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Le palais des grands maîtres à Rhodes, est une impressionnante forteresse bâtie au XIVème siècle sur le site d'un ancien temple consacré à Hélios, dieu du soleil. Ce palais, entouré de murailles, servait également d'abri à la population en cas de danger. La porte principale du palais, rue des Chevaliers, est encadrée par deux tours en forme de fer à cheval. La cour centrale, autour de laquelle s'articule le palais, est longue de 50m, large de 40 m et décorée de dalles géométriques en marbre. Les plus belles salles du palais sont : - La salle des neuf muses : abritant une mosaïque de l'époque hellénistique ; - La salle des colonnes : contient de superbes mosaïques datant du Vème siècle ; - La salle de la Méduse : abrite une mosaïque datant de la fin de l'époque hellénistique représentant la Gorgone mythologique avec sa chevelure de serpents. On peut également y observer des vases chinois et islamiques ; Autre élément à voir : la statue du hall dans laquelle on voit Troyen Laocoon et ses fils dans une représentation de l'angoisse de l'être humain face aux forces de la nature. Une grande explosion détruisit le palais en 1856.

Hubert Robert - The Finding of the Laocoon, 1773 at the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts (VMFA) Richmond VA

El Greco (1541-1614) - Laocoon.

Detail.

Early 1610s.

National Gallery of Art, Washington.

 

This painting is considered as El Greco's secular masterpiece. It is a work of great compositional dynamism and pictorial virtuosity, offering a dense texture of cultural, historical and topical allusions. Painted late in his career, it is his only significant effort at a subject from ancient mythology. Laocoon was the priest of Nepture at Troy who warned the Trojans about the Greek wooden horse.

  

El Greco (1541 – April 7, 1614) was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. "El Greco" (The Greek) was a nickname, a reference to his ethnic Greek origin, and the artist normally signed his paintings with his full birth name in Greek letters, Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος (Doménikos Theotokópoulos).

 

El Greco was born on Crete, which was at that time part of the Republic of Venice, and the centre of Post-Byzantine art. He trained and became a master within that tradition before travelling at age 26 to Venice, as other Greek artists had done. In 1570 he moved to Rome, where he opened a workshop and executed a series of works. During his stay in Italy, El Greco enriched his style with elements of Mannerism and of the Venetian Renaissance. In 1577, he moved to Toledo, Spain, where he lived and worked until his death. In Toledo, El Greco received several major commissions and produced his best-known paintings.

 

El Greco's dramatic and expressionistic style was met with puzzlement by his contemporaries but found appreciation in the 20th century. El Greco is regarded as a precursor of both Expressionism and Cubism, while his personality and works were a source of inspiration for poets and writers.

El Greco has been characterized by modern scholars as an artist so individual that he belongs to no conventional school. He is best known for tortuously elongated figures and often fantastic or phantasmagorical pigmentation, marrying Byzantine traditions with those of Western painting.

 

El Greco was descended from a prosperous urban family, which had probably been driven out of Chania to Candia after an uprising against the Venetians between 1526 and 1528.[4] El Greco's father, Geórgios Theotokópoulos (d. 1556), was a merchant and tax collector. Nothing is known about his mother or his first wife, also Greek. El Greco's older brother, Manoússos Theotokópoulos (1531 – December 13, 1604), was a wealthy merchant and spent the last years of his life (1603–1604) in El Greco's Toledo home.

 

El Greco received his initial training as an icon painter of the Cretan school, the leading centre of post-Byzantine art. In addition to painting, he probably studied the classics of ancient Greece, and perhaps the Latin classics also; he left a "working library" of 130 books at his death, including the Bible in Greek and an annotated Vasari. Candia was a center for artistic activity where Eastern and Western cultures co-existed harmoniously, where around two hundred painters were active during the 16th century, and had organized a painters' guild, based on the Italian model. In 1563, at the age of twenty-two, El Greco was described in a document as a "master" ("maestro Domenigo"), meaning he was already a master of the guild and presumably operating his own workshop. Three years later, in June 1566, as a witness to a contract, he signed his name as μαΐστρος Μένεγος Θεοτοκόπουλος σγουράφος (Master Menégos Theotokópoulos, painter).

 

Most scholars believe that the Theotokópoulos "family was almost certainly Greek Orthodox", although some Catholic sources still claim him from birth. Like many Orthodox emigrants to Europe, he apparently transferred to Catholicism after his arrival, and certainly practiced as a Catholic in Spain, where he described himself as a "devout Catholic" in his will. The extensive archival research conducted since the early 1960s by scholars indicates strongly that El Greco's family and ancestors were Greek Orthodox. One of his uncles was an Orthodox priest, and his name is not mentioned in the Catholic archival baptismal records on Crete.

 

It was natural for the young El Greco to pursue his career in Venice, Crete having been a possession of the Republic of Venice since 1211.Though the exact year is not clear, most scholars agree that El Greco went to Venice around 1567. Knowledge of El Greco's years in Italy is limited. He lived in Venice until 1570 and, according to a letter written by his much older friend, the greatest miniaturist of the age, the Croatian Giulio Clovio, was a "disciple" of Titian, who was by then in his eighties but still vigorous. This may mean he worked in Titian's large studio, or not. Clovio characterized El Greco as "a rare talent in painting".

 

In 1570, El Greco moved to Rome, where he executed a series of works strongly marked by his Venetian apprenticeship. It is unknown how long he remained in Rome, though he may have returned to Venice (c. 1575–1576) before he left for Spain. In Rome, on the recommendation of Giulio Clovio, El Greco was received as a guest at the Palazzo Farnese, which Cardinal Alessandro Farnese had made a centre of the artistic and intellectual life of the city. There he came into contact with the intellectual elite of the city, including the Roman scholar Fulvio Orsini, whose collection would later include seven paintings by the artist.

Unlike other Cretan artists who had moved to Venice, El Greco substantially altered his style and sought to distinguish himself by inventing new and unusual interpretations of traditional religious subject matter. His works painted in Italy were influenced by the Venetian Renaissance style of the period, with agile, elongated figures reminiscent of Tintoretto and a chromatic framework that connects him to Titian. The Venetian painters also taught him to organize his multi-figured compositions in landscapes vibrant with atmospheric light. Clovio reports visiting El Greco on a summer's day while the artist was still in Rome. El Greco was sitting in a darkened room, because he found the darkness more conducive to thought than the light of the day, which disturbed his "inner light". As a result of his stay in Rome, his works were enriched with elements such as violent perspective vanishing points or strange attitudes struck by the figures with their repeated twisting and turning and tempestuous gestures; all elements of Mannerism.

 

By the time El Greco arrived in Rome, Michelangelo and Raphael were dead, but their example continued to be paramount, and somewhat overwhelming for young painters. El Greco was determined to make his own mark in Rome defending his personal artistic views, ideas and style. He singled out Correggio and Parmigianino for particular praise, but he did not hesitate to dismiss Michelangelo's Last Judgment in the Sistine Chapel; he extended an offer to Pope Pius V to paint over the whole work in accord with the new and stricter Catholic thinking.

When he was later asked what he thought about Michelangelo, El Greco replied that "he was a good man, but he did not know how to paint". And thus we are confronted by a paradox: El Greco is said to have reacted most strongly or even condemned Michelangelo, but he had found it impossible to withstand his influence. Michelangelo's influence can be seen in later El Greco works.

 

As his own commentaries indicate, El Greco viewed Titian, Michelangelo and Raphael as models to emulate. In his 17th century Chronicles, Giulio Mancini included El Greco among the painters who had initiated, in various ways, a re-evaluation of Michelangelo's teachings.

 

Because of his unconventional artistic beliefs (such as his dismissal of Michelangelo's technique) and personality, El Greco soon acquired enemies in Rome. Architect and writer Pirro Ligorio called him a "foolish foreigner", and newly discovered archival material reveals a skirmish with Farnese, who obliged the young artist to leave his palace. On July 6, 1572, El Greco officially complained about this event. A few months later, on September 18, 1572, El Greco paid his dues to the Guild of Saint Luke in Rome as a miniature painter. At the end of that year, El Greco opened his own workshop and hired as assistants the painters Lattanzio Bonastri de Lucignano and Francisco Preboste.

 

In 1577, El Greco emigrated first to Madrid, then to Toledo, where he produced his mature works. At the time, Toledo was the religious capital of Spain and a populous city with "an illustrious past, a prosperous present and an uncertain future". In Rome, El Greco had earned the respect of some intellectuals, but was also facing the hostility of certain art critics. During the 1570s the huge monastery-palace of El Escorial was still under construction and Philip II of Spain was experiencing difficulties in finding good artists for the many large paintings required to decorate it. Titian was dead, and Tintoretto, Veronese and Anthonis Mor all refused to come to Spain. Philip had to rely on the lesser talent of Juan Fernándes de Navarrete, whose gravedad y decoro ("seriousness and decorum") the king approved. However, he had just died in 1579; the moment should have been ideal for El Greco. Through Clovio and Orsini, El Greco met Benito Arias Montano, a Spanish humanist and agent of Philip; Pedro Chacón, a clergyman; and Luis de Castilla, son of Diego de Castilla, the dean of the Cathedral of Toledo. El Greco's friendship with Castilla would secure his first large commissions in Toledo. He arrived in Toledo by July 1577, and signed contracts for a group of paintings that was to adorn the church of Santo Domingo el Antiguo in Toledo and for the renowned El Espolio.

By September 1579 he had completed nine paintings for Santo Domingo, including The Trinity and The Assumption of the Virgin. These works would establish the painter's reputation in Toledo.

 

El Greco did not plan to settle permanently in Toledo, since his final aim was to win the favor of Philip and make his mark in his court. Indeed, he did manage to secure two important commissions from the monarch: Allegory of the Holy League and Martyrdom of St. Maurice. However, the king did not like these works and placed the St Maurice altarpiece in the chapter-house rather than the intended chapel. He gave no further commissions to El Greco. The exact reasons for the king's dissatisfaction remain unclear. Some scholars have suggested that Philip did not like the inclusion of living persons in a religious scene; some others that El Greco's works violated a basic rule of the Counter-Reformation, namely that in the image the content was paramount rather than the style. Philip took a close interest in his artistic commissions, and had very decided tastes; a long sought-after sculpted Crucifixion by Benvenuto Cellini also failed to please when it arrived, and was likewise exiled to a less prominent place. Philip's next experiment, with Federico Zuccari was even less successful. In any case, Philip's dissatisfaction ended any hopes of royal patronage El Greco may have had.

El Greco was obliged to remain in Toledo, where he had been received in 1577 as a great painter. According to Hortensio Félix Paravicino, a 17th-century Spanish preacher and poet, "Crete gave him life and the painter's craft, Toledo a better homeland, where through Death he began to achieve eternal life."

In 1585, he appears to have hired an assistant, Italian painter Francisco Preboste, and to have established a workshop capable of producing altar frames and statues as well as paintings.

On March 12, 1586 he obtained the commission for The Burial of the Count of Orgaz, now his best-known work. The decade 1597 to 1607 was a period of intense activity for El Greco. During these years he received several major commissions, and his workshop created pictorial and sculptural ensembles for a variety of religious institutions. Among his major commissions of this period were three altars for the Chapel of San José in Toledo (1597–1599); three paintings (1596–1600) for the Colegio de Doña María de Aragon, an Augustinian monastery in Madrid, and the high altar, four lateral altars, and the painting St. Ildefonso for the Capilla Mayor of the Hospital de la Caridad (Hospital of Charity) at Illescas (1603–1605). The minutes of the commission of The Virgin of the Immaculate Conception (1607–1613), which were composed by the personnel of the municipality, describe El Greco as "one of the greatest men in both this kingdom and outside it".

 

Between 1607 and 1608 El Greco was involved in a protracted legal dispute with the authorities of the Hospital of Charity at Illescas concerning payment for his work, which included painting, sculpture and architecture; this and other legal disputes contributed to the economic difficulties he experienced towards the end of his life. In 1608, he received his last major commission: for the Hospital of Saint John the Baptist in Toledo.

 

El Greco made Toledo his home. Surviving contracts mention him as the tenant from 1585 onwards of a complex consisting of three apartments and twenty-four rooms which belonged to the Marquis de Villena. It was in these apartments, which also served as his workshop, that he passed the rest of his life, painting and studying. He lived in considerable style, sometimes employing musicians to play whilst he dined. It is not confirmed whether he lived with his Spanish female companion, Jerónima de Las Cuevas, whom he probably never married. She was the mother of his only son, Jorge Manuel, born in 1578, who also became a painter, assisted his father, and continued to repeat his compositions for many years after he inherited the studio.

In 1604, Jorge Manuel and Alfonsa de los Morales gave birth to El Greco's grandson, Gabriel, who was baptized by Gregorio Angulo, governor of Toledo and a personal friend of the artist.

 

During the course of the execution of a commission for the Hospital Tavera, El Greco fell seriously ill, and a month later, on April 7, 1614, he died. A few days earlier, on March 31, he had directed that his son should have the power to make his will. Two Greeks, friends of the painter, witnessed this last will and testament (El Greco never lost touch with his Greek origins). He was buried in the Church of Santo Domingo el Antigua, aged 73.

(Wikipedia Encyclopedia)

 

Here you find a link to the website of the National Gallery of Art:

www.nga.gov/

 

See also my list of best and worst museums in the world:

www.flickr.com/photos/menesje/4059308291/in/set-721576227...

And here you find my list of best and worst museums in Holland:

www.flickr.com/photos/menesje/4059604700/

     

“Barberini Faun”.

Ancient Greek.

From Asia Minor.

Marble.

Glyptothek,

OK, some more information about this unique work of art

 

We see here a satyr reposing on a rock, called the “Barberini Faun”.

The frequently used baroque description “faun” (a Roman deer god) is a misunderstanding as it actually is a satyr.

Satyrs are mythological companions of the god of wine, Dionysos. Male creatures with beastly features. They have pointed ears (that are largely hidden because of the luxuriant hair) and a small horsetail (here visible behind the left thighbone).

All these features however are secondary here. The sculpture is completely dominated by its physique. A powerful young man in such a provocative erotic pose can be only a satyr, who

after a dancing party and excessive drinking exhaustedly settles on a rock. His clothes ( a panther skin) are taken off already.

 

The sculpture was discovered around 1625 in Rome, near the tomb of Roman Emperor Hadrian, the Castel SantÁngelo.

During the discovery Urban VIII (a member of the Barberini family) was elected pope.

He decided to claim the sculpture as his family property. This explains the name of the sculpture.

It’s a marble Greek original from Asian Minor, from where it was transported to Rome.

After the discovery in the twenties of the 17th century the sculpture was exhibited in the Palazzo Barberini during 150 years, where it was revered as one of the highlights of the collection of antiquities.

Inheritance quarrels made the Barberini family decide in 1799 to sell the sculpture. And this is how it could happen that the Roman sculptor and art dealer Vincenzo Pacetti became the new owner. He paid 4.000 scudi for it and replaced the during the discovery already missing limbs ( the right leg and the left arm), hoping that a restored piece of antiquity would make him a rich man.

Indeed the British made him an offer of 13.000 scudi, but the French authorities prevented the deal. Later on the British offered the sum of 20.000 scudi, but then the pope refused the agree with an export of this art treasure. In the meantime Pacetti was already 11 years the rightful owner of the faun statue. But then the Barberini family suddenly wanted their once owned sculpture back. Two sons, heirs of the Barberini fortune, used their mighty names to press the police to remove the sculpture and bring it to the Baberini palace, where it was exhibited again. Of course Pacetti went to Court against the Barberini family. A legal battle between a local sculptor and a family - that had a pope and many cardinals among their ancestors - ended as bad as could be expected. In the end the judge granted the eldest Barberini son the ownership of the faun sculpture. This Barberini descendant did not hesitate to sell “his” faun for the sum of 8.000 scudi to the crown prince of Bavaria, Ludwig who was to become King Ludwig I of Bavaria.

This transaction was surrounded by secrecy: Bavaria was during this deal in war with Napoleon, and it was important to prevent public amazement about this purchase. So the faun was transported on a low profile basis to the studio of the sculptor Thorvaldsen.

In the meantime Pacetti felt deeply deceived by the Barberini family and the local police.

He succeeded to find influential personalities – like the famous sculptor Canova – who shared his anger and were pleased to give him moral support. Only moments before the faun was to be send to Bavaria, the statue was seized and transported to the Vatican.

Ludwig of Bavaria was told that pope Urban VIII had decreed some 200 years earlier that the faun sculpture never was to be sold.

Al kind of compromises were sought to keep friendly relations with Ludwig. He was invited to chose some other statues in the Vatican collections as compensation, but Ludwig refused.

In the meantime Napoleon had fled from Elba and the pope had to find another city for personal safety. Bavaria found it self in war again with France.

After the capture of Paris by the superpowers the art treasures, stolen by Napoleon, were returned to Rome and the Vatican received its famous “Apollo of Belvedere” and the “Laocoon Group” back. In vain Ludwig argued that this return was partly thanks to him.

His argument was nevertheless correct, and this is why, after some time, the Barberini Faun

was brought to Ludwig’s apartments in Rome. It needed 64 men and I suppose a lot of sweat.

This memorable event happened August 10, 1816. Again there was a set back. It was stipulated that this sculpture was never to leave the city of Rome.

Eventually a sister of Ludwig has brought the solution. She happened to be the empress of Austria. During a visit to Rome she decided to visit the pope. So far so good. During her audience she asked frankly for an export licence for the Barberini faun of her brother.

The pope promised his kind attention to the matter. Some time later indeed the export permission was granted, such as we may assume with great reluctance.

It was November 6, 1819 now. During the Twelfth night festivities of 1820 the Barberini Faun was given a warm welcome in Munich, where it embellishes the stupendous art collections of the Glyptothek ever since.

(With thanks to C.H. Beck- Glyptothek München - Meisterwerke Griechischer und Römischer Skulptur)

 

(Information in Dutch: )

 

De Barbarini Faun.

 

We zien hier een satyr afgebeeld. De barokke aanduiding “faun” (een Romeinse hertengod) wordt weliswaar stelselmatig voor dit beeld gebruikt, maar berust eigenlijk op een misverstand. Satyrs, mythologische begeleiders van de wijngod Dionysos, zijn mannelijke wezens met licht dierlijke trekjes. Ze hebben spitse oren (die bij dit beeld goeddeels verborgen gaan onder de weelderige haardos) en een kleine paardenstaart (bij dit beeld zichtbaar achter het linker dijbeen).

Al deze kenmerken zijn echter bij dit beeld ondergeschikt. Het beeld wordt geheel beheerst door de lichaamshouding. Een krachtige jongeman in zo’n bijna provocerend erotische houding kan eigenlijk alleen maar een satyr zijn, die - na zich te hebben uitgeleefd in dans en uitgebreide offerandes aan Bacchus - afgemat op een rots is neergestreken. Tevoren heeft hij zijn kleding (een panterhuid) uitgetrokken.

 

Het beeld werd rond 1625 in Rome gevonden, niet ver van het graf van de Romeinse keizer Hadrianus, de Engelenburcht.

In die tijd van de ontdekking was Urbanus VIII, uit het huis Barberini, paus.

Hij verklaarde het beeld tot zijn eigen familiebezit. Vandaar de naam van het beeld.

Het beeld is een Grieks origineel. Uit Klein Azië is het marmer afkomstig.

Van daaruit werd het beeld naar Rome versleept.

Na de ontdekking in de twintiger jaren van de 17e eeuw heeft het beeld ruim 150 jaar tentoongesteld gestaan in het Palazzo Barberini in Rome, waar het alom werd bewonderd.

In 1799 waren er erfenistwisten rond de Barberini boedel, en zo kon het gebeuren dat het beeld nog datzelfde jaar voor 4.000 scudi werd verkocht. Koper was de beeldhouwer en kunsthandelaar Vincenzo Pacetti.

Hij verving de ten tijde van de ontdekking al ontbrekende lichaamsdelen (rechter been en linker arm). Pacetti deed dit zonder twijfel om het beeld voor meer geld te kunnen doorverkopen. Dit leek ook te gaan lukken toen de Engelsen korte tijd later 13.000 scudi voor het inmiddels gerestaureerde beeld boden. De Franse overheid verhinderde echter deze deal. Later boden de Engelsen zelfs 20.000 scudi, maar toen verbood de paus de uitvoer.

Ook Lucien Bonaparte, die in Napels resideerde, toonde belangstelling voor de satyr.

Inmiddels was Pacetti 11 jaar de rechtmatige eigenaar van het beeld. Maar toen was er weer eens geruzie over de Barbarini bezittingen. Twee Barberini zonen bevochten het vermogen, en wisten onder valse voorwendsels en met gebruikmaking van hun machtige naam de politie zo ver te krijgen het beeld (zonder enige schadeloosstelling) bij de eigenaar weg te halen en weer in het Palazzo Barberini onder te brengen. Pacetti stapte naar de rechter, maar wat moest een kleine beeldhouwer tegen de Barberini familie, die een paus en talloze kardinalen had voortgebracht? Na een in 3 instanties gevoerde civiele procedure werd het beeld toegewezen aan de oudste Barberini telg. Deze verkocht het beeld kort daarna voor 8.000 scudi aan kroonprins Ludwig von Bayern, de latere Koning Ludwig I.

Deze transactie geschiedde onder strikte geheimhouding en met haast. Ondertussen verkeerde namelijk ook Beieren op voet van oorlog met Napoleon. De aankoop mocht in Rome dan ook geen opzien baren. Het beeld werd zo geruisloos mogelijk naar het atelier van Thorvaldsen overgebracht. Maar toen dreigde het mis te gaan. De met recht verbitterde Pacetti, die zich door de Barberini familie en de politie bedrogen voelde, wist invloedrijke persoonlijkheden

-waaronder de beeldhouwer Canova- voor zijn zaak te winnen, en ook de plaatselijke politie nu aan zijn kant te krijgen. Het beeld, dat al ingepakt klaar stond om naar Beieren te worden verzonden, werd in beslag genomen en naar het Vaticaan overgebracht. Als argument werd aangevoerd dat Paus Urbanus VIII tweehonderd jaar eerder had vastgelegd dat het beeld nooit verkocht mocht worden.

Er werden talloze compromissen gezocht. Zo mocht Ludwig in plaats van de satyr een paar andere beelden uit de kunstcollectie van het Vaticaan uitzoeken. Ludwig weigerde.

Intussen was Napoleon uit Elba gevlucht en de paus moest opnieuw Rome ontvluchten.

Beieren was weer in oorlog met Frankrijk. Na de inname van Parijs door de grootmachten keerden door Napoleon geroofde kunstschatten terug naar Rome, en het Vaticaan kreeg zijn Apollo van Belvedere en de Laocoongroep terug. Tevergeefs wees Ludwig op zijn inzet daarvoor. Hij bereikte er wel mee dat de satyr op 10 augustus 1816 door 64 dragers in zijn Romeinse verblijf werd binnengedragen. Maar het beeld mocht de stad Rome niet verlaten.

Uiteindelijk heeft een zus van Ludwig voor een oplossing gezorgd. Zij was keizerin van Oostenrijk, en heeft gedurende een bezoek aan Rome tijdens een audiëntie bij de paus een uitvoervergunning voor het beeld bepleit. Een welwillend onderzoek werd hierop toegezegd.

Tandenknarsend heeft de pauselijke regering uiteindelijk toegegeven en zo kon het beeld op 6 november 1819 de lange reis naar Beieren aanvaarden om tijdens het Driekoningenfeest van 1820 in München zijn feestelijke intrede te doen.

(tekst ontleend aan C.H. Beck- Glyptothek München - Meisterwerke Griechischer und Römischer Skulptur)

 

“Barberini Faun”.

Ancient Greek.

From Asia Minor.

Marble.

Glyptothek, Munich.

 

OK, some more information about this unique work of art

 

We see here a satyr reposing on a rock, called the “Barberini Faun”.

The frequently used baroque description “faun” (a Roman deer god) is a misunderstanding as it actually is a satyr.

Satyrs are mythological companions of the god of wine, Dionysos. Male creatures with beastly features. They have pointed ears (that are largely hidden because of the luxuriant hair) and a small horsetail (here visible behind the left thighbone).

All these features however are secondary here. The sculpture is completely dominated by its physique. A powerful young man in such a provocative erotic pose can be only a satyr, who

after a dancing party and excessive drinking exhaustedly settles on a rock. His clothes ( a panther skin) are taken off already.

 

The sculpture was discovered around 1625 in Rome, near the tomb of Roman Emperor Hadrian, the Castel SantÁngelo.

During the discovery Urban VIII (a member of the Barberini family) was elected pope.

He decided to claim the sculpture as his family property. This explains the name of the sculpture.

It’s a marble Greek original from Asian Minor, from where it was transported to Rome.

After the discovery in the twenties of the 17th century the sculpture was exhibited in the Palazzo Barberini during 150 years, where it was revered as one of the highlights of the collection of antiquities.

Inheritance quarrels made the Barberini family decide in 1799 to sell the sculpture. And this is how it could happen that the Roman sculptor and art dealer Vincenzo Pacetti became the new owner. He paid 4.000 scudi for it and replaced the during the discovery already missing limbs ( the right leg and the left arm), hoping that a restored piece of antiquity would make him a rich man.

Indeed the British made him an offer of 13.000 scudi, but the French authorities prevented the deal. Later on the British offered the sum of 20.000 scudi, but then the pope refused the agree with an export of this art treasure. In the meantime Pacetti was already 11 years the rightful owner of the faun statue. But then the Barberini family suddenly wanted their once owned sculpture back. Two sons, heirs of the Barberini fortune, used their mighty names to press the police to remove the sculpture and bring it to the Baberini palace, where it was exhibited again. Of course Pacetti went to Court against the Barberini family. A legal battle between a local sculptor and a family - that had a pope and many cardinals among their ancestors - ended as bad as could be expected. In the end the judge granted the eldest Barberini son the ownership of the faun sculpture. This Barberini descendant did not hesitate to sell “his” faun for the sum of 8.000 scudi to the crown prince of Bavaria, Ludwig who was to become King Ludwig I of Bavaria.

This transaction was surrounded by secrecy: Bavaria was during this deal in war with Napoleon, and it was important to prevent public amazement about this purchase. So the faun was transported on a low profile basis to the studio of the sculptor Thorvaldsen.

In the meantime Pacetti felt deeply deceived by the Barberini family and the local police.

He succeeded to find influential personalities – like the famous sculptor Canova – who shared his anger and were pleased to give him moral support. Only moments before the faun was to be send to Bavaria, the statue was seized and transported to the Vatican.

Ludwig of Bavaria was told that pope Urban VIII had decreed some 200 years earlier that the faun sculpture never was to be sold.

Al kind of compromises were sought to keep friendly relations with Ludwig. He was invited to chose some other statues in the Vatican collections as compensation, but Ludwig refused.

In the meantime Napoleon had fled from Elba and the pope had to find another city for personal safety. Bavaria found it self in war again with France.

After the capture of Paris by the superpowers the art treasures, stolen by Napoleon, were returned to Rome and the Vatican received its famous “Apollo of Belvedere” and the “Laocoon Group” back. In vain Ludwig argued that this return was partly thanks to him.

His argument was nevertheless correct, and this is why, after some time, the Barberini Faun

was brought to Ludwig’s apartments in Rome. It needed 64 men and I suppose a lot of sweat.

This memorable event happened August 10, 1816. Again there was a set back. It was stipulated that this sculpture was never to leave the city of Rome.

Eventually a sister of Ludwig has brought the solution. She happened to be the empress of Austria. During a visit to Rome she decided to visit the pope. So far so good. During her audience she asked frankly for a export licence for the Barberini faun of her brother.

The pope promised his kind attention to the matter. Some time later indeed the export permission was granted, such as we may assume with great reluctance.

It was November 6, 1819 now. During the Twelfth night festivities of 1820 the Barberini Faun was given a warm welcome in Munich, where it embellishes the stupendous art collections of the Glyptothek ever since.

(With thanks to C.H. Beck- Glyptothek München - Meisterwerke Griechischer und Römischer Skulptur)

 

(Information in Dutch: )

 

De Barbarini Faun.

 

We zien hier een satyr afgebeeld. De barokke aanduiding “faun” (een Romeinse hertengod) wordt weliswaar stelselmatig voor dit beeld gebruikt, maar berust eigenlijk op een misverstand. Satyrs, mythologische begeleiders van de wijngod Dionysos, zijn mannelijke wezens met licht dierlijke trekjes. Ze hebben spitse oren (die bij dit beeld goeddeels verborgen gaan onder de weelderige haardos) en een kleine paardenstaart (bij dit beeld zichtbaar achter het linker dijbeen).

Al deze kenmerken zijn echter bij dit beeld ondergeschikt. Het beeld wordt geheel beheerst door de lichaamshouding. Een krachtige jongeman in zo’n bijna provocerend erotische houding kan eigenlijk alleen maar een satyr zijn, die - na zich te hebben uitgeleefd in dans en uitgebreide offerandes aan Bacchus - afgemat op een rots is neergestreken. Tevoren heeft hij zijn kleding (een panterhuid) uitgetrokken.

 

Het beeld werd rond 1625 in Rome gevonden, niet ver van het graf van de Romeinse keizer Hadrianus, de Engelenburcht.

In die tijd van de ontdekking was Urbanus VIII, uit het huis Barberini, paus.

Hij verklaarde het beeld tot zijn eigen familiebezit. Vandaar de naam van het beeld.

Het beeld is een Grieks origineel. Uit Klein Azië is het marmer afkomstig.

Van daaruit werd het beeld naar Rome versleept.

Na de ontdekking in de twintiger jaren van de 17e eeuw heeft het beeld ruim 150 jaar tentoongesteld gestaan in het Palazzo Barberini in Rome, waar het alom werd bewonderd.

In 1799 waren er erfenistwisten rond de Barberini boedel, en zo kon het gebeuren dat het beeld nog datzelfde jaar voor 4.000 scudi werd verkocht. Koper was de beeldhouwer en kunsthandelaar Vincenzo Pacetti.

Hij verving de ten tijde van de ontdekking al ontbrekende lichaamsdelen (rechter been en linker arm). Pacetti deed dit zonder twijfel om het beeld voor meer geld te kunnen doorverkopen. Dit leek ook te gaan lukken toen de Engelsen korte tijd later 13.000 scudi voor het inmiddels gerestaureerde beeld boden. De Franse overheid verhinderde echter deze deal. Later boden de Engelsen zelfs 20.000 scudi, maar toen verbood de paus de uitvoer.

Ook Lucien Bonaparte, die in Napels resideerde, toonde belangstelling voor de satyr.

Inmiddels was Pacetti 11 jaar de rechtmatige eigenaar van het beeld. Maar toen was er weer eens geruzie over de Barbarini bezittingen. Twee Barberini zonen bevochten het vermogen, en wisten onder valse voorwendsels en met gebruikmaking van hun machtige naam de politie zo ver te krijgen het beeld (zonder enige schadeloosstelling) bij de eigenaar weg te halen en weer in het Palazzo Barberini onder te brengen. Pacetti stapte naar de rechter, maar wat moest een kleine beeldhouwer tegen de Barberini familie, die een paus en talloze kardinalen had voortgebracht? Na een in 3 instanties gevoerde civiele procedure werd het beeld toegewezen aan de oudste Barberini telg. Deze verkocht het beeld kort daarna voor 8.000 scudi aan kroonprins Ludwig von Bayern, de latere Koning Ludwig I.

Deze transactie geschiedde onder strikte geheimhouding en met haast. Ondertussen verkeerde namelijk ook Beieren op voet van oorlog met Napoleon. De aankoop mocht in Rome dan ook geen opzien baren. Het beeld werd zo geruisloos mogelijk naar het atelier van Thorvaldsen overgebracht. Maar toen dreigde het mis te gaan. De met recht verbitterde Pacetti, die zich door de Barberini familie en de politie bedrogen voelde, wist invloedrijke persoonlijkheden

-waaronder de beeldhouwer Canova- voor zijn zaak te winnen, en ook de plaatselijke politie nu aan zijn kant te krijgen. Het beeld, dat al ingepakt klaar stond om naar Beieren te worden verzonden, werd in beslag genomen en naar het Vaticaan overgebracht. Als argument werd aangevoerd dat Paus Urbanus VIII tweehonderd jaar eerder had vastgelegd dat het beeld nooit verkocht mocht worden.

Er werden talloze compromissen gezocht. Zo mocht Ludwig in plaats van de satyr een paar andere beelden uit de kunstcollectie van het Vaticaan uitzoeken. Ludwig weigerde.

Intussen was Napoleon uit Elba gevlucht en de paus moest opnieuw Rome ontvluchten.

Beieren was weer in oorlog met Frankrijk. Na de inname van Parijs door de grootmachten keerden door Napoleon geroofde kunstschatten terug naar Rome, en het Vaticaan kreeg zijn Apollo van Belvedere en de Laocoongroep terug. Tevergeefs wees Ludwig op zijn inzet daarvoor. Hij bereikte er wel mee dat de satyr op 10 augustus 1816 door 64 dragers in zijn Romeinse verblijf werd binnengedragen. Maar het beeld mocht de stad Rome niet verlaten.

Uiteindelijk heeft een zus van Ludwig voor een oplossing gezorgd. Zij was keizerin van Oostenrijk, en heeft gedurende een bezoek aan Rome tijdens een audiëntie bij de paus een uitvoervergunning voor het beeld bepleit. Een welwillend onderzoek werd hierop toegezegd.

Tandenknarsend heeft de pauselijke regering uiteindelijk toegegeven en zo kon het beeld op 6 november 1819 de lange reis naar Beieren aanvaarden om tijdens het Driekoningenfeest van 1820 in München zijn feestelijke intrede te doen.

(tekst ontleend aan C.H. Beck- Glyptothek München - Meisterwerke Griechischer und Römischer Skulptur).

And for an overview:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/menesje/sets/

 

(FOR EDUCATIONAL NON-COMMERCIAL USE ONLY).

.

 

The most famous Laocoon Group is situated in the Vatican Museum.

 

This is a "Laocoon Group" I found nearby my home.

.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laoco%C3%B6n_and_His_Sons

 

Die berühmte Laokoon Gruppe findet man in den Vatikanischen Museen.

 

Diese "Laokoon Gruppe" fand ich in der Nähe meines Wohnortes.

 

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laokoon-Gruppe

 

Reino : Animalia

Filo : Arthropoda

Classe : Insecta

Ordem : Lepidoptera

Superfamília : Bombycoidea

Família : Saturniidae

Subfamília : Ceratocampinae

Gênero : Citheronia

Espécie : laocoon

Citação : Cramer, 1777

Ciclo a partir de : 25 dias

Planta hospedeira : Goiabeira, mamona, assa-peixe, roseira, etc.

Local : Pedro Leopoldo, MG.

“Barberini Faun”.

Ancient Greek.

From Asia Minor.

Marble.

Glyptothek, Munich.

 

OK, some more information about this unique work of art

 

We see here a satyr reposing on a rock, called the “Barberini Faun”.

The frequently used baroque description “faun” (a Roman deer god) is a misunderstanding as it actually is a satyr.

Satyrs are mythological companions of the god of wine, Dionysos. Male creatures with beastly features. They have pointed ears (that are largely hidden because of the luxuriant hair) and a small horsetail (here visible behind the left thighbone).

All these features however are secondary here. The sculpture is completely dominated by its physique. A powerful young man in such a provocative erotic pose can be only a satyr, who

after a dancing party and excessive drinking exhaustedly settles on a rock. His clothes ( a panther skin) are taken off already.

 

The sculpture was discovered around 1625 in Rome, near the tomb of Roman Emperor Hadrian, the Castel SantÁngelo.

During the discovery Urban VIII (a member of the Barberini family) was elected pope.

He decided to claim the sculpture as his family property. This explains the name of the sculpture.

It’s a marble Greek original from Asian Minor, from where it was transported to Rome.

After the discovery in the twenties of the 17th century the sculpture was exhibited in the Palazzo Barberini during 150 years, where it was revered as one of the highlights of the collection of antiquities.

Inheritance quarrels made the Barberini family decide in 1799 to sell the sculpture. And this is how it could happen that the Roman sculptor and art dealer Vincenzo Pacetti became the new owner. He paid 4.000 scudi for it and replaced the during the discovery already missing limbs ( the right leg and the left arm), hoping that a restored piece of antiquity would make him a rich man.

Indeed the British made him an offer of 13.000 scudi, but the French authorities prevented the deal. Later on the British offered the sum of 20.000 scudi, but then the pope refused the agree with an export of this art treasure. In the meantime Pacetti was already 11 years the rightful owner of the faun statue. But then the Barberini family suddenly wanted their once owned sculpture back. Two sons, heirs of the Barberini fortune, used their mighty names to press the police to remove the sculpture and bring it to the Baberini palace, where it was exhibited again. Of course Pacetti went to Court against the Barberini family. A legal battle between a local sculptor and a family - that had a pope and many cardinals among their ancestors - ended as bad as could be expected. In the end the judge granted the eldest Barberini son the ownership of the faun sculpture. This Barberini descendant did not hesitate to sell “his” faun for the sum of 8.000 scudi to the crown prince of Bavaria, Ludwig who was to become King Ludwig I of Bavaria.

This transaction was surrounded by secrecy: Bavaria was during this deal in war with Napoleon, and it was important to prevent public amazement about this purchase. So the faun was transported on a low profile basis to the studio of the sculptor Thorvaldsen.

In the meantime Pacetti felt deeply deceived by the Barberini family and the local police.

He succeeded to find influential personalities – like the famous sculptor Canova – who shared his anger and were pleased to give him moral support. Only moments before the faun was to be send to Bavaria, the statue was seized and transported to the Vatican.

Ludwig of Bavaria was told that pope Urban VIII had decreed some 200 years earlier that the faun sculpture never was to be sold.

Al kind of compromises were sought to keep friendly relations with Ludwig. He was invited to chose some other statues in the Vatican collections as compensation, but Ludwig refused.

In the meantime Napoleon had fled from Elba and the pope had to find another city for personal safety. Bavaria found it self in war again with France.

After the capture of Paris by the superpowers the art treasures, stolen by Napoleon, were returned to Rome and the Vatican received its famous “Apollo of Belvedere” and the “Laocoon Group” back. In vain Ludwig argued that this return was partly thanks to him.

His argument was nevertheless correct, and this is why, after some time, the Barberini Faun

was brought to Ludwig’s apartments in Rome. It needed 64 men and I suppose a lot of sweat.

This memorable event happened August 10, 1816. Again there was a set back. It was stipulated that this sculpture was never to leave the city of Rome.

Eventually a sister of Ludwig has brought the solution. She happened to be the empress of Austria. During a visit to Rome she decided to visit the pope. So far so good. During her audience she asked frankly for a export licence for the Barberini faun of her brother.

The pope promised his kind attention to the matter. Some time later indeed the export permission was granted, such as we may assume with great reluctance.

It was November 6, 1819 now. During the Twelfth night festivities of 1820 the Barberini Faun was given a warm welcome in Munich, where it embellishes the stupendous art collections of the Glyptothek ever since.

(With thanks to C.H. Beck- Glyptothek München - Meisterwerke Griechischer und Römischer Skulptur)

 

(Information in Dutch: )

 

De Barbarini Faun.

 

We zien hier een satyr afgebeeld. De barokke aanduiding “faun” (een Romeinse hertengod) wordt weliswaar stelselmatig voor dit beeld gebruikt, maar berust eigenlijk op een misverstand. Satyrs, mythologische begeleiders van de wijngod Dionysos, zijn mannelijke wezens met licht dierlijke trekjes. Ze hebben spitse oren (die bij dit beeld goeddeels verborgen gaan onder de weelderige haardos) en een kleine paardenstaart (bij dit beeld zichtbaar achter het linker dijbeen).

Al deze kenmerken zijn echter bij dit beeld ondergeschikt. Het beeld wordt geheel beheerst door de lichaamshouding. Een krachtige jongeman in zo’n bijna provocerend erotische houding kan eigenlijk alleen maar een satyr zijn, die - na zich te hebben uitgeleefd in dans en uitgebreide offerandes aan Bacchus - afgemat op een rots is neergestreken. Tevoren heeft hij zijn kleding (een panterhuid) uitgetrokken.

 

Het beeld werd rond 1625 in Rome gevonden, niet ver van het graf van de Romeinse keizer Hadrianus, de Engelenburcht.

In die tijd van de ontdekking was Urbanus VIII, uit het huis Barberini, paus.

Hij verklaarde het beeld tot zijn eigen familiebezit. Vandaar de naam van het beeld.

Het beeld is een Grieks origineel. Uit Klein Azië is het marmer afkomstig.

Van daaruit werd het beeld naar Rome versleept.

Na de ontdekking in de twintiger jaren van de 17e eeuw heeft het beeld ruim 150 jaar tentoongesteld gestaan in het Palazzo Barberini in Rome, waar het alom werd bewonderd.

In 1799 waren er erfenistwisten rond de Barberini boedel, en zo kon het gebeuren dat het beeld nog datzelfde jaar voor 4.000 scudi werd verkocht. Koper was de beeldhouwer en kunsthandelaar Vincenzo Pacetti.

Hij verving de ten tijde van de ontdekking al ontbrekende lichaamsdelen (rechter been en linker arm). Pacetti deed dit zonder twijfel om het beeld voor meer geld te kunnen doorverkopen. Dit leek ook te gaan lukken toen de Engelsen korte tijd later 13.000 scudi voor het inmiddels gerestaureerde beeld boden. De Franse overheid verhinderde echter deze deal. Later boden de Engelsen zelfs 20.000 scudi, maar toen verbood de paus de uitvoer.

Ook Lucien Bonaparte, die in Napels resideerde, toonde belangstelling voor de satyr.

Inmiddels was Pacetti 11 jaar de rechtmatige eigenaar van het beeld. Maar toen was er weer eens geruzie over de Barbarini bezittingen. Twee Barberini zonen bevochten het vermogen, en wisten onder valse voorwendsels en met gebruikmaking van hun machtige naam de politie zo ver te krijgen het beeld (zonder enige schadeloosstelling) bij de eigenaar weg te halen en weer in het Palazzo Barberini onder te brengen. Pacetti stapte naar de rechter, maar wat moest een kleine beeldhouwer tegen de Barberini familie, die een paus en talloze kardinalen had voortgebracht? Na een in 3 instanties gevoerde civiele procedure werd het beeld toegewezen aan de oudste Barberini telg. Deze verkocht het beeld kort daarna voor 8.000 scudi aan kroonprins Ludwig von Bayern, de latere Koning Ludwig I.

Deze transactie geschiedde onder strikte geheimhouding en met haast. Ondertussen verkeerde namelijk ook Beieren op voet van oorlog met Napoleon. De aankoop mocht in Rome dan ook geen opzien baren. Het beeld werd zo geruisloos mogelijk naar het atelier van Thorvaldsen overgebracht. Maar toen dreigde het mis te gaan. De met recht verbitterde Pacetti, die zich door de Barberini familie en de politie bedrogen voelde, wist invloedrijke persoonlijkheden

-waaronder de beeldhouwer Canova- voor zijn zaak te winnen, en ook de plaatselijke politie nu aan zijn kant te krijgen. Het beeld, dat al ingepakt klaar stond om naar Beieren te worden verzonden, werd in beslag genomen en naar het Vaticaan overgebracht. Als argument werd aangevoerd dat Paus Urbanus VIII tweehonderd jaar eerder had vastgelegd dat het beeld nooit verkocht mocht worden.

Er werden talloze compromissen gezocht. Zo mocht Ludwig in plaats van de satyr een paar andere beelden uit de kunstcollectie van het Vaticaan uitzoeken. Ludwig weigerde.

Intussen was Napoleon uit Elba gevlucht en de paus moest opnieuw Rome ontvluchten.

Beieren was weer in oorlog met Frankrijk. Na de inname van Parijs door de grootmachten keerden door Napoleon geroofde kunstschatten terug naar Rome, en het Vaticaan kreeg zijn Apollo van Belvedere en de Laocoongroep terug. Tevergeefs wees Ludwig op zijn inzet daarvoor. Hij bereikte er wel mee dat de satyr op 10 augustus 1816 door 64 dragers in zijn Romeinse verblijf werd binnengedragen. Maar het beeld mocht de stad Rome niet verlaten.

Uiteindelijk heeft een zus van Ludwig voor een oplossing gezorgd. Zij was keizerin van Oostenrijk, en heeft gedurende een bezoek aan Rome tijdens een audiëntie bij de paus een uitvoervergunning voor het beeld bepleit. Een welwillend onderzoek werd hierop toegezegd.

Tandenknarsend heeft de pauselijke regering uiteindelijk toegegeven en zo kon het beeld op 6 november 1819 de lange reis naar Beieren aanvaarden om tijdens het Driekoningenfeest van 1820 in München zijn feestelijke intrede te doen.

(tekst ontleend aan C.H. Beck- Glyptothek München - Meisterwerke Griechischer und Römischer Skulptur)

 

or 'Laocoön and His Sons'

Marble. 1st century CE.

The Laocoön statue attributed by Pliny the Elder to three Rhodian sculptors, Agesander, Polydorus, and Athenodorus.

Vatican Museums, Vatican City, Italy

The Citheronia laocoon moth is a member of the Saturniidae family and found from the Guianas south to northern Argentina. This fresh male is captive bred.

 

Thanks for your visit… Any comment you make on my photograph is greatly appreciated and encouraging! But please do not use this image without permission.

The Nike of Samothrace, discovered in 1863, is estimated to have been created around 190 BC. It was created to not only honor the goddess, Nike, but to honor a sea battle. It conveys a sense of action and triumph as well as portraying artful flowing drapery through its features which the Greeks considered ideal beauty.

Modern excavations suggest that the Victory occupied a niche in an open-air theater and also suggest it accompanied an altar that was within view of the ship monument of Demetrius I Poliorcetes (337-283 BC). Rendered in white Parian marble, the figure originally formed part of the Samothrace temple complex dedicated to the Great Gods, Megaloi Theoi. It stood on a rostral pedestal of gray marble from Lartos representing the prow of a ship (most likely a trihemiolia), and represents the goddess as she descends from the skies to the triumphant fleet. Before she lost her arms, which have never been recovered, Nike's right arm was raised, cupped round her mouth to deliver the shout of Victory. The work is notable for its convincing rendering of a pose where violent motion and sudden stillness meet, for its graceful balance and for the rendering of the figure's draped garments, compellingly depicted as if rippling in a strong sea breeze. Similar traits can be seen in the Laocoön group which is a reworked copy of a lost original that was likely close both in time and place of origin to Nike, but while Laocoon, vastly admired by Renaissance and classicist artists, has come to be seen[by whom?] as a more self-conscious and contrived work, Nike of Samothrace is seen as an iconic depiction of triumphant spirit and of the divine momentarily coming face to face with man. It is possible, however, that the power of the work is enhanced by the very fact that the head and arms are missing.

The statue’s outstretched right wing is a symmetric plaster version of the original left one. As with the arms, the figure's head has never been found, but various other fragments have since been found: in 1950, a team led by Karl Lehmann unearthed the missing right hand of the Louvre's Winged Victory. The fingerless hand had slid out of sight under a large rock, near where the statue had originally stood; on the return trip home, Dr Phyllis Williams Lehmann identified the tip of the Goddess's ring finger and her thumb in a storage drawer at the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna, where the second Winged Victory is displayed; the fragments have been reunited with the hand, which is now in a glass case in the Louvre next to the podium on which the statue stands.

Sony ILCE 3000 + Helios 44M-4 58mm f/2.0 MC

Rio de Janeiro - Brasil

Familia: Saturniidae

 

Identificado por: Dr. Carlos G C Mielke

 

© Marcos Cesar Campis

Leia meu perfil (readme my profile):

www.flickr.com/people/mcampis/

Saint Petersburg, Russia. State Hermitage Museum

 

Laocoon and her two sons

Pressured storm, tried to move

No other more, emotion bound

Martyred, misconstrued

 

REM lyric

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=iOEl8YQoSro

Reino : Animalia

Filo : Arthropoda

Classe : Insecta

Ordem : Lepidoptera

Superfamília : Bombycoidea

Família : Saturniidae

Subfamília : ceratocampinae

Gênero : Citheronia laocoon (Cramer, 1777)

Ciclo a partir de :

Planta hospedeira : Goiabeira, mamona, assa-peixe, roseira, etc.

Dome of Sala Rotonda, round hall that imitates the Pantheon, lined with ancient statues of emperors and gods

Reino : Animalia

Filo : Arthropoda

Classe : Insecta

Ordem : Lepidoptera

Superfamília : Bombycoidea

Família : Saturniidae

Subfamília : Ceratocampinae

Gênero : Citheronia

Espécie : laocoon

Citação : Cramer, 1777

Ciclo a partir de : 25 dias

Planta hospedeira : Goiabeira, mamona, assa-peixe, roseira, etc.

Local : Pedro Leopoldo, MG.

Laocoon group (copy). Museo de Reproducciones, Bilbao, Spain

This statue group was found in 1506 on the Esquiline Hill in Rome and immediately identified as the Laocoon described by Pliny the Elder as a masterpiece of the sculptors of Rhodes. The story is that during the Trojan War, Laocoon, a priest of Apollo in the city of Troy, warned his fellow Trojans against taking in the wooden horse left by the Greeks, outside the city gates. Athena and Poseidon, who were favoruing the Greeks, sent two great sea-serpents which have wrapped their coils around Laocoon and his two sons and are killing them. From the Roman point of view, the death of these innocents was crucial to the decision of Aeneas, who heeded Laocoon's warning, to flee Troy, and this led to the eventual founding of Rome. Such an important sculpture could not escape the notice of Pope Julius II (1503-1513) who bought it immediately and had it displayed in the Statues Courtyard (Cortile delle Statue), making it the centrepiece of the collection. There has been much debate over the date of the statue, which would seem to have been made around 40-30 B.C.

 

Seen here in the Vatican Museum.

Familia: Saturniidae

 

© Marcos Cesar Campis

Leia meu perfil (readme my profile):

www.flickr.com/people/mcampis/

The Laocoon group. Marble. 1st century A.D.

 

Reino : Animalia

Filo : Arthropoda

Classe : Insecta

Ordem : Lepidoptera

Superfamília : Bombycoidea

Família : Saturniidae

Subfamília : Ceratocampinae

Gênero : Citheronia

Espécie : laocoon

Citação : Cramer, 1777

Ciclo a partir de : 25 dias

Planta hospedeira : Goiabeira, mamona, assa-peixe, roseira, etc.

Local : Pedro Leopoldo, MG.

Bitterly cold outside today, so no chance for plein air really.

Sketch from plaster cast of Laocoon.

The statue of Laocoön and His Sons in the Musei Vaticani in Rome

The Laocoon Group from the Hellenistic period (1st century BC).

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laocoon

www.facebook.com/hectorgomezphotography?ref=hl

 

To see more of my work you can visit:

www.hectorgomezphotography.net/

 

Detail of sculpture. Vatican Museum.

Castellano:

Esta impresionante escultura, superviviente a casi 2000 años de historia, es una de las piezas más representativas del periodo helenístico (50dC) y se atribuye a Agesandros, Polydoros y Athenodoros de Rodas. Mide unos 2m y está esculpida en mármol rosado y blanco. Se encuentra actualmente en los museos Vaticanos.

Este grupo escultórico representa la muerte del sacerdote de Apolo Laocoonte y sus dos hijos a causa del ataque de dos serpientes gigantes.

La tradición nos cuenta que Laocoonte fue el sacerdote de Apolo en Troya que, tras la falsa retirada de los aqueos del sitio de Troya abandonando el caballo de madera frente a las murallas de la ciudad, propuso quemarlo, ya que “desconfiaba de los Griegos incluso cuando traían regalos”.

Parece que no está clara cual fue su ofensa hacia su Dios, si el hecho de haberse casado y tenido hijos en lugar de entregarse enteramente al servicio de Apolo, o lanzar lanzas ardiendo contra el caballo entregado por los griegos en su honor… pero el resultado es que parece que Apolo envió a dos inmensas serpientes marinas para asesinar a sus hijos y Laocoonte acudió en su rescate, pereciendo con ellos.

El dolor y la desesperación son más que visibles en sus rostros, capturados de un modo tan realista en el mármol.

La esposa de Laocoonte era Antíope y los nombres de sus hijos son o bien Antífates y Timbreo, o bien Etrón y Melanto, según el autor.

Laocoon

Ce groupe de facture hellénistique serait l'oeuvre, au Ier siècle av.J.C de 3 sculpteurs rhodiens. Il fut acheté par le Pape Jules II (sur les conseils de Michel Ange) qui le plaça dans la cour de l'octogone du Vatican, où il se trouve toujours… Le sujet du groupe est un épisode de la guerre de Troie relaté dans l'Enéide de Virgile.

Dans la mythologie grecque, Laocoon « celui qui comprend le peuple », est l'un des protagonistes de l'épisode du cheval de Troie. Le mythe représente Laocoon, qui est un prêtre de Poséidon à Troie, fils de Capys et frère d’Anchise. Il met les Troyens en garde contre le cheval de Troie laissé par les Grecs en déclarant « Timeo danaos, et dona ferentes (je crains les Grecs même lorsqu’ils offrent des présents) ». Le prêtre Laocoon s’oppose à l’entrée du cheval dans la ville, lançant même un javelot contre son flanc. Alors que Laocoon pratiquait un sacrifice, 2 serpents monstrueux, envoyés par Poséidon, dieu de la mer et ennemi des troyens, sortirent des flots et l'étouffèrent ainsi que ses deux fils. Les troyens, persuadés qu'il fallait réparer le sacrilège commis par Laocoon en frappant ce présent dédié à la déesse Athéna, firent rentrer le cheval dans la Cité. Ainsi fut conquise, pillée puis oubliée cette fière Cité jusqu'à sa découverte par Schliemann en 1871.

 

Laocoon

This group of Hellenistic invoice would be the work, in the 1st century BC of 3 sculptors rhodiens. It was bought by Pope Julius II (on the advice of Michelangelo) who placed him in the courtyard of the octagon of the Vatican, where he is still ... The subject of the group is an episode of the Trojan War reported in the 'Aeneid of Virgil.

In Greek mythology, Laocoon "the one who understands the people," is one of the protagonists of the episode of the Trojan horse. The myth represents Laocoon, who is a priest of Poseidon in Troy, son of Capys and brother of Anchises. He warns the Trojans against the Trojan horse left by the Greeks by declaring "Timeo danaos, and dona ferentes (I fear the Greeks even when they offer presents)". Priest Laocoon opposes the entry of the horse into the city, even throwing a javelin against his side. While Laocoon was practicing a sacrifice, 2 monstrous snakes, sent by Poseidon, god of the sea and enemy of the Trojans, came out of the waves and smothered him and his two sons. The Trojans, persuaded to repair the sacrilege committed by Laocoon by striking this present dedicated to the goddess Athena, made the horse return to the city. Thus was conquered, pillaged and then forgotten this proud city until its discovery by Schliemann in 1871.

   

Picture taken in Rome - Musei Vaticani - Vatican's Museums

Citheronia laocoon

Fazenda Pedra Negra

Itanhandu, Minas Gerais, Brasil

Sculpture of Laocon and his two sons caught in the coils of serpents (c.50 BC), Pio-Clementine Museum, Vatican Museums. According to Virgil's Aeneid, Laocon was a Trojan priest of Apollo who warned against admitting the Greeks' wooden horse into Troy. This angered Apollo, who sent serpents to kill him and his young sons. Described with admiration by Pliny, this magnificent work of Hellenistic art was discovered on the Esquiline Hill in 1506 and purchased by Pope Julius II.

His holy fillets the blue venom blots;

His roaring fills the flitting air around.

Thus, when an ox receives a glancing wound,

He breaks his bands, the fatal altar flies,

And with loud bellowings breaks the yielding skies.

 

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