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Dated May 20, 1976.

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Class overview

 

Builders: Wärtsilä Turku Shipyard, Turku, Finland

Operators: Numerous

Built: 1975–1976

In service: 1975–present

Completed: 5

Active: 4

Retired: 1

 

General characteristics (as built)[1]

 

Type: cruiseferry

Tonnage: 16,331 GRT

2,251 metric tons deadweight (DWT)

Length: 156.27 m (512 ft 8 in)

Beam: 22.05 m (72.34 ft)

Draught: 5.90 m (19.36 ft)

Depth: 16.31 m (53.51 ft)[2]

Decks: 9[3][4]

Ice class: ICE-C[5]

Installed power: 2 × Wärtsilä-Pielstick 18PC2V diesels

combined 13240 kW

Propulsion: Two propellers[6]

Speed: 21.50 kn (39.82 km/h)

Capacity: 872 passengers[2]

480 passenger berths[2]

256 cars

Crew: 216[2]

 

The Belorussiya class cruiseferries (sometimes also referred to as the Gruziya class)[3] were built by Wärtsilä Turku Shipyard, Finland in 1975–1976 for the Black Sea Shipping Company, Soviet Union. The five ships in the class were originally used in ferry service around the Black Sea. During the 1980s all ships in the class were rebuilt into cruise ships. During the end of the 1990s all ships in the class were sold to other operators.[7] As of 2008, at least four ships in this class are in service.[1][8][9][10][11] The effects of the new SOLAS regulations that came into effect in 2010 remain unknown

  

Azerbaizhan

 

The Azerbaizhan was launched on 14 April 1975 and delivered on 18 December 1975. She was named after the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. The Azerbaizhan was converted to a cruise ship at Lloyd Werft, West Germany in 1986.[9][20] In early 1996 she was transferred under the ownership of Blasco UK, transferred under Liberian flag and renamed Arkadia, but already in July 1996 she reverted to Ukrainian flag. In 1997 she was chartered to SeaEscape, United States under the name Island Holiday.[9] In 1998 she was chartered to Commodore Cruise Lines and renamed Enchanted Capri.[9][21] In 2001 she was laid up, until chartered to Señor Demar of Mexico in 2003. Demar purchased the ship on 1 November 2006.

 

is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia,[5] it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to the south. The exclave of Nakhichevan is bounded by Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, while having a short borderline with Turkey to the northwest. The majority-Armenian populated Nagorno-Karabakh region in the southwest of Azerbaijan declared itself independent from Azerbaijan in 1991, but it is not diplomatically recognised by any nation and is still considered a de-jure part of Azerbaijan.

 

Azerbaijan, a nation with a majority Turkic[6][7] and Shi‘ite Muslim[8] population, is a secular and a unitary republic with an ancient and historic cultural heritage. Azerbaijan was the first successful attempt to establish a democratic and secular republic in the Muslim world.[9][10] Azerbaijan is one of the founder members of GUAM and the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, and joined the Commonwealth of Independent States in September 1993.[11] A Special Envoy of the European Commission is present in the country, which is also a member of the United Nations, the OSCE, the Council of Europe, and the NATO Partnership for Peace (PfP) program.

 

Eymology

The name of Azerbaijan derives from Atropates, a satrap of Persia under the Achaemenid Empire, that was later reinstated as the satrap of Media under Alexander of Macedonia. The original etymology of this name is thought to have its roots in the ancient religion of Zoroastrianism. In Avestan Frawardin Yasht ("Hymn to the Guardian Angels"), there is a mention of âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide, which literally translates from Old Persian as "we worship the Fravashi of the holy Atare-pata".

 

Atropates ruled over the region of Atropatene (present-day Iranian Azerbaijan). The name "Atropates" itself is the Greek transliteration of an Old-Iranian, probably Median, compounded name with the meaning "Protected by the (Holy) Fire". The Greek name is mentioned by Diodorus Siculus and Strabo, and it is continued as ādurbādagān in the Pahlavi geographical text Shahrestānihā i Erānshahr. The word is translatable as both "the treasury" and "the treasurer" of fire in Modern Persian.

 

History

Antiquity

The earliest evidence of human settlement in the territory of Azerbaijan dates to the late Stone Age and is related to the Guruchay culture of the Azykh Cave, where archeological evidences promoted the inclusion of Azerbaijan into the map of the ascent man sites of Europe. The Upper Paleolithic and late Bronze Age cultures are attested in the caves of Tağılar, Damcılı, Zar, Yataq-yeri and in the necropolises of Leylatepe and Saraytepe. The area was conquered by the Achaemenids around 550 B.C.E., leading to the spread of Zoroastrianism.

Later it became part of Alexander the Great's Empire and its successor Seleucid Empire. Caucasian Albanians, the original inhabitants of the area, established an independent kingdom around the fourth century B.C.E.

Early Iranian settlements included the Scythians in the ninth century BC. Following the Scythians, Iranian Medes came to dominate the area to the south of the Aras. The Medes forged a vast empire between 900–700 BC, which was integrated into the Achaemenids Empire around 550 BC.

During this period, Zoroastrianism spread in the Caucasus and Atropatene. Ancient Azaris spoke Ancient Azari language, which belonged to Iranian branch of Indo-European languages.

Middle Ages

In 252 C.E., the Sassanids turned it into a vassal state, while King Urnayr officially adopted Christianity as the state religion in the fourth century. Despite numerous conquests by the Sassanids and Byzantines, Albania remained an entity in the region until the ninth century. The Islamic Umayyad Caliphate repulsed both the Sassanids and Byzantines from the region and turned Caucasian Albania into a vassal state after the Christian resistance, led by Prince Javanshir, was suppressed in 667.

The power vacuum left by the decline of the Abbasid Caliphate was filled by numerous dynasties such as the Sallarids, Sajids, Shaddadids, Rawadids and Buyids. At the beginning of the eleventh century, the territory was gradually seized by waves of Turkic Oghuz tribes from Central Asia. The first of these Turkic dynasties was the Ghaznavids, which entered the area now known as Azerbaijan by 1030.

Turkification of Azaris was completed only By the late 1800s. The old Iranic speakers found solely in tiny isolated recesses of the mountains or other remote areas (such as Harzand, Galin Guya, Shahrud villages in Khalkhal and Anarjan). Today, this Turkic speaking population is also known as Azeris.

Locally, the possessions of the subsequent Seljuq Empire were ruled by atabegs, who were technically vassals of the Seljuq sultans, being sometimes de facto rulers themselves. Under the Seljuq Turks, local poets such as Nizami Ganjavi and Khagani Shirvani gave rise to a blossoming of Persian literature on the territory of present-day Azerbaijan. The next ruling state of the Jalayirids was short-lived and fell under the conquests of Timur.

The local dynasty of Shirvanshahs became a vassal state of Timur's Empire and assisted him in his war with the ruler of the Golden Horde Tokhtamysh. Following Timur's death two independent and rival states emerged: Kara Koyunlu and Ak Koyunlu. The Shirvanshahs returned, maintaining a high degree of autonomy as local rulers and vassals from 861 until 1539. During their persecution by the Safavids, the last dynasty imposed Shia Islam upon the formerly Sunni population, as it was battling against the Sunni Ottoman Empire.

 

Modern Era

After the Safavids, the area was ruled by the Iranian dynasties of Afshar and Zand and briefly by the Qajars. However, while under Persian sovereignty de facto self-ruling khanates emerged in the area, especially following the collapse of the Zand dynasty and in the early Qajar era. The brief and successful Russian campaign of 1812 was concluded with the Treaty of Gulistan, in which the shah's claims to some of the Khanates of the Caucasus were dismissed by Russia on the ground that they had been de facto independent long before their Russian occupation.

The khanates exercised control over their affairs via international trade route between Central Asia and the West. Engaged in constant warfare, these khanates were eventually incorporated into the Russian Empire in 1813, following two Russo-Persian Wars. The area to the North of the river Arax, amongst which the territory of the contemporary republic of Azerbaijan were independent territory until they were occupied by Russia.

Under the Treaty of Turkmenchay, Persia recognized Russian sovereignty over the Erivan Khanate, the Nakhchivan Khanate and the remainder of the Lankaran Khanate.

Azerbaijan Democratic Republic

After the collapse of the Russian Empire during World War I, Azerbaijan, together with Armenia and Georgia became part of the short-lived Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. When the republic dissolved in May 1918, Azerbaijan declared independence as the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR). The ADR was the first modern parliamentary republic in the Muslim World.

Among the important accomplishments of the Parliament was the extension of suffrage to women, making Azerbaijan the first Muslim nation to grant women equal political rights with men. In this accomplishment, Azerbaijan also preceded the United Kingdom and the United States. Another important accomplishment of ADR was the establishment of Baku State University, which was the first modern-type university founded in Muslim East.

By March 1920, it was obvious that Soviet Russia would attack the much-needed Baku. Vladimir Lenin said that the invasion was justified as Soviet Russia could not survive without Baku oil. Independent Azerbajian lasted only 23 months until the Bolshevik 11th Soviet Red Army invaded it and establishing the Azerbaijan SSR on April 28, 1920.

Although the bulk of the newly formed Azerbaijani army was engaged in putting down an Armenian revolt that had just broken out in Karabakh, Azeris did not surrender their brief independence of 1918–20 quickly or easily. As many as 20,000 Azerbaijani soldiers died resisting what was effectively a Russian reconquest.

Despite existing for only two short years, the multi party Azerbaijani Parliamentary republic and the coalition governments managed to achieve a number of measures on national and state building, education, creation of an army, independent financial and economic systems, international recognition of the ADR as a de facto state pending de jure recognition, official recognitions and diplomatic relations with a number of states, and preparing of a Constitution, equal rights for all. This has laid an important foundation for the re-establishment of independence in 1991.

 

Soviet Azerbaijan

In October 13, 1921, the Soviet republics of Russia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia signed an agreement with Turkey known as the Treaty of Kars. The previously independent Naxicivan SSR would also become autonomous ASSR within Azerbaijan by the treaty of Kars. On the other hand, Armenia was awarded the region of Zhangezur and Turkey agreed to return Alexandropol (Gymri).

In March 12, 1922, under heavy pressure from Moscow, the leaders of Azerbaijan, Armenian, and Georgian Soviet Socialist Republics established a union known as the Transcaucasian SFSR. This was the first attempt at a union of Soviet republics, preceding the USSR. The Union Council of TSFSR consisted of the representatives of the three republics – Nariman Narimanov (Azerbaijan), Polikarp Mdivani (Georgia), and Aleksandr Fyodorovich Miasnikyan (Armenia). The First Secretary of the Transcaucasian Communist Party was Sergo Ordzhonikidze. In 1936, TSFSR was dissolved and Azerbaijan SSR became one of the constituent member states of the Soviet Union.

During World War II, Azerbaijan played a crucial role in the strategic energy policy of Soviet Union, much of the Soviet Union's oil on the Eastern Front was supplied by Baku. By the Decree of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in February 1942, the commitment of more than 500 workers and employees of the oil industry of Azerbaijan was awarded orders and medals. Operation Edelweiss carried out by the German Wehrmacht targeted Baku because of its importance as the energy (petroleum) dynamo of the USSR. Some 800,000 Azerbaijanis fought well in the ranks of the Soviet Army of which 400,000 died and Azeri Major-General Azi Aslanov was awarded twice Hero of the Soviet Union.

 

Restoration of independence

Following the politics of glasnost, initiated by Mikhail Gorbachev, civil unrest and ethnic strife grew in various regions of the Soviet Union, including Nagorno-Karabakh, a region of the Azerbaijan SSR. The disturbances in Azerbaijan, in response to Moscow's indifference to already heated conflict, resulted in calls for independence and secession, then led to the Pogrom of Armenians in Baku, and subsequently culminated in the events of Black January in Baku. At this time, Ayaz Mütallibov was appointed as the First Secretary of the Azerbaijan Communist Party.

Later in 1990, the Supreme Council of the Azerbaijan SSR dropped the words "Soviet Socialist" from the title, adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty of the Azerbaijan Republic and restored the modified flag of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic as a state flag. On 8 September 1991, Ayaz Mütallibov was elected president in nationwide elections in which he was the only candidate.

On 18 October 1991, the Supreme Council of Azerbaijan adopted a Declaration of Independence which was affirmed by a nationwide referendum in December 1991, when the Soviet Union was officially dissolved. The early years of independence were overshadowed by the Nagorno-Karabakh War with neighboring Armenia. By the end of hostilities in 1994, Azerbaijan lost control of up to 16% of its territory, including Nagorno-Karabakh itself. An estimated 30,000 people had been killed and more than a million had been displaced.

Four United Nations Security Council Resolutions (822, 853, 874, and 884) called for "the withdrawal of occupying forces from occupied areas of the Azerbaijani Republic". In 1993, democratically elected president Abülfaz Elçibay was overthrown by a military insurrection led by Colonel Surat Huseynov, which resulted in the rise to power of the former leader of Soviet Azerbaijan, Heydar Aliyev.

In 1994, Surat Huseynov, by that time a prime minister, attempted another military coup against Heydar Aliyev, but Huseynov was arrested and charged with treason. In 1995, another coup attempt against Aliyev, by the commander of the OMON Militsiya special unit, Rovshan Javadov, was averted, resulting in the killing of the latter and disbanding of Azerbaijan's OMON units.

 

Geography

Azerbaijan is in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia, straddling Western Asia and Eastern Europe. Three physical features dominate Azerbaijan: the Caspian Sea, whose shoreline forms a natural boundary to the east; the Greater Caucasus mountain range to the north; and the extensive flatlands at the country's center.

 

The total length of Azerbaijan's land borders is 2,648 km (1,645 mi), of which 1007 are with Armenia, 756 with Iran, 480 with Georgia, 390 with Russia and 15 with Turkey. The coastline stretches for 800 km (497 mi), and the length of the widest area of the Azerbaijani section of the Caspian Sea is 456 km (283 mi). The territory of Azerbaijan extends 400 km (249 mi) from north to south, and 500 km (311 mi) from west to east.

 

The three mountain ranges are the Greater and Lesser Caucasus, and the Talysh Mountains, together covering approximately 40% of the country. The highest peak of Azerbaijan is mount Bazardüzü (4,466 m), while the lowest point lies in the Caspian Sea (−28 m). Nearly half of all the mud volcanoes on Earth are concentrated in Azerbaijan.

 

The main water sources are the surface waters. However, only 24 of the 8,350 rivers are greater than 100 km (62 mi) in length. All the rivers drain into the Caspian Sea in the east of the country. The largest lake is Sarysu (67 km²), and the longest river is Kur (1,515 km), which is transboundary. Azerbaijan's four main islands in the Caspian Sea have a combined area of over thirty square kilometres.

 

Other infos

 

Oficial Name:

Azarbaycan Respublikasi

 

Independence:

Declared August 30, 1991

- Completed December 25, 1991

 

Area:

86.600km2

 

Inhabitants:

8.643.000

 

Languages:

Armenian [hye] Nagorno-Karabakh Region. Alternate names: Haieren, Somkhuri, Ermenice, Armjanski. Dialects: Western Armenian. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian

 

Avar [ava] 44,000 in Azerbaijan (1989 census). Northwest, Zaqatala and Balakan regions. Alternate names: Avaro, Dagestani. Dialects: Zaqatala (Zakataly, Char). Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Avar-Andic, Avar

 

Azerbaijani, North [azj] 6,069,453 in Azerbaijan (1989 census). 4,000,000 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 7,059,529. Azerbaijan, and southern Dagestan, along the Caspian coast in the southern Caucasus Mountains. Also spoken in Armenia, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia (Asia), Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Azerbaijan, Azeri Turk, Azerbaydzhani. Dialects: Quba, Derbend, Baku, Shamakhi, Salyan, Lenkaran, Qazakh, Airym, Borcala, Terekeme, Qyzylbash, Nukha, Zaqatala (Mugaly), Qabala, Yerevan, Nakhchivan, Ordubad, Ganja, Shusha (Karabakh), Karapapak. Dialect differences are slight. The Qazakh dialect is not related to the Kazakh language. Significant differences from South Azerbaijani in phonology, lexicon, morphology, syntax, and loanwords. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani

 

Budukh [bdk] 1,000 (1990). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1990 A. E. Kibrik). Quba Region. Alternate names: Budux, Budug, Bukukhi, Budugi. Dialects: Budukh, Yergyuch. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, South Lezgic

 

Judeo-Tat [jdt] 24,000 in Azerbaijan (1989 census). Northeast, especially Quba Region Baku, and Derbent (Russia). None in Iran. Alternate names: Judeo-Tatic, Jewish Tat, Bik, Dzhuhuric, Juwri, Juhuri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat

 

Khalaj [kjf] Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern

 

Khinalugh [kjj] 1,500. Quba. Alternate names: Khinalug, Xinalug, Khinalugi. Dialects: The most divergent Lezgian language. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Khinalugh

 

Kryts [kry] 6,000 (1975 SIL). Quba. Alternate names: Kryz, Kryc, Kryzy, Katsy, Dzek, Dzhek, Dzheki. Dialects: Kryts, Dzhek, Xaput (Khaput), Yergyudzh, Alyk. Dialects are quite distinct; perhaps separate languages. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, South Lezgic

 

Kurdish, Northern [kmr] 20,000 in Azerbaijan (1989 census). Originally around Basargechar, Minkend, Kubatly, Zangelan, especially Kelbajar and Lachin. Many have been displaced. Alternate names: Kurmanji, Kurmancî, Kurdî. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish

 

Lezgi [lez] 171,400 in Azerbaijan (1996). Near the northeastern border with Russia and on the southern slopes of the main Caucasus chain. Alternate names: Lezgian, Lezghi, Lezgin, Kiurinty. Dialects: Quba. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, East Lezgic

 

Talysh [tly] 800,000 in Azerbaijan (1996). Population total all countries: 912,000. Along the Caspian coast south of the Viliazh-Chai River. There may be speakers in Central Asia and Siberia. Also spoken in Iran. Alternate names: Talish, Talesh, Talyshi. Dialects: Astara, Lenkoran, Lerik, Massali. Northern Talyshi is in Azerbaijan and Iran. Dialects in Azerbaijan are close. Dialects in Iran may be separate languages. Close to Harzani. Agajani and Sasani may be dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh

 

Tat, Muslim [ttt] 18,000 in Azerbaijan (1989 census). Population total all countries: 26,000. Ethnic population: 22,041 in Azerbaijan (1990 A. E. Kibrik). It may be declining around Baku, but still widely used in the mountainous area around Qonaqkend. Also spoken in Iran, Russia (Europe). Alternate names: Mussulman Tati, Muslim Tat, Tati. Dialects: Quba, Devechi, Qonaqkend, Qyzyl Qazma, Aruskush-Daqqushchu (Khyzy), Absheron, Balakhani, Surakhani, Lahyj, Malham. Difficult intelligibility of Judeo-Tat. Close to Farsi. It has vowel harmony like Azerbaijani. Balakhani are recent exiles from Iran, and their language is very close to Farsi. Lahyj may be a separate language. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat

 

Tsakhur [tkr] 13,000 in Azerbaijan (1989 census). Population total all countries: 20,073. Ethnic population: 13,318 in Azerbaijan (1989 census). Northwest. Also spoken in Russia (Europe), Uzbekistan. Alternate names: Sakhur, Tsaxur, Tsakhury, Caxur. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic, Nuclear Lezgic, West Lezgic

 

Udi [udi] 4,200 in Azerbaijan (1995). Population total all countries: 5,720. Qabala, Nic, and Mirzabeyli villages, and Oghuz, Oghuz town. Most Udi are reported to have left Oghuz. Also spoken in Georgia, Russia (Asia), Turkmenistan. Alternate names: Udin, Uti. Dialects: Oghuz (Vartashen), Nidzh (Nij, Nic, Nizh), Oktomberi. Oktomberi is more different from Nic Udi than Oghuz Udi is. One of the most divergent of the Lesgian languages. Classification: North Caucasian, East Caucasian, Lezgic

 

Capital city:

Baku

 

Meaning of the country name:

Native spelling Azərbaycan (from surface fires on ancient oil pools; its ancient name, (Media) Atropatene (in Greek and Latin) or Atrpatakan (in Armenian), actually referring to the present-day Azerbaijan region of Iran. The name became Azerbaijan in Arabic. The Persians knew the territory of the modern republic of Azerbaijan as "Aran"; and in classical times it became "(Caucasian) Albania" and, in part, "(Caucasian) Iberia", although this last term corresponds mostly to the present-day republic of Georgia. (See Georgia below.) The region of Media Atropatene lay further to the south, located south of the River Araxes. "Aran" may derive from the same root as modern "Iran", while "Albania" and "Iberia" appear as toponyms of Caucasus mountain derivation. The name "(Media) Atropatene" comes from Atropates ("fire protector" in Middle Persian) who ruled as the independent Iranian satrap at the time of the Seleucids. The modern ethnonym 'Azerbaijani' has often become the subject of sharp differences of opinion between the ethnically Turkic inhabitants of the modern republic of Azerbaijan and the inhabitants of the Persian-dominated neighboring republic of Iran. Iranians regard the names "Azerbaijan" and "Atropatene" as expressions of historically Persian culture, and therefore often refer to the modern republic of Azerbaijan as "Turkish Azerbaijan", and to its inhabitants as "Azerbaijani Turks". In contrast, Turkophone Azerbaijanis insist on their own place as an historically continuous presence in Azerbaijani history. The suffix -an in Persian means "land".

 

Description Flag:

The flag of Azerbaijan (Azerbaijani: Azərbaycan bayrağı) is one of the national symbols of Azerbaijan and consists of three equal horizontal bands, from top: blue, red, and green; a white crescent and an eight-pointed star (Rub El Hizb) are centered in the red band. The eight points of the star stand for the eight branches of the Turkic people. The blue band is the color of the Turks, the green is for Islam and red is for progress. The official colours and size were adopted on February 5, 1991. The flag is used on land as the civil, state and war flag, and at sea as the civil, state and naval ensign and naval jack. The specific shades of the national flag were laid out in a 2004 law.

 

Coat of arms:

The Coat of arms of Azerbaijan mixes traditional and modern symbols. The focal point of the emblem is the fire symbol, that is an ancient symbol of the Azeri land, and comes from the name of the nation.

The colors used in composing the emblem are taken from the national flag. These colors are found in the background behind the eight pointed star (۞ Rub El Hizb) upon which the flame is shown. The star itself stands for the eight branches of the Turkic peoples, and between each point of the star, there is a smaller eight pointed star found.

Like other post-Soviet republics whose arms do not predate the October Revolution, the current arms retains some components of the Soviet one. At the bottom of the emblem is a stalk of wheat, representing the main agricultural product of the nation, which was also part of the earlier arms. The other plant represented at the bottom is oak.

 

Motto:

"The flag once raised will never fall!"

 

National Anthem: March of Azerbaijan, Azərbaycan marşı

 

Azeri

Azərbaycan! Azərbaycan!

Ey qəhrəman övladın şanlı Vətəni!

Səndən ötrü can verməyə cümlə hazırız!

Səndən ötrü qan tökməyə cümlə qadiriz!

Üç rəngli bayrağınla məsud yaşa!

Üç rəngli bayrağınla məsud yaşa!

Minlərlə can qurban oldu,

Sinən hərbə meydan oldu!

Hüququndan keçən əsgər!

Hərə bir qəhrəman oldu!

Sən olasan gülüstan,

Sənə hər an can qurban!

Sənə min bir məhəbbət

Sinəmdə tutmuş məkan!

Namusunu hifz etməyə,

Bayrağını yüksəltməyə,

Namusunu hifz etməyə,

Cümlə gənclər müştaqdır!

Şanlı Vətən! Şanlı Vətən!

Azərbaycan! Azərbaycan!

Azərbaycan! Azərbaycan!

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Cirilic

Азәрбајҹан!, Азәрбајҹан!

Еј гәһрәман өвладын шанлы Вәтәни!

Сәндән өтрү ҹан вермәјә ҹүмлә һазырыз!

Сәндән өтрү ган токмәјә ҹүмлә гадириз!

Үч рәнҝли бајрағинла мәсуд јаша!

Үч рәнҝли бајрағинла мәсуд јаша!

Минләрлә ҹан гурбан олду,

Синән һәрбә мејдан олду!

Һүгугундан кечән әсҝәр!

Һәрә бир гәһрәман олду!

Сән оласан ҝүлүстан,

Сәнә һәр ан ҹан гурбан!

Сәнә мин бир мәһәббәт

Синәмдә тутмуш мәкан!

Намусуну һифз етмәјә,

Бајрағыны јүксәлтмәјә,

Намусуну һифз етмәјә,

Ҹүмлә ҝәнҹләр мүштагдыр!

Шанлы Вәтән! Шанлы Вәтән!

Азәрбајҹан!, Азәрбајҹан!

Азәрбајҹан!, Азәрбајҹан!

 

English

 

Azerbaijan! Azerbaijan!

O Great Land, your children are heroes.

We are ready to be martyred for you.

We are ready to shed blood for you.

Three-coloured flag, flourish honourably!

Thousands of lives have been sacrificed.

Your bosom has become a battlefield.

Every devoted soldier

Has become a hero.

You are prospering.

My life is always dedicated to you.

My love for you is embedded in my heart

A thousand and one times.

To preserve everything

And to honour her flag

All the youth are willing.

Great Land! Great Land!

Azerbaijan! Azerbaijan!

 

Internet Page: www.azerbaijan.az

www.azerbaijan.tourism.az

 

Azerbaijan in diferent languages

 

eng | cym | eus | jav | lin | swa: Azerbaijan

bre | ina | ron: Azerbaidjan

dan | fao | nor: Aserbajdsjan

deu | ltz | nds: Aserbeidschan / Aſerbeidſchan; Aserbaidschan / Aſerbaidſchan

ita | lld | rup: Azerbaigian

roh-enb | roh-eno | roh-srs: Aserbaigian

ast | spa: Azerbaiyán

csb | pol: Azerbejdżan

fry | nld: Azerbeidzjan

hat | wln: Azerbaydjan

ind | msa: Azerbaijan / اذربيجان

kin | run: Azerbayija

tur | zza: Azerbaycan

afr: Aserbeidjan; Azerbaidjan

arg: Azerbayán; Azerbaiyán; Azerbaxán

aze: Azərbaycan / Азәрбајҹан

bam: Azɛrɛbayijan

bos: Azerbejdžan / Азербејџан

cat: Azerbaidjan; Azerbaitjan

ces: Ázerbajdžán; Ázerbájdžán

cor: Aserbayjan

crh: Azerbaycan / Азербайджан

dsb: Azerbajdžan

epo: Azerbajĝano

est: Aserbaidžaan

fin: Azerbaidžan; Azerbaidzhan

fra: Azerbaïdjan

frp: Azèrbayidj•an

fur: Azerbaigjian

gag: Azerbaycan / Азербайӂан

gla: Asarbaidean; Asarbajan

gle: An Asarbaiseáin / An Asarbaiseáin

glg: Acerbaixán

glv: Yn Asserbajaan

hrv: Azerbejdžan; Azerbajdžan

hsb: Azerbajdźan

hun: Azerbajdzsán

ibo: Azabaijan

isl: Aserbaídsjan

jnf: Azerbaidgian

kaa: Aʻzerbayjan / Әзербайжан

kmr: Azêrbaycan / Азербайщан / ئازێربایجان; Azirbêcan / Азьрбещан / ئازربێجان

kur: Azerbayican / ئازەربایجان; Ezerbayican / ئەزەربایجان

lat: Azerbaidzania; Adrabigania; Aderbeigania; Aderbigania; Atropatia

lav: Azerbaidžāna

lim: Azerbaidzjan

lit: Azerbaidžanas

mlg: Ajerbaidzana

mlt: Ażerbajġan

mol: Azerbaidjan / Азербайӂан

mri: Hēbaitiana

nrm: Azérie

oci: Azerbaitjan

por: Azerbaidjão; Azerbaijão

que: Asarsuyu

rmy: Azerbaijan / आज़ेर्बाइजान

roh-gri: Aserbeidschan

scn: Azzirbaiggian

slk: Azerbajdžán; Azerbajdžan

slo: Azerbia / Азербиа

slv: Azerbejdžan; Azerbajdžan

sme: Aserbaižan

smg: Azėrbaidžians

smo: Asepaiana

som: Asarbajaan; Aserbajaan

sqi: Azerbajxhani

srd: Azerbaijàn

swe: Azerbajdzjan

tet: Azerbaijaun

tgl: Aserbayan; Aserbadyan

tly: Azırboycon / Азырбојҹон

ton: Asēpaisani

tuk: Azerbeýjan / Азербейҗан; Azerbaýjan / Азербайҗан

uzb: Ozarbayjon / Озарбайжон

vie: Ai-déc-bai-gian

vol: Lasärbaycän

vor: Asõrbaidžaan

wol: Aserbayjaan

abq | alt | che | chm | chv | kbd | kjh | kom | krc | oss | rus | tyv | udm | ukr: Азербайджан (Azerbajdžan)

kum | lez | tab: Азербайжан (Azerbajžan)

kir | mon: Азербайжан (Azerbajǧan)

ava: Азарбижан (Azarbižan)

bak: Әзербайжан / Äzerbayjan

bel: Азербайджан / Azierbajdžan; Азэрбайджан / Azerbajdžan

bul: Азърбайджан (Azǎrbajdžan); Азербайджан (Azerbajdžan)

kaz: Әзірбайжан / Äzirbayjan / ءازىربايجان

lbe: Азирбижан (Azirbižan)

mkd: Азербејџан (Azerbejdžan)

srp: Азербејџан / Azerbejdžan

tat: Азәрбайҗан / Azärbaycan

tgk: Озарбойҷон / آذربایجان / Ozarbojçon

ttt: Азербижан (Azerbižan)

xal: Азербайҗән (Azerbajǧän)

ara: أزربيجان (Azarbayǧān); آذربيجان (Āḏarbayǧān); أذربيجان (Aḏarbayǧān)

azb: آذربایجان / Azərbaycan

ckb: ئازەربایجان / Azerbaycan; ئازرباجان / Azirbaycan

fas: آذربایجان (Āẕarbāyejān)

prs: اذربایجان (Aẕarbāyjān); آذربایجان (Āẕarbāyjān)

pus: اذربايجان (Aẕarbāyjān); آذربايجان (Āẕarbāyjān)

uig: ئەزەربەيجان / Ezerbeyjan / Әзәрбәйҗан

urd: آذربائیجان (Āẕarbāʾījān); آذربائجان (Āẕarbāʾijān)

div: އަޒަރުބައިޖާން (Ażaruba'ijān)

syr: ܐܕܪܒܝܓܢ (Adarbaygan)

heb: אזרביג׳ן / אזרבייג׳ן (Azerbayjan); אזרבאיג׳אן (Azerbâyjân)

lad: אזירבאייג'אן / Azerbaydjan

yid: אַזערבײַדזשאַן (Azerbaydžan)

amh: አዘርባይጃን (Ăzärbayjan); አዜርባይጃን (Ăzerbayjan)

ell-dhi: Αζερμπαϊτζάν (Azermpaïtzán)

ell-kat: Ἀζερμπαϊτζάν (Azermpaïtzán); Ἀζερμπαϊντζάν (Azermpaïntzán)

hye: Ադրբեջան (Adrbeǧan)

kat: აზერბაიჯანი (Azerbaiǧani)

hin: आज़र्बैजान (Āzarbæjān); अज़रबैजान (Azarbæjān)

ben: আজারবাইজান (Ājārbāijān)

guj: અજરબેયજાન (Ajarbeyjān)

pan: ਅਜ਼ਰਬਾਈਜਾਨ (Azarbāījān)

kan: ಅಜೇರ್ಬೈಜಾನ್ (Ajērbaijān)

mal: അസര്ബെയ്ജാന് (Asarbeyjān); അസര്ബൈജാന് (Asarbaijān)

tam: அஸர்பைஜான் (Asarpaijāṉ); அஜர்பைஜான் (Ajarpaijāṉ)

tel: అజర్బైజాన్ (Ajarbaijān)

zho: 阿塞拜疆 (Āsèbàijiāng)

jpn: アゼルバイジャン (Azerubaijan)

kor: 아제르바이잔 (Ajereubaijan)

mya: အဇာဘုိင္ဂ္ယန္ (Ázabʰaĩjã)

tha: อาเซอร์ไบจาน (Āsə̄[r]baičān); อาเซอร์ไบจัน (Āsə̄[r]baičân)

lao: ອາແຊັກບາຍຊັນ (Āsækbāysân)

khm: អាហ្ស៊ែរបែហ្សង់ (Āhsærbæhsăṅ); អាហ្សែបៃហ្សង់ (Āhsæbaihsăṅ)

 

De gauche à droite et de haut en bas :

 

- Géorgie ()

- Vlassov (Russische Befreiungsarmee ouРусская освободительная армия, ou Russkaya osvoboditel’naya armiya)

- Vlassov (Russische Befreiungsarmee ou Русская освободительная армия, ou Russkaya osvoboditel’naya armiya)

- Don (Heeresgruppe Don)

- Don Cossack (Don-Kosaken-Reiter-Regiment 5 )

- Russie (1. Russische Nationalarmee)

 

- Kuban ()

- Kuban Cossack (Kuban-Kosaken-Kavallerie Bataillon)

- Armenia ()

- Turkistan ()

- Turkistan ()

- Turkistan ()

 

- Caucasus ()

- Terek Cossack (Terek-Kosaken-Reiter-Regiment 6)

- Terek ()

- Azerbaidzhan ()

- Kalmuck (Kalmüken Verband Dr. Doll)

- Crimean Tatar ()

 

- Volga Tatar ()

- Volga Tatar ()

- Volga Tatar ()

- Ukraine ()

- Ukraine ()

- Siberian Cossack (Sibirisches Kosaken-Reiter-Regiment 2)

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Russia 1 - Azerbaidzhan 0

Title: Cooperative economic insect report

Identifier: cooperativeecono1742unit

Year: 1967 (1960s)

Authors: United States. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine; United States. Plant Pest Control Branch; United States. Plant Pest Control Division; United States. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service. Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs

Subjects: Insect pests Control United States Periodicals

Publisher: Washington, D. C. : U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Administration, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine

Contributing Library: U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library

Digitizing Sponsor: U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agricultural Library

  

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- 951 - INSECTS NOT KNOWN TO OCCUR IN THE UNITED STATES A MOSQUITO (Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles) Economic Importance: This species is considered to be the most important vector of Japanese B encephalitis in the Oriental regibn. As many as 6,000 cases with nearly 4,000 deaths occurred in the summer of 1924 in Tokyo. Death rates in epidemics have ranged from 40 to 70 percent among the Japanese. The disease, a virus which attacks the central nervous system, is somewhat similar to western (WE) and eastern (EE) encephalitis in the United States. A related species of mosquito, Culex tarsalis Coq., is a principal vector of WE in the U. S. Outbreaks of Japanese B encephalitis are sporadic in humans. Culex tr itaeniorhynchus pre- fers to feed on cattle and pigs. Occasionally, the species feeds on birds. Distribution: Bonin Islands, Burma, Central African Republic, Ceylon, China (Manchuria), Dahomey, Egypt, Gambia, Ghana, Guam, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Kenya, Korea, Lebanon, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia, Maldive Islands, Mozambique, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (including Okinawa), Saudia Arabia, Senegal, Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Turkey, Viet-Nam, U.S.S.R. (Armenia, Azerbaidzhan, Georgia, and Turkmen).

 

Text Appearing After Image:

Diptera: Culicidae No. 170 of Series

  

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Title: Bulletin of the Natural Histort Museum. Geology series

Identifier: bulletinofnatura52natu

Year: 1996 (1990s)

Authors: Natural History Museum (London)

Subjects:

Publisher: Andover : Intercept

Contributing Library: Natural History Museum Library, London

Digitizing Sponsor: Natural History Museum Library, London

  

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36 R.W. JONES AND M.D. SIMMONS Chokrakian to Karaganian Reservoirs in Indol Kuban and Terek Caspian Foredeeps and Eastern Azerbaidzhan

 

Text Appearing After Image:

\Karagan ^^ > ^^ > / r Fig. 9 Palaeogeographic reconstruction, Chokrakian to Karaganian (Middle Miocene). Key as for Fig. 7. The location of the Karaganian strato- type is indicated. Chenopodiaceae probably indicates the local development of salt-marshes. Karaganian (Fig. 9) The Karaganian takes its name from a locality on the Mangyshlak Peninsula in Kazakhstan (Likharev, 1958). It is Middle Miocene on regional evidence (see above). Direct biostratigraphic evidence is lacking. The Spaniodcmtella Beds of Northern Iran appear correlative (Stocklin & Setudehnia, 1971, 1972). Micropalaeontology. Only non-age-diagnostic, quasi-marine, smaller benthonic foraminifera were recorded by Mamedova (1971) and Azizbekov (1972) from the Karaganian of Azerbaijan. These include Nonion hogdcmowiczi. The fish otoliths Rhombus coriiis and R. coriiis hmagadinica are regarded as index-species for the Karaganian in Azerbaijan (E.Z. Ateava, pers. comm., 1994). Pulynology. Only non-age-diagnostic palynomorphs were recorded by Dzhabarova (1973) from the Karaganian of the Middle Kura Depression. Pollen spectra are characterised by relatively high incidences of tree taxa, which indicates a forested hinterland. The predominance of Betula (birch) indicates a climatic regime similar to that of the present-day taiga or forest-tundra. Konkian (Fig, 10) The Konkian takes its name from a river in the Ukraine (a tributary of the Dniepr) (Likharev, 1958). It is of Middle Miocene age on regional evidence (see above). Direct biostratigraphic evidence is lacking. The Pholas Beds of Northern Iran appear correlative (Stocklin & Setudehnia, 1971, 1972). Micropalaeontology. Only non-age-diagnostic, quasi-marine, smaller benthonic foraminifera were recorded by Bogdanowicz (1965) from the Konkian of the western Precaucasus and by Mamedova (1971) and Azizbekov (1972) from the Konkian of Azerbaijan. These include Rotalia [Ammonia] ex gr. heccarii (smaller benthonic), which has a cosmopolitan distribution and probably ranges no older than Middle Miocene (RWJ's unpublished observations), Articulina gihbosa and Miliolina [Quinquelocidina] haidingerii, both of which have also been recorded in the Badenian of Central Paratethys (Papp & Schmid, 1985), and Articulina elongata konkensis. Bulimina konkensis and Elphidium nachischevanicus, all of which are endemic to Eastern Paratethys. Bulimina konkensis and Elphidium kudakoense. together with the fish otolith Trigla konkensis, are regarded as index-species for the Konkian in Azerbaijan (Podobinae/a/., 1956; Mamedova, 1971). Shishova (1955) and Gasanova (1965) recorded the following diatoms from the Konkian of Eastern Azerbaijan: Actinocyclus ehrenhergi, A. rafsii, Asterolampra marylandica. Cocconeis placentula lineta, C. scutelum, Coscinodiscus radiatus, C. oculus and Melosira sulcata. Coscinodiscus radiatus was considered particularly typical. Patynology. Only non-age-diagnostic palynomorphs were recorded by Dzhabarova (1973) from the Konkian of the Middle Kura Depression. Pollen spectra are characterised by relatively high incidences of tree taxa, which indicates a forested

  

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Azerbaidzhan had some of the most vocal fans at the Finals.

Title: Cooperative economic insect report

Identifier: cooperativeecon171967unit

Year: 1951 (1950s)

Authors: United States. Animal and Plant Health Service. Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs; United States. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine; United States. Plant Pest Control Division

Subjects: Beneficial insects; Insect pests

Publisher: Hyattsville, MD. [etc. ] Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs Animal and Plant Health Service

Contributing Library: Smithsonian Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Biodiversity Heritage Library

  

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Text Appearing Before Image:

- 951 - INSECTS NOT KNOWN TO OCCUR IN THE UNITED STATES A MOSQUITO (Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles) Economic Importance: This species is considered to be the most important vector of Japanese B encephalitis in the Oriental regibn. As many as 6,000 cases with nearly 4,000 deaths occurred in the summer of 1924 in Tokyo. Death rates in epidemics have ranged from 40 to 70 percent among the Japanese. The disease, a virus which attacks the central nervous system, is somewhat similar to western (WE) and eastern (EE) encephalitis in the United States. A related species of mosquito, Culex tarsalis Coq., is a principal vector of WE in the U. S. Outbreaks of Japanese B encephalitis are sporadic in humans. Culex tritaeniorhynchus pre- fers to feed on cattle and pigs. Occasionally, the species feeds on birds. Distribution: Bonin Islands, Burma, Central African Republic, Ceylon, China (Manchuria), Dahomey, Egypt, Gambia, Ghana, Guam, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Kenya, Korea, Lebanon, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia, Maldive Islands, Mozambique, Nigeria, Pakistan, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (including Okinawa), Saudia Arabia, Senegal, Syria, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Turkey, Viet-Nam, U.S.S.R. (Armenia, Azerbaidzhan, Georgia, and Turkmen).

 

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Adult Female Larval Siphon and Terminal Segments Diptera: Culicidae No. 170 of Series

  

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Azeri flag in the darkness

Title: Cooperative economic insect report

Identifier: cooperativeecon191969uni

Year: 1951 (1950s)

Authors: United States. Animal and Plant Health Service. Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs; United States. Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine; United States. Plant Pest Control Division

Subjects: Beneficial insects; Insect pests

Publisher: Hyattsville, MD. [etc. ] Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs Animal and Plant Health Service

Contributing Library: Smithsonian Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Biodiversity Heritage Library

  

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INSECTS NOT KNOWN TO OCCUR IN THE UNITED STATES CLOUDED PEACH BARK APHID (Pterochlorus persicae (Cholodkovsky)) Economic Importance: The species is a serious pest of peach and related fruits particularly in the Middle East, Persistent attacks have led to the death of the trees in 10-15 years in Georgia and Armenia of the USSR. Severe infestations have been reported in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Pakistan. Damage is caused by the aphid sucking the sap from the bark and branches. As a result, fruit falls pre- maturely and trees become weakened. In extreme cases, no fruit is produced and growth is retarded. The large amount of honeydew, accumulating on the trees, gives them a smothered appearance because of the sooty molds which grow on the honeydew. Aphids, by the thousands, may obscure areas of the branches. Distribution: Afghanistan, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Pakistan, Syria, Turkey, and USSR (Armenia, Azerbaidzhan, Crimea, Georgia, Murgab, Turkestan, and Uzbekistan). Generally distributed in southern Europe to central Asia. Hosts: Almond, apple, apricot, cherry, citrus, peach, nectarines, pear, plum, and quince.

 

Text Appearing After Image:

General Distribution of Pterochlorus persicae (Cholodkovsky) Life History and Habits: Under conditions in West Pakistan, the biology is as follows: Reproduction may be parthenogenetic or sexual. Both viviparous and oviparous females occur. In Israel, males were not found (Bodenheimer 1957), but they have been recorded elsewhere. Oviposition occurs in December and Janu- ary in the Northwest Frontier Province of- Pakistan. Eggs, deposited in clusters on the stems and branches, average over 350 per female. They are not in definite rows but are scattered in the cluster. The species overwinters in the egg stage and hatching begins in March. Immatures thrust their stylets into the bark and suck the sap. The stem mothers produce about 30 living nymphs each. In the spring, four generations of apterous viviparous females occur, each lasting 25-30 days. The multiplication rate is greatly reduced from July through September. Homoptera: Aphididae (Lachninae) No. 183 of Series - 809

  

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