KIA - buried in Lorraine American Cemetery, France

 

T/Sgt. Henry A. Clauser - Engineer/Top Turret Gunner

(13029090) Pennsylvania

POW - Stalag Luft 3, Sagan

 

T/Sgt. Evert A. Ollie - Radio Operator

(33264046) Pennsylvania

POW - Stalag Luft 4, Gross Tychow

 

S/Sgt. John D. Glucs - Right Waist Gunner

(12146972)

POW - Stalag Luft 4, Gross Tychow

 

S/Sgt. Thomas F. McDermott - Left Waist Gunner

(31057180) Rhode Island

KIA - buried in Lorraine American Cemetery, France

 

S/Sgt. Royce O. Magee - Tail Gunner

(14061305) Tennessee

POW - Stalag Luft 4, Gross Tychow

 

"Bomberang" (C)

B-24D-1-CO Liberator

s/n 41-23722

328th BS, 93rd BG, 8th AF

She was the first 8th Air Force B-24 to complete 50 missions. After her 53rd mission she was flown back to the U.S. for a War Bond tour.

 

"Thundermug" (F)

B-24D-40-CO Liberator

s/n 42-40246

328th BS, 93rd BG, 8th AF

Was salvaged on Oct. 10,1943.

"Silver Dollar" (BK-H)

Douglas-Long Beach B-17G-10-DL Flying Fortress

s/n 42-37781

546th BS, 384th BG, 8th AF

9 MAR 1944 mission to Berlin. Hit from above by bomb from a 379th Bomb Group, taking off the entire tail section. Crashed near Marienfeld.

MACR 3005

 

1st Lt. Merlin H. Reed - Pilot (O-670612) Kansas City, MO

----- KIA, listed on Tablets of the Missing

----- Netherlands American Cemetery - Limburg, Netherlands

2nd Lt. Bruce M. Rininsland - Co-Pilot (O-680714) Muscatine, IA

----- KIA, buried at Fort Snelling National Cemetery

----- Minneapolis, MN

1st Lt. Peter Gudyka - Navigator (O-669278) Pe Ell, WA

----- KIA, listed on Tablets of the Missing

----- Netherlands American Cemetery - Limburg, Netherlands

2nd Lt. John L. Heiss - Bombardier (O-671434) Bronx, NY

----- KIA, buried at Long Island National Cemetery

----- Farmingdale, NY

Sgt. Robert O. Johnson - Engineer/T.T.G. (19080173) Burbank, CA

----- KIA, listed on Tablets of the Missing

----- Netherlands American Cemetery - Limburg, Netherlands

T/Sgt. Robert F. Wellman - Radio Oper. (36168236) Alma, MI

----- KIA, buried at Ardennes American Cemetery

----- Liege, Belgium

S/Sgt. Arthur J. Osepchook - B.T.G. (11035742) Dover, NH

----- POW, imprisoned at Stalag Luft 4

S/Sgt. John J. Plotz - R.W.G. (39837458) Lincoln, IL

----- POW, imprisoned at Stalag Luft 4

S/Sgt. Joseph Jacobson - L.W.G. (39176552) Seattle, WA

----- KIA, buried at Fort Snelling National Cemetery

----- Minneapolis, MN

Sgt. Emmet F. Hardy - T.G. (39830126) Los Angeles, CA

----- KIA, buried at Fort Rosecrans National Cemetery

----- San Diego, CA

a 24, km long karst cave system near Postojna, southwestern Slovenia. It is the second-longest cave system in the country and it's absolutely incredible, stunning and beautifully preserved. Postojna is the only cave in the world with a double-track railway line inside!

"Jerks Natural" (B)

Consolidated B-24D-1-CO Liberator

s/n 41-23711

328th BS, 93rd BG, 8th AF

 

Lost on the 1 October 1943 mission to Wiener-Neustadt, Austria. The aircraft couldn't keep up with the formation and turned back. While returning they were jumped by several Bf 109's of JG 27/I, badly shot-up and entered a spin. Only one crew member was able to jump free of the spinning plane. It crashed Northeast of Graz, Austria.

MACR 3301

 

1st Lt. William F. Stein - Pilot (O-792650) Connecticut

....................KIA - buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri

2nd Lt. George B. Wilkinson - Co-Pilot (O-2044441) New York

....................KIA - buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri

2nd Lt. William W. Sykes - Navigator (O-796623) Pennsylvania

....................POW - Stalag Luft 3, Sagan

2nd Lt. John M. McDonough - Bombardier (O-735236) California

....................KIA - buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri

T/Sgt. Jack W. Kasparian - Engineer/Top Turret (19099178) California

....................KIA - buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri

T/Sgt. Larry H. White - Radio Operator (36171704) Arkansas

....................KIA - buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri

S/Sgt. Adrian H. Smit - Gunner (32454962) New Jersey

....................KIA - buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri

S/Sgt. Lester H. Eby - Gunner (39531654) California

....................KIA - buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri

S/Sgt. Philip G. Bedwell - Gunner (15101741) Indiana

....................KIA - buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri

T/Sgt. William A. Staats, Jr. - Gunner (12057225) New York

....................KIA - buried at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery in St. Louis, Missouri

13 février 1911. Naissance d’Albert MARTIN à EURVILLE (Haute-Marne - 52). Fils de Nicolas MARTIN et Marie Magdeleine BREGERE (BREGER ?).

02 septembre 1939. Mobilisation. 2ème classe au 89ème régiment d’Infanterie, 2ème bataillon à SENS (Yonne - 89) Classe 1931.

Recruté à TROYES sous le matricule 181.

1939

« Samedi 09 septembre. Départ de SENS à 11h22 par le train passage à MONTARGIS, GIEN, NEVERS, COSNE, DÔLE, AUXONNE, GRAY, laisser EPINAL sur la gauche, débarquer à MUTZIG dans la nuit après 36 heures de trajet, cantonner à BISCHOFFSHEIM le lundi 11 septembre.

Mardi 12 septembre. Départ de BISCHOFFSHEIM à 3 heures du matin, passage à OBERNAI, arrivé à BOURGHEIM après une marche d’environ 10 heures. (BARR, OERVILLERS, VALFF ( ?), GOSCVILLER)

Vendredi 30 septembre. Départ de VIVERSHEIM (WEYERSHEIM ?) en autocars à 18 heures, pour une destination inconnue, arrivé aux environs de BITCHE dans la nuit au bruit du canon cantonné à REYERSVILLER.

Samedi 1er octobre. Départ de REYERSVILLER à 18h30, cantonné à EGUELSHARDT après une marche de 15 heures sous la pluie battante.

03 octobre. Départ d’EGUELSHARDT à 20h30, cantonné à 3h30 du matin à FROESCHWILLER.

07 octobre. Départ de FROESCHWILLER à 20h30, cantonné à 2h00. OBERKUTZENHAUSEN, PECHELBRONN, LOBSANN.

Mardi 24 octobre. Départ d’OBERKUTZENHAUSEN, cantonné à SOULTZ-SOUS-FORÊTS.

Mercredi 1er novembre. Départ de SOULTZ-SOUS-FORÊTS, cantonné à RETSCHWILLER.

Samedi 11 novembre. Départ de RETSCHWILLER arrivé à ROTT après une longue marche. Monter en première ligne le lendemain au col du pigeonnier.

Dimanche 19 novembre. Nous sommes relevés de première ligne, nous descendons à GUNSTETT après une marche de 20 kms.

Jeudi 30 novembre. Départ de GUNSTETT à 4h30 tantôt, cantonner à WEITBRUCH après 25 kms de marche (inoubliable).

Dimanche 10 décembre. Quitter la 7ème compagnie pour entrer à l’état major du 2ème bataillon. »

1940

« Mardi 23 janvier. Départ de WEITBRUCH. 2h00 après midi pour aller en permission 10 jours. »

Janvier 1940. Après cette permission, il repart en Alsace.

Mai 1940. Début mai, 1940, les allemands attaquent par la Belgique, en contournant la la ligne MAGINOT. Les armées sont déplacées et remontées sur le Nord.

06 juin 1940. AM est fait prisonnier à ESTREES-SUR-NOYES (Somme vers AMIENS).

Passage à AIX-LA-CHAPELLE (à vérifier).

AM est dirigé sur la Prusse Orientale, sur le Stalag VIII C SAGAN (commando en culture dans une ferme) et Stalag VIII A GORLITZ (commando dans une verrerie), matricule 43 959 C. AM travaille au four puis dans la maison comme homme de main.

15 avril 1942. AM s’évade une première fois de la verrerie de PENZIG (LAUSITZ) avec l’aide de Christina STOPPA (19 ans). Celle-ci voulait aller chez des amis à Metz. Elle a procuré à AM des vêtements civils par l’intermédiaire d’une amie qui avait un frère de la même taille qu’AM. Le père de Christina est sur le front Russe, Christina Stoppa à une sœur, Barbara, plus jeune.

16 avril 1942. Repris à FRANCFORT.

16 avril 1942 au 20 avril 1942. Prison civile de FRANCFORT.

20 avril 1942 au 08 mai 1942. Envoyé au Stalag XII A en baraque disciplinaire.

08 mai 1942. Départ pour RAWA-RUSKA. Voyage par le train en wagons fermés. Arrivée le 15 mai 1942.

15 mai 1942 au 15 décembre 1942. Interné à RAWA-RUSKA (Stalag 325). De juin 1942 à décembre 1942, AM est allé à TARNOPOL (commando).

15 décembre 1942. Retour en Allemagne à STARGARD (Poméranie) au Stalag II D pour son jugement.

27 mars 1943. Deuxième évasion de STARGARD (Poméranie). Voyage effectué enfermé dans un wagon de pommes de terre à destination de CREIL (inscriptions portées sur le train dont il a eu connaissance dès le début). Saute du train à VILLEMOMBLE (région parisienne 93). Roule le long du talus et arrive dans le jardin d’une maison. Un homme fait brûler des branchages. Il lui donne des habits civils et fait brûler ceux de prisonnier d’AM.

14 avril 1943. Se fait délivrer à LIMOGES un certificat de nationalité.

20 avril 1943. AM perçoit « rappel de solde du 1.6.40 au 20.4.43, 10 jours supplémentaire de solde, 5 jours de vivres. »

21 avril 1943. Se fait démobiliser à LIMOGES. Il perçoit «1 costume civil, 1 jersey, 1 chemise, 1 caleçon, 1 mouchoir, 1 paire de chaussures, 1 paire de chaussettes. » Le 22 avril 1943, il touche « la somme de 885 francs dont 431 francs au titre de l’habillement ». AM perçoit aussi ce jour-là 2614 francs de « prime de démobilisation »

25 juin 1957. Reçoit un avis favorable à l’attribution du titre d’ « Interné Résistant ». Carte numéro 121614479.

17 juillet 1957. « Certificat de validation des services, campagnes et blessures des déportés et internés de la résistance ». Il est établi qu’AM est interné résistant du 15.5.1942 au 15.12.1942 (soit 7 mois et 1 jour de campagne simple). Est compté comme service militaire actif la période du 15 mai 1942 au 15 décembre 1942.

23 juillet 1957. Lettre d’accompagnement du « Certificat de validation des services, campagnes et blessures des déportés et internés de la résistance ».

29 septembre 1961. Obtention de la Croix du Combattant Volontaire.

20 novembre 1961. Arrêté - J.O du 23 décembre 1961. Citation à l’ordre du régiment. Obtention de la Médaille des Evadés au titre de la Guerre 1939-1945, obtention de la Croix de Guerre avec Etoile de Bronze.

15 juin 1962. Extrait du livret militaire :

Détail des services et mutations diverses :

« Incorporé à compter du 15 avril 1932 au 4ème R.I. Arrivé au corps le 22 avril 1932, envoyé en congé le 31 mars 1933 en attendant son passage dans la disponibilité qui aura lieu le 29 avril 1933. Certificat de bonne conduite …… ( ?). Affecté au Centre Mobilisateur d’Infanterie n°83. Rappelé à l’activité le 2 septembre 1939 au Dépôt d’Infanterie n°83. Affecté au 89ème Régiment d’Infanterie. Arrive au corps le 3 septembre 1939. Aux armes le 9 septembre 1939. Fait prisonnier à Estrées sur Noyes (Somme) le 6 juin 1940. Interné au Stalag VII C et II D. N° matricule 43.959. Evadé et démobilisé le 21.4.1943 par le centre de Démobilisation de LIMOGES. Se retire provisoirement à LIMOGES, 32. Faubourg Montjovis. Rattaché à la classe PA2R de Mobilisation comme père e 2 enfants vivants le 28.10.1952 (art 58 loi du 31.3.1928). Interné du 15.5.1942 au 15.12.1942 (certificat de validation « C » Modèle « 2 » n°46.036 PM/6K du SEFA terre DPMAT en date du 17.7.1957). Dégagé de toute obligation militaire le 15 avril 1960. »

Campagnes :

« Intérieur CS du 2.9.39 au 8.9.39

Aux armées CD du 9.9.39 au 5.6.40

Captivité CS du 6.6.40 au 14.5.42

Internement CS du 15.5.42 au 15.12.42

Captivité CS du 16.12.42 au 20.4.43 »

Blessures, Citations, Décorations, etc.

« Croix du Combattant Volontaire 1939-1945 par décision n°2.009 du 29 septembre 1961 n° d’inscription 32.778.

Médaille des Evadés avec attribution d’une citaton à l’ordre du Régiment par arrêté du 20 novembre 1961 .B.O.DM.R du 23 décembre (faute !! novembre en réalité) 1961. Motif : Prisonnier de guerre en Allemagne a réussi après une première tentative infructueuses suivi d’un internement à RAWA-RUSKA à s’évader de STARGARD (poméranie) fin mars 1943 et à regagner la France. »

 

29 juillet 1964. Obtention au J.O de la Médaille Militaire.

 

Carte d’Interné Résistant : dossier instruit par la direction interdépartementale des anciens combattants et victimes de la guerre à Dijon.

Stalag XII A - Limbourg / Lahn

Commando de Tarnopol. De là il entendait le canon de Kiev. (420 kms ! A vérifier).

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