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Cynocephali, is the Greek word meaning, Dog-Head. They're a race of legendary creatures with human bodies and dog heads. The legend has North African roots, but is also referenced in the bible stating that St. Christopher is a Cynocephali.

 

Anyway, legend and biblical references aside I wanted to do a series of modern day Cynocephali photos featuring Angel my corgi.

 

I enjoy the concerned look on her face and that she acknowledged the camera for me.

poorfilmstudent.tumblr.com

 

Explored!

Thank you! :D

Another part of my mythology/legends/fairytales series. Check out the others here:

www.flickr.com/photos/silentparadeproductions/sets/721576...

Cynocephali. Circle of Boucicaut Master, Bibliothèque nationale, c. 1410-1412

Al Qazwini 1283

Arabian manuscript

Çegelköy in ancient Bithynia; Turkey

Church of St. George

(Byzantine tradition)

Quotation according:

www.beyond-the-pale.co.uk/dogsaints.htm

Identifier: hieroglyphicasiv00vale

Title: Hieroglyphica, sive, De sacris Aegyptiorvm aliarvmqve gentivm literis commentarij

Year: 1575 (1570s)

Authors: Valeriano, Pierio, 1477-1560 Curione, Celio Augustino, 1538-1567

Subjects: Egyptian language Hieroglyphics Symbols

Publisher: Basileae : Per Thomam Gvarinvm

Contributing Library: Getty Research Institute

Digitizing Sponsor: Sloan Foundation

  

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. Nam, vtoprimeno/.fti, agrcftes homines huiufmodi Paufanias ab Euphemo quodam ex Cariaoriundo vifos traditin infulis Oceani, quo tempeftate delatus fuerit, quuminIcaliam nauigaret. CVmprimis aute Cynocephalus Lunse erathieroglyphicum, propterea quod animalid pari quodam afficitur confenfu cura Lunaecoitu. Nam ipfa eadem hora qua Luna,nulIo iL•luminata candoreSoIi coiundi:atranfit,nobisc^videtur penituseuanuiiTe, Cynocephalus masipfe quoc^ vifu deficere comperitur, nequein/terim cibum capit, fed humi procumbens argrehabet,quafi Luna? raptum ingemifcat. Fccminaveropracterid quod ea quoque luminibusca/pitur,& cum mari pari afficitur aegritudine,faiv guinem infuper cgerit e natura. Quapropter alebantur in templis Cynocepha^ li,ob id porifsinium, vt Solis & Lunae coitus exploratifsinie deprehenderetur» Hinc Cornelius tradit Simias triftes Luna caua: nam affecflus idem omnino in id genus omne difFunditur.quanquam in Cynocephalis & maior bi ex/ ploratior efl;» Lunx L V Ν A.

 

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The Basilique Sainte-Marie-Madeleine is a jewel of Romanesque architecture. The nave was erected within 20 years, from 1120 on, after the preceding church burnt down, with a loss of more than 1000 lifes. The choir and the transept, seen here, were erected 1185 - 1215. They are completed already in gothic style.

 

The relics of Sainte Marie Madeleine, that had been here since around 1050, made Vezelay to a center of pilgrimage (and the starting point of the Via Lemovizensis).

 

But in 1279 dominican monks in Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume claimed to have found the "real" sarcophagus of Sainte Marie Madeleine. Unfortunately the Dominicans found the patronage by Pope Boniface VIII and Charles d'Anjou - and so Vezelay lost it´s importance.

In 1559, during the Wars of Religion, Huguenots looted Vezelay und burnt the relics, that were still in Vezelay. Today there is a golden reliquary in the large, probably carolingian crypt, so obviously at least a part of the relics are still here.

 

Prosper Mérimée and Viollet-le-Duc saved the basilica, that was a ruin in the early 19th century. When Prosper Mérimée started the renovation of the basilica in 1840, he was 26 years old. This was the first task for the young architect..

 

There are three portals in Vezelay, protected by a large narthex. The carvings survived the vandalism of the centuries and are full of details. I have uploaded "totals" on previous visits.

 

Mathew 28, 19-20

 

"Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age."

 

All nations included the mythical "Cynocephali". Already the ancient Greek knew, that they lived on the edge of the world. Here they stand on the edge of the portal's outer archivolt.

 

Karlsruhe BLM

Tombstone of Fabia Stratonice

Side view: Hermanubis

Some of the exotic people are represented as Cynocephali.

 

Dublin, Ireland - Chester Beatty Library 16th century

Miniature painting in islamic manuscript

Marco Polo: Livre des merveilles

BNF ms fr 2810 fol-76v detail

Peuple des cynocéphales d'Andaman

The Kynoképhalos is a Small hominid of ancient and medieval India or Africa. The word means "dog-headed" in Greek. They were supposed to have a barking language, live in caves, wear animal skins, and use a bow and arrows. They stood 2-3 feet tall.

Identifier: cu31924081667796

Title: The palace of Minos : a comparative account of the successive stages of the early Cretan civilization as illustrated by the discoveries at Knossos

Year: 1921 (1920s)

Authors: Evans, Arthur, Sir, 1851-1941 Evans, Joan, 1893-1977

Subjects:

Publisher: London : Macmillan and Co.

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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e Egyptian utensils werecopied. We see the same addition madeto a form of long-spouted libation ves-sels, otherwise closely akin to the usualEgyptian type, reproduced in the Cretanhieroglyphic signary,^ Many other small objects associated with the remains of this Periodpoint to early connexions with Egypt and the further shores of the LibyanSea. Ivory seals such as one from a M. M. II tomb at Mochlos present thedevice of two cynocephali ^ (Fig. 51). The use of ivory itself is a strongindication of trade relations with Egypt.^ A silver cylinder with a verywide perforation found at Mochlos answers in type to an Early DynasticEgyptian class. In the primitive tholos ossuaries such as that of HagiaTriada, moreover, were found indigenous idols or human figures *belonging to this or the ensuing Period which curiously recall the pre-historic types from Naqada and other cemeteries, and reproduce the domed head and pointed chin of the early inhabitants of the Nile Valley. Perhapsto SetandHorus.

 

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Title: "Das neue Buch der Reisen und Entdeckungen. O Spamer's illustrirte Bibliothek der Länder & Völkerkunde, etc. (Unter redaktion von F. von Hellwald und R. Oberländer.) vol. 1"

Author: SPAMER, Johann Gottlieb Christian Otto.

Contributor: HELLWALD, Friedrich Anton Heller von - Baron

Contributor: OBERLAENDER, Richard.

Shelfmark: "British Library HMNTS 10026.g.23."

Volume: 03

Page: 89

Place of Publishing: Leipzig

Date of Publishing: 1870

Issuance: monographic

Identifier: 003455744

 

Explore:

Find this item in the British Library catalogue, 'Explore'.

Download the PDF for this book (volume: 03) Image found on book scan 89 (NB not necessarily a page number)

Download the OCR-derived text for this volume: (plain text) or (json)

 

Click here to see all the illustrations in this book and click here to browse other illustrations published in books in the same year.

 

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On the left: a sciapod

on the right: two cynocephali

 

Hereford Mappa Mundi - modern facsimile

Orientation: Top = East

On the left: Cynocephali (inscription above: cinocephales)

 

Detail from Hereford mappa mundi facsimile from 1869 - Editor Rev. F.T. Hauergal, M.A. Hereford.

In the middle row, from the left:

Duplex (double-headed)

Sciapod (with one big foot)

Blemmyae (headless with face on chest)

cynocephalos (dog-headed)

 

Konrad von Megenberg: Das Buch der Natur; Augsburg 1478

München, BSB-Ink K-45 - GW M16428 - fol-576

Paris, Louvre

Detail d'une plaque d'Ivoire dit "le paradis terrestre"

Alexander building a wall against the people of Gog and Magog

Some of the exotic people are represented as Cynocephali.

Dublin, Ireland - Chester Beatty Library 16th century

Miniature painting in islamic manuscript

Marco Polo: Livre des merveilles

BNF Ms. fr. 2810, fol. 106

Peuple des cynocéphales de Nicobar

by Jordan Saia

 

These are nasty creatures from The Other Normals called cynos. They have human bodies and dog heads. They're tribal and cannibalistic . They're based on the Greek cynocephali: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Schedel%27sche_Weltchronik-Dog...

Identifier: hieroglyphicasiu00vale

Title: Hieroglyphica, siue, De sacris Aegyptiorum literis commentarii, Ioannis Pierii Valeriani Bolzanii Bellunensis

Year: 1556 (1550s)

Authors: Valeriano, Pierio, 1477-1560 Isingrin, M. (Michael), 1500-1557. printer Horapollo. Hieroglyphica

Subjects: Hieroglyphics Emblems Animals Symbolism Conduct of life Symbolism in medicine

Publisher: Basileae : [Michael Isengrin]

Contributing Library: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Digitizing Sponsor: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

  

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nis olim erccftam ait Plinius, oftendit nihil tam abditum & reconditum efrfe,quod ingenrj acumineexeri & palam proferri non pofsit: ita quidem Sphin/ rges. At qui Cynocephali uocantur,corpore funt deformi, ferum omnino,uti diximus initio,atq? indomitum animal,quod nulla ratione modoq? fa?uit:fupercilio afpeduq? funthorrido bCtruci,utgenuina, qua de fupra dicebamus,bilemcx facie pofsis agnofcere. ADdentur 8£ Sileni Cynocephalo,funt e^nim SC hi,ut Paufanias atteftatur, ex Saty^rorum grege, quos cum a?tatis iam prouecftio^ris efle cceperint, Silenos appellare confuerunt:quorum hieroglyphicu erat, diuinitatemin requapiam delitefcere. Eratenim Sileni,utex Platonici Alcibiadis diclo collioimus, imaouncu^Ia?qua?damlectiles,itaconcinnata?,utdiduci&explicari poflen t: qua? ubi claufa? erant, nihil a/liud quam ridiculam & monftrofam quandamtibicinis fpeciem oftentabant:ubi ueroaperie/ bantur, uenerabilenumen aliquodexerebant, HincAlcibiadesSympofio,So/ cratem DIVINA IN OCCVLTO.

 

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Liberfextus. 49 A crate Silenis fimilem e(Tedicit, qubd is longealius effetinterius intuenti^quamfummohabituuideretur, Vndeetiam ZiAkuol«AxiGo^* dici folet,de requa?primafronte uilisac ridicula uideatur,intcrius tamen ac propius contcmplantifit admirabilis, VRINATOR. SEdenim ne reliqua Cynocephali fignificata pra?tereamus,per fimulacrum e>ius iirinatorem etiam intelligebant:quandoquidemanimalia reliquainternatandum obhorrefcere,rugisq? ftrigofafieri perhibentur: unus Cynoccpha/lus,ut apud Horum eft,in quencuncplocum tranare perrexerit, nullo ucl fqualloris uel horroris indicio fcrtur enatare: cuius quidem natationis facilitas unacum literarum peritia,qua? potifsimum in Cy nocephalo difcernuntur,cam animali conciliant laudem,quc dodiis cVexperientibus uiris tribuebatur3uf fcilicet& literas SC natare didiciifent: contra uerb m ignauos & nulli negotio idoncos,nulliusc^difciplina?autexercitr)participes,Athenien{esdicere fo!ebant,|uimvwjuii-Ryf^otTOjnecpquidemnatarejnecpliteras

  

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In 1699 Edward Tyson published Orang-outang, sive homo sylvestris: Or, the anatomy of a pygmie compared with that of a monkey, an ape, and a man. To which is added, a philological essay concerning the Pygmies, the Cynocephali, the Satyrs, and Sphinges of the ancients.

Much has been made of this book being the first comparison of man and chimp based on anatomy alone, but the full title gives the lie to this idea being unique to the history of science. Certainly the importance here of the satyrs and the sphinges should not be discounted.

 

Kiew Psalter

Jesus converts the dog-headed (cynocephalos)

Livre des merveilles

BNF ms fr 2810 fol-76v

Jacob van Maerlant: Der Naturen Bloeme - dogheads

KB.NL Ms. KA16 fol-004r

Dalbyneder kirke vestre skibet hundehoved

Jacob van Maerlant: Der Naturen Bloeme

KB.NL Ms. 76E4 fol-004r

St. Jakob in Kastelaz near Tramin, South Tyrol, Italy

 

A famous example of cynocephalos can be seen in Vezelay:

www.flickr.com/photos/28433765@N07/3347560896/

 

another in the "Livre des merveilles"

www.flickr.com/photos/28433765@N07/3347560336/

Identifier: dawnofcivilizati01masp

Title: The dawn of civilization: Egypt and Chaldaea

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Maspero, G. (Gaston), 1846-1916

Subjects: Civilization

Publisher: London : S.P.C.K.

Contributing Library: Robarts - University of Toronto

Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto

  

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THE LOWER ORDER OF GODS. 83 his rising, even as others in the West hailed him on his entrance intonight.1 It was the duty of certain genii to open gates in Hades, or tokeep the paths daily traversed by the sun.2 These genii were alwaysat their posts, never free to leave them, and possessed no other facultythan that of punctually fulfilling their appointed offices. Their existence,generally unperceived, was suddenly revealed at the very moment whenthe specific acts of their lives were on the point of accomplishment.These being completed, the divinities fell back into their state of inertia,and were, so to speak, reabsorbed by their functions until the next

 

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SOME FABULOUS BEASTS OF THE EGYPTIAN DESERT. ■occasion.4 Scarcely visible even by glimpses, they were not easilydepicted ; their real forms being often unknown, these were approximatelyconjectured from their occupations. The character and costume of anarcher, or of a spear-man, were ascribed to such as roamed through Hades,to pierce the dead with arrows or with javelins. Those who prowled aroundsouls to cut their throats and hack them to pieces were represented aswomen armed with knives, carvers—donit—or else as lacerators—noJctt.51 Some appeared in human form; others as animals—bulls or lions, rams ormonkeys, serpents, fish, ibises, hawks ; others dwelt in inanimate things, 1 This is the subject of a vignette in the Book of the Dead, ch. xvi. (Navilles edition, pi. xxi.A2 and La, pi. xxii. Da), where the cynocephali are placed in echelon upon the slopes of the hill onthe horizon, right and left of the radiant solar disk, to which they offer worship by gesticulations. 2 Masp

  

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Identifier: sacredbeetlepopu00wardrich

Title: The sacred beetle: a popular treatise on Egyptian scarabs in art and history

Year: 1902 (1900s)

Authors: Ward, John, 1832-1912 Griffith, F. Ll. (Francis Llewellyn), 1862-1934

Subjects: Scarabs Egypt -- Antiquities

Publisher: London, J. Murray

Contributing Library: University of California Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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379 507 : ■>J, : \ S&7 i i -i ■ i \ \ > wa. 47a Figures. Animals Hieroglyphs &c * . • ..

 

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IVORY TABLET OF AHA-MENA, B.C. 4777, FROM HIS TOMB. Discovered by de Morgan, translated by Borchardt. PLATE XIV. Scarabs of Various Periods. FIGURES, ANIMALS, HIEROGLYPHS, ETC. 273. Outspread hand. Unknown sign; early scarab.476. Seated female figure before a leaf or shade. 33. Figure with urrei, and lord. 434. Woman worshipping an obelisk, two •¥- between below ^ZZ7.148. Blue glazed bead. Hathor head between two ursei. 90. Jackal passant, urasus in front. 78. Bes between adorning cynocephali and solar discs. 111. King before a deity. 172. King on throne, in sacred boat. Behind him, winged figure,urseus before, etc. 312. Rude scarab, i^. ^^ | <£\ . Unread. 327. Figure with uast sceptre. Maat, goddess of truth, haq sceptre,and feather of truth. 166. Rude engraving of king in his chariot; O |g t^ above (?). 109 IIO THE SACRED BEETLE. [Plate XIV. 407. Fine open work pottery (?) amulet; blue glaze, good work.Obv., God Khonsu, seated, holding uast sceptre. Rev., King standing opposi

  

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Christ & hostile people like Cynocephali or Centaurs

Vaticana BAV Mss Barb gr 372 fol-37r

Barberini Psalter [11th century]

Probably an illustration of Psalm 21

Source:

digi.vatlib.it/view/MSS_Barb.gr.372

Christus & Cynocephali, detail

Vaticana BAV Mss Barb gr 372 fol-37r

Barberini Psalter [11th century]

Source:

digi.vatlib.it/view/MSS_Barb.gr.372

These two tiny cynocephali can be found on the top (which means in the east) near the earthly paradise Eden.

Eden is the little circle on the top with the four streams of paradise.

Please look at:

www.flickr.com/photos/28433765@N07/3382157565/

Identifier: hieroglyphicasiv00vale

Title: Hieroglyphica, sive, De sacris Aegyptiorvm aliarvmqve gentivm literis commentarij

Year: 1575 (1570s)

Authors: Valeriano, Pierio, 1477-1560 Curione, Celio Augustino, 1538-1567

Subjects: Egyptian language Hieroglyphics Symbols

Publisher: Basileae : Per Thomam Gvarinvm

Contributing Library: Getty Research Institute

Digitizing Sponsor: Sloan Foundation

  

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nis olim ere^am aic Plinius, oftendit nihil tam abditum SC reconditum ef/fe,quod ingenrj acumine exeri 8^ palam proferri non pofsinita quidem Sphiriges.At qui Cynocephali vocantur, corpore funtdcformi,ferum omnino,vti di Fximusinino,atcpindomitum animal, quod nullarationemodocpfai^iitrruper/dlio afpeiflucp funt horrido Sc trud, vt genuinam,qua de fupra dicebamus,bi/lem ex fade pofsis agnofccre. ADdentur & Sileni Cynocephalo, funt e/nim δί hi, vt Paufanias atteftatur,cx Saty^rorum gr^ge, quos cum a?tatis iam prouc(5i:io/ris efle cccperint,SiIenos appellare confuerunt:quorum hicroglyphicu erat,diuinitateminrequapiam delitefcere. Erat enim Sileni,vt ex Platonici Alcibiadis άίίϊο colligimus, imaguncuIx qua^dam fed:iles,ita condnnate, vt didud &cxpHcari poflent: quac vbi daufar crant,nihil a^liud quam ridiculam δί monftrofamquandamtibidiiis fpedeni oftentabant: vbi vcro aperie/ bantur,venerabile numen aliquod exerebant. Hinc Aldbiades Sympoiio,Soy cratcm DIVINA IN OCCVLTO.

 

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Libcrfextus. 49 Α cratcmSiienisiimiIeefredidt,qu6dis longealius eiTctinteriusintuenti, quamfummo habitu videretur. Vnde ctiam Σ.t^L•Qlχ^xιξkS^s dici folet,derc qusc primafronte vilis ac ridicula videatur, interius tamen ac propius contempland fitadmirabilis, V R I Ν Α Τ ο R* SEdenim nereliqua Cynocephali fignificata practereamus,per fimulachruineius vrinatorem etiam iiitelligcbaiit:quandoquidem animalia rcliqua internatandum obhorrercere,rugisc|? ftrigofa fieri perhibentur: vnus Cynocepha^lus.vt apud Horum eft,iii quencuncp locum tranare perrexerir, nullo vel fqualloris velhorroris indido fertur enatare: cuius quidem natationis facilitas vnacum literarum periua,quae potifsimum in Cynocephalo difccrnuntur,eam ani^mali codliantlaudem,qua;dod:is bi experientibus viris tribaebatur, vtfdlicet8(Iliteras & natare dididflenncontra vero in ignauos SC nulli iicgotio idoneos,nulliusq? difdplinae aut exerdtrj participes, Athenienfes dicere folcbant, ^n-nvSv,{χκηχβ.ιψ.οι.τ

  

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Identifier: cu31924081667796

Title: The palace of Minos : a comparative account of the successive stages of the early Cretan civilization as illustrated by the discoveries at Knossos

Year: 1921 (1920s)

Authors: Evans, Arthur, Sir, 1851-1941 Evans, Joan, 1893-1977

Subjects:

Publisher: London : Macmillan and Co.

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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Vessels from E. M. I Housefloors, Knossos;Origin ofbutterfly ornament; Clay Boats and Tables of Offering; Proto-types of classical Kernoi ; Mottled Ware ; Comparisons with Early Egyptianspouted vessels; Cynocephali on Ivory Seals; Idols of proto-Egyptian form ;Faience Bowl and Beads ; Influence of Fourth to Sixth Dynasty Stone Vases ;Carinated Bowls; Stone Vases from Mochlos; Relief of Dog; Cylindersund Seals.of Clay and Ivory ; Goldsmiths work ; Flowers and Foliage ; Eyebandages—Embryo Death Masks—anticipations of Mycenae; Copper Armsand Implem.ents ; Votive Double Axes ; Dove pendants ; Chronological limits. This is the epoch at which the Early Minoan cukure of Crete attains E.M. li;its most brilliant development. Our knowledge of the extraordinary advance Earlyin various branches of art achieved during this Period is mainly due to r Tt°rMr. Seagers explorations of the early tombs of the Islet of Mochlos inEastern Crete. Within this Period are also comprised most of the earlier

 

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Fig. 39. Plan of E. M. II Buildings at Vasiliki (Seager) :House on the Hill Top. elements of the primitive tholoi of Hagia Triada, and Messara. Remainsof an E. M. II house to the south of the Palace at Knossos, under-lying M. M. I walls, came to light in 1908, the floors of which produced anabundance of pottery, including the characteristic mottled ware (see Fig. 40),, Two successive plans of buildings found by Mr. Seager at Vasihki, 72 THE PALACE OF MINOS, ETC. ElaborateE.M. IIBuildingsat Vasi-liki. Timberframe-work. PaintedStuccoon Walls. TholosOssu-aries. House-Tombs. But andBen ..Huts. answering to the earlier and later phases of this Period, show that stonebuildings existed of rectangular design and elaborate arrangement, which seemto have been two or three stories high. The later of these plans is shownIn Fig. 39.1 Large sun-dried bricks were used in the upper part of the walls,which were also framed vertically and horizontally with wooden beams; theirinner and outer framework b

  

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Identifier: hieroglyphicasiv00vale

Title: Hieroglyphica, sive, De sacris Aegyptiorvm aliarvmqve gentivm literis commentarij

Year: 1575 (1570s)

Authors: Valeriano, Pierio, 1477-1560 Curione, Celio Augustino, 1538-1567

Subjects: Egyptian language Hieroglyphics Symbols

Publisher: Basileae : Per Thomam Gvarinvm

Contributing Library: Getty Research Institute

Digitizing Sponsor: Sloan Foundation

  

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iaqucdarnernanauit,qua?perpctuacarniurnabfl:inentiafibiconfi;i>tuerunt,quod tame apud eos honcftion de caufa & longe maiohbus argumcntis inftitum: externi tame facerdotes SCpifce, & huiufmodi etiapane veiceban^tur,quo iEgyptrj tantum abftinebantjpifcemcp hi demu omnc, vt Comentariofuo di^umjreligioie admodum abhonebant: eacp potifsimu de caufa.tanto cynocephalum cultu profequebantur, in quo fuac religionis timore obferuarcnt. C I R C V Ν C I S I o. CVmc^ circundiionis ritum y^gyptii rurcepifrentjanimaduertiiTentcp cani/cipites hos circuncifos nafci, rati,no temerc,fed diuinitus danimantiuge- neriidobtigiiTe,maioncoshabuereveneranoni,vnameadem(^cognationem cum tllis omnino profitentes, CircUncidere vero antiquifsimUm fujiTe J^ov^ circuncifio ^ ptioruminftitutum,ab eisqj ntum fumpiifleludajoSjDiodorus fabulat: quem ίί^^^Ρ recutifcnptores quidam alr), proprium hoc,8«ivetus i^gyptiorum arbitrati ^gj^ ^ funr,qucm morem Colchi,vtpotei$^gyptiorum coIoni,necp nonHebrgiapud eos

 

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Liber fcxtus. 48 Α coseducad pofteatenuerint. Sedeorumhxceftfabula, quidiuinarumlitera^rumhiftoriam tam longaannorum ferie apud populos nationescp omnes receptam obfcurare conari funtrcui tamen & Strabo δί Cornelius Tadtus fubfcnVbunt,qui circumcidcregenitalia ludacOrum inftitutum aiTeuqret. Sedenim quiveterum monumenta ftudiofius perfcrutantur, Abrahamum noruntfignumpopulo fuo dediflTe circundfionem,qua fui ab i£gyptiis diftinguerentur. Nonigitur diceretlrena?us,adfimilitudinem cynocephali circuncidehant Άογριή^fedabHebrarisritumhunc iiigypnoruninatio magiia ex parte fufcepit,quscvirum illum per annos multos in TE-gypto degcntem,8^ dc diuinis afsiduc diiTcrentemadmirataeft,pluribus8i veteribus &Inouisrcriptoribus id aiTerentL•bus. Sedfacnihilhoruminueniri, validiusidmihiargumentum eft, quodexhiftoria defumitur, munlaiidorum genitalium legem andquis temporibus po^pularem apud iEgyptios nonfuiiTe: cuiusrei Pharaonis filiam teftem appdlolocuplenfsimam, qua? cum in ri

  

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Identifier: dawnofcivilizati01masp

Title: The dawn of civilization: Egypt and Chaldaea

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Maspero, G. (Gaston), 1846-1916

Subjects: Civilization

Publisher: London : S.P.C.K.

Contributing Library: Robarts - University of Toronto

Digitizing Sponsor: University of Toronto

  

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upon the fields and ravage them.

 

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TWO CYNOCEPHALI IN ADORATION BEFORE THE RISING SUN.* Most of the Nile-gods, Kbnûmû, Osiris, Harshafitû, were incarnate in the formof a ram or of a buck. Does not the masculine vigour and procreativerage of these animals naturally point them out as fitting images of thelife-giving Nile and the overflowing of its waters ? It is easy to understandhow the neighbourhood of a marsh or of a rock-encumbered rapid shouldhave suggested the crocodile as supreme deity to the inhabitants of the 1 Ûapuaîtû, the guide of the celestial ways, who must not be confounded with Anubis of theCynopolite nomc of Upper Egypt, was originally the feudal god of Siût. He guided human soulsto tlio paradise of the Oasis, and the sun upon its southern path by day, and its northern path by night. s Champollion, Rosellini, Lepsius, have held that the Typhonian animal was a purely imaginaryone, and Wilkinson says that the Egyptians themselves admitted its unreality by representing italong with other fantastic be

  

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Identifier: ioannispieriival00vale

Title: Ioannis Pierii Valeriani Bellvnensis Hieroglyphica, sive, De sacris Ægyptiorvm aliarumq gentium literis commentariorum libri LVIII : cum duobus alijs ab eruditissimo viro annexis : accesserunt loco auctarij, Hieroglyphicorum collectanea, ex veteribus & recentioribus auctoribus descripta, & in sex libros digesta : Horapollinis item hieroglyphicorum libri duo, ex postrema Dauidis Hschelij correctione : prætereà eiusdem Pierij declamatiuncula pro barbis sacerdotum, & reliqua opuscula siue poemata omnia

Year: 1614 (1610s)

Authors: Valeriano, Pierio, 1477-1560 Horapollo. Hieroglyphica Curione, Celio Augustino, 1538-1567. Hieroglyphicorum commentariorum liber prior-secundus. 1614

Subjects: Horapollo Emblems Animals Symbolism

Publisher: Coloniae Agrippinae [Cologne] : Sumptibus Antonij Hierati bibliopolæ

Contributing Library: Getty Research Institute

Digitizing Sponsor: Sloan Foundation

  

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atim cogitarim amici-tiam tam honefta de caufa oiim vobifcum initam, aliquo teftiinomo comprobare. Atque ita Cynocephali Agy- ]pttaci Commentariim (idenim ob varietatem ipfampr£cipueplacuit)nomim tuo nuncupaui. Argumentum qui-dtm, ntfime ftudiorum meorum ratiofalltt,forte non tndignum, quodtu tanta vir erudittonis euoluas, quo in le-.indo,tametfinihilttbtleilionumomniumhelluomnouumoccurrerit,faltem,vnnexergatebemolentiaftgnumfit atque monumentum, opto. I

 

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N C A P. I. Am Cynoccphali,quemLatincO»ia/)j«w interpretabimur,hieroglyfhica,tummuIta funt.tumeonulluinapudifgypciosfan6i:ius^nimal,neque facratius fuit. Eadem pene forma eft.

  

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Title: The cyclopædia of anatomy and physiology

Identifier: cyclopdiaofana0401todd

Year: 1847 (1840s)

Authors: Todd, Robert Bentley, 1809-1860

Subjects: Anatomy; Physiology; Zoology

Publisher: London, Sherwood, Gilbert, and Piper

Contributing Library: MBLWHOI Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MBLWHOI Library

  

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202 QUADRUMANA. four-footed Mammalia. The same analogy with these appears in the disposition of the lumbar vertebras. Their number is six or seven, and their articular or oblique processes are bifurcated, and give origin to a styloid process, which serves to increase the strength of the lumbar part of the vertebral column, and is therefore to be found in the greater number of the quadrupeds, There is no true sacrum ; but two or three sacral vertebrae, forming a conical series, are separately united to the iliac bones, in the same manner as in the Carnivora. The pelvis is much more elongated and cylindrical than in the Chimpanzee, and consequently more approximate to the type of the quadrupeds. The iliac bones are very long, but narrow, with a posterior concave, and an anterior convex surface. The pubic symphysis is very long; the ischiatic tuberosities are curved outwards, broad, and form a semicircular surface for the insertion of the ischial callo- sities, which serve the Mandrills as a secure and commodious seat, when they are disposed to sleep or repose after the violent and fa- tiguing motions which they habitually exe- cute. By all these peculiarities it is manifest that the Mandrill is much more remote from man than the Chimpanzee, and a superficial examination of the two skeletons (figs. 121 and 122) will be sufficient to show the great differ- ence existing between them. Between these two extremes are ranged the other genera of Monkeys of the Old World, as I have stated in the above-mentioned book. I take the liberty to refer to it for more details, and principally for the gradual deviation, by which the vertebral column of the Chimpanzee passes, by the intermediate forms of the Orang- cetan, the Gibbons, the Scmnopitheci, the Inui, to that of the Cynocephali; but I think it necessary to make an exception for the Sia- mang, because the anthropo-morpJwus disposi- tion is more distinct in this ape than in any other, and even more than in the Chimpanzee or Orang-cetcin. The ascending processes of the superior surfaces of the bodies of the cervical vertebra; ; the inclination of the spines from the fourth to the ninth dorsal vertebra? ; the number of five lumbar vertebras ; their in- creasing strength and breadth backwards ; the form of their transverse and spinal processes; the true sacrum, and the quite anthropo- morphous disposition of the iliac bones, make the vertebral column of the Siamang (as may be seen mfig. 123) approach the most to that of man. The same conformity with man ap- pears in the sternum of the Siamang. It is composed of the same portions as the ster- num of man, viz. the manubrinm, the body of the bone, and the xyphoidal appendix; but it is proportionally broader and shorter, and the body consists of two symmetrical parts. In the sternum of the Chimpanzee there is more analogy with the structure in inferior ani- mals. It has a separate manubrium, want- ing the semi-lunar incision of that of man. It is connected with a series of osseous seg- ments, and with a xyphoid appendix. In the Orang-cetan all these segments, and some- times also the manubrium, are separated in two symmetrical parts. Consequently it offers the division proper to the sternum of man, in Fig. 123.

 

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Skeleton of the Siamang. (Original, Mus. Vrolik.) the earliest periods of foetal life, but con- tinuing to exist sometimes by deformity, as has been proved by Otto* and Breschet.-f- In the other Monkeys, and principally in the Mandrill, there is no conformity at all with the sternum of man. The manubrium is * Otto, in the above-mentioned pamphlet, f G. Breschet, Eech. sur diffe'rentes pieces du Squclette des Animaux Verte'bres; Ann. de Sc. Natur. Aout, 1838.

  

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Title: Conradi Gesneri medici Tigurini Historiae animalium liber primus de quadrupedibus viuiparis : opus philosophis, medicis, grammaticis, philologis, poëtis, & omnibus rerum linguarumq́ue variarum studiosis, vtilissimum simul iucundissimumq́ue futurum

Identifier: ConradiGesnerimIGessA

Year: 1602 (1600s)

Authors: Gessner, Conrad, 1516-1565; Schmarda, Ludwig K. (Ludwig Karl), 1819-1908, former owner. DSI; National Zoological Park (U. S. ), former owner. DSI

Subjects: Pre-Linnean works; Zoology

Publisher: Francofurti : In Bibliopolio Cambieriano

Contributing Library: Smithsonian Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Biodiversity Heritage Library

  

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Slmtjs dmrfts, B.t>,E.H, Lih T. ts7 |jelIaiit,aliudcercopithecorumgeniisbarbatum,minuspriore:idquefimi!iterinm diujditur: ita vtquatuorcercopithecorum generafint,maghitU£iinedifFcrentia: quorum miriimum inftarfciuri fere eft. Et '«qiibniam mirisgefl:iculationibus,&vocisvtaudiomutationibusdiuerfiscercopitheci, prajfertim minorcsvtu- tur,monachum velalium hiftrionice cohcionantem Angli Vulgo munkay cognbminant Ccrcopitheci caudas liabent: hx'c fola difcretio eftinterprius didas,Solinus.Simiascaadatas ab hominibusdifFcrrein neruorum fe* ric:Delumborumvertebrisineis& proc^/Tibus earundem: Itcm quod careanttertio mufculo digitos manu$ inoucntium, And.Vefaliuisin Fabricacorp.hum.Locos exIndiccrequires.Mamonetus hiinoreft fimia, in dor- rofufcus,inventrecandidus:caudamhabctlongam&villofam,collum ^quecrai(ruhiaccaput: quamobrcmi- iibus (ventrejnon coUo alligatur,ne laqueus pofritclabi.Caput habctrotundum,&faciem prorfus humansB fi- Q milem habet,nigram &fine pilisacollo vfque fuprafrontem. Nafus einon continuusorivtin fimia, (ed certo interuallo di{cretus,vtin homine,IfidoruS & AlbertUs.CercopithecUs h^bet tefticulos c;Erulei fcre ac viridis co- loris: Vndequjcdam mulierculaaliquando huius beftise tefticuloS conIpiciens,quam bellos (inquit)& quantos Turcos in iifto ahimante video: Lajpidem illura fcii gemlna viridem defignans: quibiis verbis omnibus aftanti- busrifiim mouitjluftinus Goblcrus. C. Aethiopia generftt ccrcopithecoSjdiflimiles csteris vocc,&c.PIinius. Cercopithccos defidcrio carnis co* ipiedcndaccorreptos,caudamfibipr2Broderevidemus.AnimalcftcorporeprorfusagiIi. ' Simiarum(inquitIo.LcoAfricanus)variarfuntfpecies,quarum qu^e caudam ^QXuntfMowx^Hijpanicovet Afiicano vocabuh) dicuntur: alix vcroBabuini. Reperiunturin MauritaniseKyluisBugi£e& Conftantina: monti- bu$.Humanamfaciemnonpedibusmbd6&iTiahibus,fedvultuctiamreferunt,admirandoingenioaftutiaque a natura dotata?. Herbis & granb nutriuntur,&fpicas paftiir^ magno comitatu incedimt. Earum vna ad Hmitei capiexcubansjfi perccpto agricbla clamorem ediderit,reliqusE in fugam maximis fdtubus in proximaS arbores infilientes aguntur.Fdeminse catulos humeris geftant,cum quibiis paritcr ex arborein aliam dcfiliunt. QiyB ex Ijs edod£ funt,res patrant incredibiles: verum iracundaz funt & crudek$,tametfi facile placentur. b. Ludicrum&adionum hominisaEmulum,Mich.Herus. Induftria: &fagacitatisinterbrutaquidampri-. Thas partes canibus tribuunt,alij elephantis,alij cereopithecis,Cardanuis. Quibus in fimiarum genere caudafit, Lunacaiidatriftesefieaiuht,nbuamcxUltationeadorare,Plihius.Ihter mamonetos&fimias odium eft impla- ' cabile bellumque freqnens: illi quamuis impares viribus,aftutia tamen 8c animofitatebellandi fimijs prsferun- tutjIfidorus&Albertus.Cercopitheci crocodilbsintueritahtopcre perhbrrent,vt nelonginquum quidem cro- codliina: pellis confpedlum ferre poffint: ac nimirum potius per ignes &aquas effugiant. Quod quidem ipfum Cum cxperifer, & ex altiftima feneftella cohditum crbcodilhm his longointeruallodiftantibusoftenderem, cum clamore,&alui dciedione,& tremoire,& fi vinciilis cohftri(5li tenebantur,per obiedos ignes & aquas eua- dere furentef conabaatur,Gillius. Cercopitheci quotnodo capiantur,in Simia E.ex Strabohe f etuIi.CaIecuthenfibus noccnt,liquorcex quQ vmumillicohficiuntinarboribusefFu(o,&vafiseuerfis,vtin A.dixi. Pellesminoribus cercopithecis detra<^ * ipadiceocolorejfibenememini/apellionibhsadveftinientaparariaudiui. Quiddubitatisnrumnuncfitiscercbpitheci,An colttbraf,ahbelluar? Varro Eudxmonibus citanteNo- ihio.Cercopes, (Ki^-Auim^,) genus fimiaruHi,EtymoIogiis.CercOpithecum Pancrotem foencratorem,& vrbanis rufticifque praedijs locupletatum.Cl.Nero Csefar propc regio extulit funere,Suetonius. Eftigies facri nitet aiif ea ^cercopithecijluuenalis Sat.15.de animalib.quxin Aegypto coluhtur.Arabes ad Memnonium Cercopithecum • t<2lodicafunt,illiusopeminrcbusaffli6tisimplorantes,Gyraldus. C 0 R c H b LI p I s, genus fimi» vltima parte caudse Villoifaj Feftius.An x€^k*ajtttiV, k^iim t T^i^nav; ' ah potius Ki^y^-m^i^\ t)E CEPO. E p V s, KiTTr^, genus fimi j caudatse homen tulit a colof um varietate,(a corporis & aitatis decore, Diodorus Sic.) qua fimiliter infignis fpedatur,vt hoftus floribus diuerfis confitus, vt inferius ex Aclianorecitabo.ApudAriftbtelem k?3:copyright:- per/3. fcribitur,GazacsBbumtransfert:aliquicriam csepumperae.diphthongum fcribunt,a!ij cephum t alij etiam ineptius, vt cepphum vel celphum: <So *?a95^^ quii x^T@- fed m7r(^ 1 Wmintercete,id< ^ . /r t* • in cercopitheco A.a qua voce Graecos cepum vcl cebum denominaflc aliquis conijciat. Cebusfimiagerenscaiidameft,Ariftotel. (Albertus, vel Auicennapotius,pro cebotrinsfertkybor.) Et :furfus,CebiomnescaudamhabentPartesverointerioreshumanisfimiks,generahxc^fimiarum)omniacon, tinentEtalibi,Sunt quae natura ancipitepartim hominera,parrim quadrupedem imitentur, velut fimi^, cebi, cynocephali.Ex his Ariftotelis verbis cebum a cercopitheco dido,id eft fimpliciter caudata fimia non eft diftin- guercpraefertim cum neque cebi alibi meminerit: cercopitheci vero nufquam.Strabo,Aelianus, & Plinius dis^ tineuunt,vtverbiseorum iam recitandisapparebit. Pompeii Magni primumludioftenderunt chaum: lidera ex Acthiopia,quos vocant cephos, quorum pcdes ' ^ ° *^ Cccc I pofteriore*

 

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