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not my picture found it on the internet.. come to find out it was taken by a fellow Flicker his name is austinTX....check out his photos a very good photographer


Thank You


Cluck!! Cluck!!! **Lets hear what pool your from..if not I'll peck U.


This guy didn't mind posing,seemed to like the shiny Fuji F10 opposed to my Panasonic Fz5 that he kept pecking at.




Found @

Go to the LARGE SIZE of this image to see it display correctly--it's an animated GIF file, only it doesn't animate on Flickr when it is displayed at smaller sizes. The animation shows the progression of the outbreak over time.


Yes, I am a worrywart about bird flu.


Ducks are poultry too! If you need a shed or other poultry accommodation mucking out we can help!


The Old Mill,


Woodhall Spa,


LN10 6YQ

66211469 - measles virus. 3d illustration showing structure of measles virus with surface glycoprotein spikes heamagglutinin-neuraminidase and fusion protein

Or is it just another case of bird flu? A creative way to express "Twitter is down"?


An ornamental finch, toppled over, in a jeweler’s window.

Bahnhofstrasse, Zurich/Switzerland.


20.09.05- Thai Pha Mai Village, Dind Soo Son District 50 kilometres north of Hanoi- Ho Van Thu and his son Ho Van Ba tending their 600 ducks. Customers kill then pluck their own ducks near the lake they were brought. For a further look please visit my Website. Or STUDY with me at my London & Thai based Photo-School.

Finished painting of North and Central America for the Avian Flu Awareness Project at Walled City. The Arrow indicates the path of migratory birds from Alaska to California.

This is actually the cover of my microbiology book, with what the avian flu might look like if it mutates into a form that can be spread from human to human. Crazy stuff!


Scientists probe why 1918 flu was so deadly

Last Updated Fri, 06 Feb 2004 12:33:05


VANCOUVER - A new study of the 1918 influenza epidemic that killed 20 million people suggests that it may be easier for bird flu viruses to develop the ability to spread between people than originally thought.




Two teams of researchers in Britain and the U.S. analysed samples of the virus from victims of the 1918 outbreak to reconstruct the 3D structure of a key infectious protein.


50,000 Canadians died in the 1918 flu epidemic


The 1918 flu virus was probably so deadly because of its unique, bird-like protein, the scientists say.


Like the current outbreak of bird flu in east Asia, the 1918 influenza appears to have jumped from birds to people with few changes along the way.


The study doesn't directly relate to today's bird flu strain, which doesn't seem to be able to easily infect many people.


* RELATED STORY: UN agencies call for poultry vaccination to fight bird flu


But the findings suggests it may take fewer genetic adaptations than thought for bird flu to gain the ability to spread between people.


The research "underscores our concern that influenza viruses from a bird reservoir can adapt to humans, can become a major threat," said Dr. Danuta Skowronski of the B.C. Centre for Disease Control.


Bird flu vs. human flu

Sugar cube-sized lung samples were preserved from victims of the 1918 flu. Researchers at Scripps Institute in La Jolla, Calif., and at Britain's Medical Research Council used the samples to study the 1918 flu in detail, and compare it with other bird and human flu strains.


Scientists believe small mutations in the spike-like protein, called hemagglutinin or H1, allowed the 1918 flu virus to infect new species. How our immune systems recognize and react to hemagglutinin also helps determine how deadly the strain is.


The 1918 strain "looks more like an avian virus – with some human characteristics," said Scripps lead investigator Ian Wilson, a molecular biology professor.


Importance of surveillance

One of the main questions researchers have about the 1918 flu is whether it entered humans from pigs or another mammal that caught it from birds, or if it jumped directly from birds to humans.


Direct bird-to-human transmission is rare and has the potential to be more deadly. Wilson said the findings don't rule out that the 1918 flu made a brief stop in pigs before infecting people.


The hemagluttinin from the 1918 virus is in a different family, H1, than the H5-bird flu now affecting Asia, said the lead British investigator, Sir John Skehel, director of MRC.


"The results show us how the [1918] virus was able to bind to human receptors and to spread from one human cell to another human cell," said Skehel.


Both teams say understanding what makes the virus so deadly and able to live and spread in humans is key to preventing and controlling future epidemics.


The research appears in the Feb. 5 online edition of the journal Science.

Installation view of the "Death Is On The Wing" component of the Avian Flu Awareness Project show at The Loft in San Pedro. The Avian Flu Awareness Office will be open to the public 1st Thursday, November 3rd, 6-10 PM and otherwise available by appointment.


This is one of 5 large wall paintings/pieces/diagrams that are part of the show.

Maskuerade Ball Project, tie-string surgical masks

Viet-Tiep Hospital, Hai Phong Province, Nothern Vietnam- Nurses working at the infectious disease department of Viet-Tiep Hospital. For a further look please visit my Website. Or STUDY with me at my London & Thai based Photo-School.


*A jump rope ditty of the 1920s.


Sources (all statistics and quotes were taken from these sources).


Collier, Richard. The Plague of the Spanish Lady: The Influenza Pandemic of 1918-1919. Allison and Busby. 1996.


Crosby, Alfred W. America's Forgotten Pandemic: The Influenza of 1918. Cambridge University Press. 1990.


The Influenza Pandemic of 1918.


Monessen Daily Independent, October 5, 8, 14, 21, 22, 24, 26, 29, Nov 5, 20, Dec 1.


Monessen News, October 18, 25, 29, November 22, 26, Dec. 3.


List of Monessen Dead Published in the Monessen Daily on December 10, 1918


This list contains the names of people who died in Monessen and were buried in Grandview Cemetery. It, like all the statistics in this article, is probably incomplete or flexible as all the statistics were taken from newspaper sources and not from official government records. If you know of deaths that are not recorded here or have corrections on the spellings, let us hear from you. The date accompanying each name is the date of internment at Grandview.


If you have corrections or additions, send them to us, with documentation, and we will add them to this list. The Daily listed the deceased by date, we have alphabetized the list. Add a few lines to our Oral History about the Influenza. You can read the messages at the end of this list.


Acetus, Anazalet, Oct 31


Agerda, Frank, Nov 3


Alesiana, Dominic, Nov 5


Alimonos, Mike, Oct 30


Allen, Mary J. Nov 8


Amantos, Apostol, Nov 11


Anseline, Joseph, Nov 1


Babiak, Anna, Nov 12


Beck, Robert, Oct 31


Beck, Peter, Nov 15


Beget, Joe, Nov 7


Benckovich, L, Nov 21


Billiak, Katrina, Nov 7 (maybe Oct)


Bizilya, Andy, Nov 22


Blama, Helen and baby, Oct 27


Brzezesnisky, Antonio, Nov 1


Bulonas, George, Nov 6 (maybe Oct)


Bunekovich, Joe, Nov 15


Butchks, George, Nov 22


Cain, Anna, Nov 13


Caladerse, Guisseppe, Nov 17


Campavi, C. Nov 16


Cane, Joseph, Nov 19


Caruso, Orlando, Nov 1


Caruso, John, Nov 8


Catrino, Paul, Oct 26


Catrino, Minnia, Oct 28


Cecere, Antonio, Nov 7


Cecere, Marintonia, Nov 9


Cheroke, Domonic, Nov 3


Chizmar, George, Nov 9


Chludrenski, B, Nov 17


Chrovaro, Lena, Nov 7 (maybe Oct)


Cocchara, Mary, Nov 27


Colaicovo, Vincenzo, Nov 14


Columbus, Mary, Nov 4


Cooker, William, Oct 29


Cvercik, Annie, Oct 26


Dacko, Susie, Nov 12


Dahood, John, Oct 31


Deeb, Mary, Nov 26


Delfonse, Dominica, Nov 3


Denega, Mary and baby, Nov 15


Denega, Anna, Nov 12


Denega, Tocia, Nov 23 (same casket as Anna)


Denega, Dan, Nov 26


Deseaari, Rosie, Nov 11


Desesaria, Antonio, Nov 2


Dominico, Carmen, Nov 7


Donata, Rogli, Nov 6


Drusick, Katie, Nov 4


Drusick, George, Nov 5


Drusick, Mike, Nov 5


Drusick, Barbara, Nov 7 (4 Drusicks in same grave)


Dudas, John, Nov 16


Dulinay, Dennis, Oct 30


Eluisio, George, Nov 2


Fedik, Mike, Nov 12


Ferencz, Helen, Nov 16


Filipovich, Anton, Nov 15


Folibota, Mike, Nov 27


Gaglairdi, Inez, Oct 29


Garifola, Edith, Oct 29


Gaydosh, Ethel, Oct 28


Gedraitis, Stanley, Nov 3


George, Satenel or Satenel, George, Oct 27


George, Annie, Nov 1


Giffen, Grover, Oct 30


Gladish, Andy, Nov 11


Gory?, David, Oct 23


Gouheh, Alex, Oct 25 or 26


Gould, Willima H., Oct 30


Griga, Charley, Nov 3


Guydan, Anna, Oct 26


Hawkins, Jack, Nov 26


Heder, Joe, Oct 26


Heikilla, Aino E. Nov 3


Heikkila, Lempi, Nov 2


Heikkila, Jacob, Nov 26


Heikkinen, Ida, Oct 27


Hiiva, Andrew, Nov 15


Hilva, Tarino, Nov 17


Hughes, Margaret, Nov 7


Humenick, Anna and baby, Oct 4 (maybe Nov)


Hunter, Evelyn, Nov 8


Igereich, Mike, Nov 2


Illianich, Mary, Nov 9


Johnson, Leonard, Nov 12


Kahiri, Marika, Nov 8


Kalatas, Nick, Oct 22


Kaltas, Cathryne, Nov 7


Kobraik, Helen, Nov 12


Kohut, Steve, Nov 5


Kolar, Mike, Nov 8


Kolesar, Anna, Oct 31


Kolesar, John, Nov 11


Komandor, George, Nov 21


Kon, Steve, Nov 11


Konik, Vasiul, Nov 7


Konik, Vasil, Nov 18


Kotulry, Charles, Nov 15


Kouroupus, Sotorios, Oct 31


Krasnicki, Robert, Oct 25


Kujavsky, Apolena, Oct 23


Kulenics, Rosal, Nov 3


Labeyko, Joe, Nov 26 or 28


Lada, Stefanic, Nov 1


Lasavecky, Sayda, Nov 27


Lasin? Ida, Nov 22


Laskovsky, I?, Oct 16


Laskovsky, Wilma, Oct 16


Laskovsky, Alford, Oct 22


Lazar, Andy, Nov 6


Lazarecka, Rosalia, Nov 3


Leino, Baby, Oct 29


Lempio, Moria, Oct 26


Lendel, Julia, Nov 15


Lenhart, George, Oct 20


Lopetsky, John, Oct 28


Lori, Ellin, Oct 26


Lucas, Spiro, Oct 25


Lucas, George, Nov 4


Lucas, Mary, Nov 8 (same casket as George)


Luksich, Louis, Nov 6


Makinen, Niilo, Nov 18


Marcinko, Mary, Nov 7 (maybe Oct)


Marino, Annie, Nov 2


Matko, Mike, Oct 26


Matko, Alean, Oct 28


Matko, Barbara, Nov 1


Mattie, Annie, Nov 8


Mehaus, George, Oct 19


Melenovick, Lazar, Oct 29


Menzler, Andy, Nov 6


Mikolajeik, Gena, Nov 3


Mikolajeik, Helen, Nov 3


Mood, Leonard, Nov 23


Mudrick, Stefka, Nov 20


Mudrick, Andy, Nov 26


Mudrick, Mary, Nov 14


Mullen, John, Oct 23 or 26


Munziala, M. Nov 23


Najda, Katrina, Nov 13


Najda, Frank, Nov 15


Nartovic, Vincety, Oct 30


Nazaricki, Joe, Oct 31


Neimi, Frank, Nov 7


Novak, Steve, Nov 13


Nuzari, M. Nov 18


O’Rourke, Ed Jr, Nov 10 (same casket as Ed Sr.)


O’Rourke, Ed, Nov 11


Onda, Mike, Nov 17


Pagan, Anna, Nov 11


Pandoff, Naum, Jr. Nov 2


Parke, Warren G. Nov 19


Parnella, Mamie, Nov 12


Parnentila, R. Nov 25


Paterra, Flora, Nov 2


Peltz, Olga, Nov 8 (maybe Oct)


Pendres, Maggie, Nov 5


Perry, Nick, Oct 31


Petrock, George, Oct 11


Piccarrillo, Antonia, Nov 5


Politino, Edzalimo, Nov 13


Polowski, Walter, Oct 27


Pozehanich, John, Nov 11


Proach, Charles. Oct 26


Proach, Kate, Oct 27


Puskar, Julia and baby, Nov 1


Rafasilto, Lydia, Nov 3


Rajola, Lydia, Nov 4


Raten, Kate, Nov 4


Rihtar, T. Nov 19


Rinaldi, Mary, Nov 18


Roman, Lizzie, Nov 2


Romasko, Justin, Nov 11


Rotolo, Joseph, Nov 5


Sahnkovsky, C., Oct 26


Sajko, Charles, Nov 16


Scaorm?, Tony, Nov 20


Semak, Vasil, Nov 15


Senko, Kohn, Nov 7 (maybe Oct)


Sinkarchik, Julia, Nov 13


Sisik, Ignac, Oct 28


Sivak, William, Nov 15


Skatch, Mike, Nov 6


Smith, Mary, Nov 1


Sobran, Mike, Nov 11


Spera, Viana, Nov 14


Suhkas, George, Nov 19


Sykes, Lillian, Nov 9


Teger, John, Nov 15


Temak, Mike, Oct 28


Tkach, Andy, Nov 26


Tokkar, Kaarina, Nov 9


Tokker, Thomas, Nov 3


Torkos, George, Nov 1


Torkos, Julia, Nov 8


Trendyluck, Mike, Oct 30


Tucker, Althea, Oct 29


Tuminella, E. Oct 26


Tuomi, Ivar John, Nov 8


Tureck, Paul, Oct 29


Turek, Joe, Oct 26


Twerdy, Henry, Nov 7 (maybe Oct)


Vagli, Ida, Nov 2


Varckious, John, Oct 28


Verino, Filimini, Nov 8


Vinck, Elvira, Nov 2


Viska, Eda, Nov 11


Warabel, Nick, Nov 4


Warabel, Steve, Nov 4


Wesaranta, Aauna, Nov 15


Wilkes, Sarah, Nov 12


Wilson, Elizabeth, Nov 15


Withe, Zear, Sept 27


Yarfaalovski, Ed , Nov 3


Yarosh, Justina, Nov 11


Yonkivsky, Juliana, Oct 30


Yougis, Rigolitti, Nov 12


Ywietwie, Helen, Nov 7 (maybe Oct)


Zankos, Gust, Nov 16


Zarka, Alex, Nov 4


Zayac, Andy, Nov 8


Zmczonski, Y, Nov 18


Zobracek, Mike, Oct 31


Zui, Polugi, Nov 4


Oral Histories


When the influenza of 1918 hit Monessen, my family was living on Short Street. My mom, Carolina Paggini Parigi, age 27, reported to Monessen High School on Knox and Sixth Street and was put to work nursing the sick. We were lucky, there was just the three of us: my father Nazzareno, my mother, and me. We fared well. So, my mother was free to help others, and she did. She had no education, but had taught herself to read and write. She was quite a woman, my mother. In those years, babies were born at home and she became a midwife to old Doctor Kreger. He always told his patients, "Do you know Mrs. Parigi? Well, when you are ready to deliver, call her to help me." The first embrace a lot of babies in Monessen felt was from my mother's warm arms. She helped birth my son, Alfred, and my daughter, Cassandra.


Elizabeth Parigi Vivian, Monessen, September, 1998, age 85.


Looking over your material, to my surprise, I found the name of my Aunt as one of the victims of the Spanish Influenza. You asked to give you notice if there is a need of corrections with the list. As you well know, at that time names were spelled incorrectly because of the English translation of the sound of letters in their pronunciation. So if you do not mind, I would like to correct the spelling of my Aunt's name. I checked the death date and it matches. Her name should be changed from: Eda Viska to Ida Visca. In Italian, it is pronounced the way it was spelled in English by the officials but


spelled incorrect. She came to Monessen from Paganica, Italy. The Provence of Abruzzo. She was the sister of my father, Oscar, my Uncle Adam (The tailor on McMahon) and my Aunt Elisa DeCeasare (Confectionary store owner on Morgan).


Norman Visca, California, August, 2000


This is all the information I could find on my grandmother, who is not on the list above. My grandparents lived on Ontario Street in Monessen. My grandmother's name was Antonio Berger Oberleitner and she was born in Austria. They had five children and the youngest was one year old when my grandmother died of the influenza at the age of 32 on June 29, 1918. I really didn't know or realize the terrible ordeal our area and the country had furing this epidemic. I was glad to have been able to read the article in the Valley Independent. Thank you -- the Historical Society -- for bringing it to the attention of the families and the public (via the Internet). Janet Ritenoen, Belle Vernon PA, December 2000

It was the end of the summer in 1918 in Philadelphia, a city of a million and a half people.


World War I, "the war to end all wars," was drawing to a close as the British crossed the Hindenburg Line. At the University of Pennsylvania, drilling, uniforms, and war courses were the order of the day for 2,240 students of draft age who had been inducted into the Students' Army Training Corps (SATC), a federal program designed to prepare young men as officers. Penn's dormitories and fraternity houses served as barracks. By order of Major Charles T. Griffith, the officer in charge of the program, the University's daily newspaper, The Pennsylvanian, had been placed under military authority and served as the official bulletin of the SATC.


In Philadelphia, it was business as usual. People were flocking to the long-running British musical Chu Chin Chow at the Shubert Theater, Jerome Kern's Leave It to Jane at the Chestnut Street Opera House, and John Philip Sousa's Liberty Loan concert at Willow Grove Park. Everyone was sure it was just a matter of time until "the boys came home." No one was paying much attention to the account of an unusual sickness reported earlier in the year by a Spanish wire service to Reuter's London headquarters: "A strange form of disease of epidemic character has appeared in Madrid."


Within a short time, eight million Spaniards were ill with what was to be named the "Spanish influenza." Fueled by troop movements, it spread like wildfire across Europe, the Mideast, and Asia. By the summer of 1918, the "Spanish Lady" had reached American soil. In 120 days, more than half of the world's population would fall victim to the influenza pandemic, and nearly 22 million would die of complications.


The disease began with a cough, then increasing pain behind the eyes and ears. Body temperature, heart rate, and respiration escalated rapidly. In the worst cases, pneumonia quickly followed. The two diseases inflamed and irritated the lungs until they filled with liquid, suffocating the patients and causing their bodies to turn a cyanotic blue-black.


In Pennsylvania, the influenza epidemic began almost unnoticed in the middle of September. First a few cases, and then the numbers began to rise rapidly. Worried state health authorities decided to add influenza to the list of reportable diseases. Their concern increased when 75,000 cases were reported statewide. The worst was still ahead.


Philadelphia was about to become the American city with the highest death toll in one of the three worst epidemics in recorded history.


Philadelphia newspapers and The Pennsylvanian chronicled the passage of the "Spanish Lady" day-by-day through city and campus.


Philadelphia, October 4: 636 new cases, 139 deaths.


Dr. A.A. Cairns, acting president of the Philadelphia Board of Health, is frantic: more new cases every day, and the city's death toll is mounting. How can the disease be stopped when no one even knows why it is spreading? The state has already closed all the vaudeville and picture houses, theaters, and saloons in Pennsylvania. Cairns decides to close all schools and churches in the city...


Philadelphia businessmen are up in arms about the epidemic. More cases mean more employee absences and fewer customers. It is no longer business as usual, but business if possible. In desperation, the Bell Telephone Company runs the following full-page notice in the newspapers:


Telephone Service Faces A Crisis


The situation is one which the public must meet squarely -- 800 operators -- 27% of our force -- are now absent due to the influenza. It is every person's duty to the community to cut out every call that is not absolutely necessary that the essential needs of the government, doctors and nurses may be cared for.


Worried Philadelphians, wearing gauze influenza masks over their noses and mouths, quickly cross to the other side of the street if a passerby chances to cough or sneeze.


Weeping women in West Manayunk block the car of Dr. Joseph Schlotterer, who is making a house call, and permit him to leave only after he treats 57 neighborhood children.


Frantic shoppers strip pharmacy shelves bare. The press of customers is so great that the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Temple University suspend classes so that pharmacy students can help fill prescriptions. Most are for whiskey, which, now that saloons are closed, is available only in drugstores. Rather than wait to become a statistic, people turn to home remedies: goose-grease poultices, sulfur fumes, onion syrup, chloride of lime.


Snake-oil artists hawk their useless potions in newspaper ads:


Use Oil of Hyomei. Bathe your breathing organs with antiseptic balsam.


Munyon's Paw Paw Pills for influenza insurance.


Sick with influenza? Use Ely's Cream Balm. No more snuffling. No struggling for breath.


To prevent further spread of the epidemic among Penn students, most of whom are in the SATC, the Board of Health cancels a football rally and a campus Liberty Loan rally featuring screen actor William S. Hart.


Major Griffith, in charge of the SATC at Penn, warns that campus residents who fail to keep their windows open will be severely punished. The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania is quarantined, and no visitors are permitted.


The SATC commandeers two of the University's largest fraternity houses -- Delta Psi and Phi Kappa Psi -- and fits them out as emergency hospitals. Due to the shortage of physicians, third- and fourth-year Penn medical students volunteer to take care of the patients.


Panic is beginning the grip the city.


Philadelphia, October 6: 788 new cases, 171 deaths.


The Philadelphia Inquirer derides the closing of public places:


What are the authorities trying to do? Scare everyone to death? What is to be gained by shutting up well-ventilated churches and theaters and letting people press into trolley cars?


What then should a man do to prevent panic and fear? Live a clean life. Do not even discuss influenza... Worry is useless. Talk of cheerful things instead of disease.


The Inquirer heeds its own admonitions and relegates all further news of the epidemic to its back pages. In the other city newspapers, the flu is still page-one news.


The war continues in Europe. General Pershing's forces advance three miles but, across the Atlantic, the epidemic is stalling the homefront war effort. To boost the case for the Fourth Liberty Bond Loan, the Evening Bulletin prints an anonymous article that claims the Spanish influenza began in the German trenches. Whether an artful propaganda piece or mere speculation, the report stirs bitter feelings against the "beastly Huns." The sale of Liberty Bonds skyrockets.


At Penn, the Board of Health puts the Houston Hall poolroom under indefinite quarantine and fumigates all dormitories. The Christian Association calls for student volunteers to help in the current emergency.


Philadelphia, October 8: 1,481 new cases, 250 deaths.


The shortage of doctors and nurses, 75 percent of whom had been called to military duty, is acute. The director of the Philadelphia Hospital pleads for volunteers to relieve nurses who have collapsed from overwork.


In many families, both parents are ill and unable to care for their children. Their cries for help often go unheeded, as many neighbors fear entering a house where there is influenza. Others, without thought of their own safety, tend the ill, care for the children, and comfort the dying. Roman Catholic Archbishop Dennis Dougherty gives permission to 1,000 Sisters of Saint Joseph to work in private residences caring for the sick.


hiladelphia, October 10: 5,531 new cases, 361 deaths.


Philadelphia hospitals are filled to overflowing. Hospital beds are set up in the Armory. The Medico-Chirurgical Hospital, closed to make room for the construction of the new Benjamin Franklin Parkway, is reopened. The University of Pennsylvania, together with Jefferson College and Hahnemann Medical College, recruits 300 fourth-year medical students to aid overworked physicians.


Isaac Starr, M'20, is assigned to the Medico-Chirurgical Hospital. With only a single lecture about influenza to guide him, he finds there is little he can do, other than get the dead out of the way for the living. He never sees the faces of his fellow workers. They are gowned and masked like himself.


The Philadelphia Public Ledger uses the epidemic as a stick in its long-running battle with State Senator Edwin H. Vare and his political machine. A front-page article claims that Vare holds the street-cleaning contracts for South Philadelphia, where mortality is heaviest. Besieged by outraged residents, the Bureau of Street Cleaning agrees to sprinkle the streets with disinfectant.


Red Cross volunteers meet to make influenza masks and sew shrouds for the mounting numbers of dead. The daily death notices fill an entire page: seven columns of small print with a repetitious litany: "...of pneumonia, age 21" "...of influenza, age 26." The toll is heaviest among young adults.


Philadelphia, October 11: 4,013 new cases, 517 deaths.


Local businessmen voluntarily close their shops and distribute food and supplies to suffering families. One department store -- Lit Brothers -- donates two delivery trucks to serve as ambulances. Another -- Strawbridge and Clothier -- uses its telephone-order line to field calls for help: Call Filbert 100. If the response is 'Strawbridge and Clothier,' ask for 'Influenza.'


Penn students join with off-duty policemen to relieve the shortage of hospital stretcher-bearers, carrying in the living only to exchange them for the dead. Other Penn student-volunteers at the University Settlement House help in the dispensary and operate a soup kitchen for children whose parents are too ill to feed them.


After 12 Penn dental students are stricken, the University closes the Dental School, noting that "working over patients' mouths subjects the men to the danger of contracting the disease."


Philadelphia, October 14: 4,302 new cases, 557 deaths.


A new health menace threatens: the dead are not being buried fast enough.


More than 500 corpses are awaiting burial, some for more than a week. The Office of the Coroner cannot keep up with the demand for death certificates. Cold-storage plants are used as temporary morgues, and the J.G. Brill Company, manufacturers of trolley cars, donates 200 packing crates to be used as coffins. Prisoners from the House of Correction team up with seminarians from St. Charles Seminary to dig graves, as the cemeteries cannot keep up with the demand.


To deal with the problem of hundreds of unburied corpses, volunteers drive horse-drawn carts through the city streets, calling people to bring out the dead. Wagonloads of bodies, each tagged for identification, are buried at Potter's Field at Second and Luzerne Streets, where the Bureau of Highways is digging trenches for graves. Only the promise that bodies can be reinterred when the epidemic abates persuades grieving relatives to give up their loved ones to the "dead wagons."


Fifty students from Penn's Dental School volunteer to work in city hospitals to relieve exhausted medical staffs. The Board of Health bans all public meetings on campus and shuts down the pool. University officials receive word that Arthur T. Eissing, W'18, class president, has died of pneumonia at Camp Dick, Texas, after contracting influenza while in Philadelphia.


Philadelphia, October 16: 2,280 new cases, 650 deaths.


The heavy death toll attracts human vultures. Some cemeteries raise burial fees to $15 and tell families they will have to dig the graves themselves. Several undertakers increase the price of their services by 500 percent.


Unscrupulous pharmacists inflate the price of cheap whiskey -- usually the only treatment prescribed for influenza -- to $52 a gallon. Enterprising barkeeps defy the Board of Health ban on saloons with back-door sales. One saloon owner argues with the Vice Squad that he is only looking after the health of his regular customers.


The ferries are jammed with people anxious to get to Camden, where the bars are still open. The daily mass exodus causes Dr. Henry Davis, chief of the Camden Board of Health, to close the city's saloons "in the interest of public health. Thousands of the lowest people of Philadelphia came over the river and created great disorder. They were the vilest men and women that have visited Camden."


At Penn, the Wharton Evening School of Finance and Accounting finally opens after several postponements. Photo sessions for new students in the College and the Towne Scientific School are canceled due to illness of the photographers. K.B. Crawford, a senior medical student who contracted the flu while working at the Emergency Red Cross Hospital, dies of complications from the disease.


The Flu of 1918 (continued)


Philadelphia, October 17: 1,686 new cases, 711 deaths.


The city's hospitals are placed under police supervision, with patrol cars serving as ambulances. The Red Cross Home Service, besieged by servicemen overseas for information about their families, frequently sends no reply. The families do not wish them to know their loved ones have died.


Countless deeds of charity help rescue the forgotten members of society -- the destitute, the orphaned, the retarded, and the friendless. Sisters of the Holy Child comfort and care for youngsters in a West Philadelphia home for "backward children" after all the staff have fled. Emergency Aid members visit shabby boarding houses where hundreds lie ill with no one to assist them and arrange for their care.


A man who sneezed is forcibly ejected from a trolley by his fellow passengers.


Little girls jump rope to a grim new rhyme:


I had a little bird


And its name was Enza


I opened the door


And in-flew-Enza.


At Penn, football games with Swarthmore and the Marines are canceled. The Christian Association issues an urgent call for more student volunteers.


Philadelphia, October 20: 1,334 new cases, 606 deaths.


Philadelphians note the latest count in reported cases. Is the epidemic waning?


Dr. Franklin Royer, acting Pennsylvania Commissioner of Health, says no: "For a five-year period, the state's daily average death rate in October from influenza,la grippe, and pneumonia combined is less than 30. Yet Philadelphia continues to report hundreds of deaths daily."


Dr. J. Solis-Cohen says yes: "The progress of the influenza epidemic should be noted from the number of new cases and not from the number of deaths."


Dr. Solis-Cohen is right.


As quickly as the epidemic had come, it left.


Churches reopened on October 27 in Philadelphia. Schools, theaters, vaudeville houses, and bars followed in quick succession.


Penn's Dental School reopened. Delta Psi house and Phi Kappa Psi house, used as emergency hospitals, became a barracks and a naval officers' mess hall, respectively. Penn student volunteers returned to their studies.


The passage of the "Spanish Lady" through the streets of Philadelphia left in its wake 12,191 reported deaths and 47,094 reported cases in four weeks and a business community crippled by revenue-losses in the millions. Among Penn's 5,000 students, there had been four deaths and 312 cases reported.


World War I killed 15 million people in four years; the Spanish flu killed perhaps twice that number worldwide in six months. It killed more Americans than all combat deaths of this century combined. No other disease has killed so many so fast. Yet the collective amnesia regarding the pandemic is astonishing. Today most Americans know more about the Black Death of medieval times than they do about the 1918 flu.


One question still haunts medical science: Where did the virus come from and where did it go after 1918? Some believe that a mild hog flu virus combined with an equally mild Pfeiffer bacillus in a synergetic process, producing a killer that injured human lungs beyond their capacity to recover -- but no one knows for certain.


Eileen A. Lynch is a writer and editor. She was formerly a research specialist in epidemiology at Penn and later a senior writer in Development Communications. This account is based primarily on contemporary newspaper accounts of the epidemic's progress in the city and on the Penn campus.

18.09.05-Hanoi Vietnam- Ducks, chickens and other fowl being sold and killed at Hang Da Market Central Hanoi. For a further look please visit my Website. Or STUDY with me at my London & Thai based Photo-School.

Maskuerade Ball Project: Insurgent Bodies- reclaiming the tie-string surgical mask from one of fear and coverup. Question: Whose fear? Whose Cover-up?

Phuong Tu Commune 60 kilometres west of Hanoi- Bird vaccination given to all the farmed birds in the commune. For a further look please visit my Website. Or STUDY with me at my London & Thai based Photo-School.

Handheld self-portrait taken in Hong kong airport during the SARS crisis. the guy behind me was pretty much the ONLY other person in the airport.

Messed with in PS, as you can tell.

thought it was quite topical right now.

Chickens at a farm in Ha Tay Province. Vietnam. Photo: Simone D. McCourtie / World Bank

Thai Pha Mai Village, Dind Soo Son District 50 kilometres north of Hanoi- Ho Van Thu and his son Ho Van Ba tending their 600 ducks. Here the ducks are getting Shepard into their enclosures at the end of the day. For a further look please visit my Website. Or STUDY with me at my London & Thai based Photo-School.

Avian Flu Awareness Project gun from Can't Get No Satisfaction.

with apologies to Andy Warhol

Scientists say pandemic is certain




Bird Flu site


Elite Bankers Threatened to Release Weaponized Strain of Avian Flu

20.09.05- Thai Pha Mai Village, Dind Soo Son District 50 kilometres north of Hanoi- Ho Van Thu and his son Ho Van Ba tend to 600 ducks. Here a couple of customers kill the first of the two ducks they brought. The ducks sell for about £1.50 each.

For a further look please visit my Website. Or STUDY with me at my London & Thai based Photo-School.




A mother and kid check out pigeons at the CKS Memorial Hall yesterday. Taiwan will hold an anti-avian flu exercise on October 19. Customs, coast guard, health, defense and transportation officials will take part in a simulation of fighting an outbreak of the deadly disease.

avianflu.jpg is saved to


Laboratory in Hanoi where tests on Avian Flu are being conducted. Photo: Simone D. McCourtie / World Bank


Photo ID: SDM-VN-059 World Bank

Laboratory specialist working on avian influenza at a renovated human health lab. Photo: World Bank

17.09.05- Thai Binh Province northern Vietnam- Children on a procession dressed up as Rosters play as they walk around the outskirts of their village. The celebration is for an annual children’s festival held every autumn. They are dressed up as rosters to mark the year of the roster. For a further look please visit my Website. Or STUDY with me at my London & Thai based Photo-School.

Australian Red Cross Voluntary Aid Detachment members wearing protective face masks, working as flu doctors in Sydney, 1918.

(AWM P1102/40/21)



A mother and kid check out pigeons at the CKS Memorial Hall yesterday. Taiwan will hold an anti-avian flu exercise on October 19. Customs, coast guard, health, defense and transportation officials will take part in a simulation of fighting an outbreak of the deadly disease.

avianflu.jpg is saved to




A mother and kid check out pigeons at the CKS Memorial Hall yesterday. Taiwan will hold an anti-avian flu exercise on October 19. Customs, coast guard, health, defense and transportation officials will take part in a simulation of fighting an outbreak of the deadly disease.

avianflu.jpg is saved to


Hanoi Vietnam- Ducks, chickens and other fowl being sold and killed at Hang Da Market Central Hanoi. This duck has had its throat slit and most of its blood drained. It is then left to suffocate to death. For a further look please visit my Website. Or STUDY with me at my London & Thai based Photo-School.

A member of the Avian Flu Awareness Project at The Loft, displaying Project literature with part of a large wall diagram in the background.


Well over 100 of these posters were given out to the public on 1st Thursday, November 3.


That's John Michael in the suit.

Thai Binh Province northern Vietnam- Children on a procession dressed up as Rosters and other animals play as they walk around the outskirts of their village. The celebration is for an annual children’s festival held every autumn. They are dressed up as rosters to mark the year of the roster. For a further look please visit my Website. Or STUDY with me at my London & Thai based Photo-School.

Phuong Tu Commune 60 kilometres west of Hanoi- Bird vaccination given to all the farmed birds in Phuong Tu Commune. For a further look please visit my Website. Or STUDY with me at my London & Thai based Photo-School.




Graphical representation of the reconstructed 1918 flu virus' hemagglutinin.


1918 Flu was Bird-Human Hybrid

Scientific detectives have discovered an intriguing link between a virus that killed millions of people at the end of World War I and avian influenza. The groups determined the three-dimensional structure of a protein associated with the flu virus responsible for the devastating pandemic of 1918. They report online in ScienceExpress that the structure resembles that usually found in birds but with a slight alteration that makes it efficient at binding human cells.


In a typical year, the flu kills 36,000 Americans. But the 1918 outbreak caused over 500,000 deaths in the United States and more than 20 million worldwide.


Because they had not yet discovered viruses, scientists at the time could not understand why this flu strain caused so much devastation. Modern scientists who wanted to use new biological techniques to investigate the issue faced another difficulty: They had no stored samples of the viruses.


In recent years, molecular archeologists have overcome that obstacle by isolating genetic material from preserved lung biopsies and even from a body frozen in the Alaskan permafrost.


"It's exciting that we can look back in the past at one of the most devastating infectious disease outbreaks," says Ian Wilson.


Wilson lead a team at The Scripps Research Institute that used preserved tissues to explore a component of the 1918 flu virus known as the hemagglutinin protein. Hemagglutinin is part of the virus's surface that enables it to burrow inside host cells.


The Scripps team determined the genetic sequence of the 1918 hemagglutinin protein and then placed the code for that sequence in another type of virus to manufacture the protein. When they studied that protein's structure, they found strong similarities to a type found in flu strains that infect birds.


Different varieties of hemagglutinin exist, each binding to a slightly different type of host molecule. Wilson likened hemagglutinin to a key that allows the virus entry into only those cells with a compatible lock. For instance, hemagglutinins found primarily in strains of bird flu bind to molecules found mostly on birds' intestinal cells. Hemagglutinins from the strains that infect humans bind to a slightly different form of the molecule on the surfaces of human lung cells.


Birds are natural hosts to all flu strains. Humans, by contrast, are usually infected only by those strains that have adapted to recognize lung cells. In 1997, however, doctors found the first cases of an avian flu virus, called H5N1, in humans. In recent months the number of these cases has increased in Southeast Asia. The novel hemagluttinin associated with the virus makes it particularly lethal because people have no natural immunity to it.


Public health officials worry that the genes of the H5N1 virus will change to produce hemagluttinin structures more efficient at gaining entry to human cells. Scientists in the second research group, in London, have found that, while very similar to hemagglutinin of avian origins, the hemagglutinin protein from the 1918 epidemic had acquired just that ability. The reconstructed protein was able to bind to the type of molecule human lung cells. They surmise that the combination of a novel bird protein and an ability to infect human cells made the disease both deadly and fast spreading. Interestingly, only two amino acids confer these different binding abilities of hemagglutinin.


Thus far, the H5N1 virus doesn’t appear to have the binding ability that would make it spread quickly from human to human. But doctors are watching closely for any changes.

Flu viruses in the throat. Computer artwork of influenza (flu) viruses (ovals) in a human throat. The lining of the throat includes cells that are covered in cilia (small hair-like projections). These cilia normally move rhythmically to help expel dust, micro-organisms and other particles. However, a large number of viruses in the throat can prevent the cilia from working properly, allowing the viruses to infect the cells of the throat and lungs.


Prints available:

The final installation view of my piece, Year of the Comet, for the Chonburi International Art Installation. I'm really, really happy with the way it turned out.

Shortly after the Star and the Enquirer reported sightings of a weakened diminutive canary in a wheelchair, with strange bandages on its right foot, the WB studios announced in a press conference that Tweety Bird was the first celebrity victim of the Avian Flu.

Sylvester and Granny were immediately quarantined.


In a related story, since when is a NY Lottery ticket an acceptable form of health insurance? Or was that part of the now-defunct social security overhaul plan?


Peter’s Pharmacy

652 Amsterdam Avenue


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