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UK Journal Day 35 (Travel Diary Day 73)

 

(travel blog - strange-lands.com/daily/2012/09/26/a-dark-church/)

 

I received some interesting emails today. Not only did I win 1,000,000 dollars on a lottery I didn't enter, I also have the chance to give over my bank details to someone from a different email, so that I can keep their 4,500,000 dollars safe in my account for a while. What a day! 5,500,000 dollars richer. I can't wait to give both of these gentlemen my ba

nk details.

 

I also received my first hate mail. I never dreamt I'd get hate mail, but sure enough, as I opened my emails this afternoon, an angry gentlemen scorned me for creating HDR One. HDR is a false photography that shouldn't be encouraged, he claims. It's just not real enough!! Apparently I'm to photography what the devil is to religion. He actually called me the 'Anti-Christ'.

 

I thought about it for a while and decided to post my most surreal shot today as a thank you to the angry man for making me feel important.

 

Today's Photo - A Dark Church in Hebburn

 

I had the pleasure of shooting at this church last week. Rachel's step-mother is the key-bearer. We had an hour to look around and enjoy the atmosphere.

© Brian Callahan 2009 All rights reserved.

 

Please View On Black

 

I have taken my friend Christophe’s advice and tried to photograph the art deco beauty in the Shrine of the Little Flower, and see past my prejudice about its controversial history.

 

This view is facing East. It shows the central tower, the surrounding railing and light towes, and the metal roofed, octagonal sanctuary in the rear (left of the tower). Behind Christ’s head, near the top of the tower, reached by a spiral staircase, is the room from which Father Coughlin broadcast his radio programs.

 

At the corner of Twelve Mile Road and Woodward Avenue in Royal Oak Michigan, the church is one of metropolitan Detroit’s landmark buildings. New York architect Henry J. McGill was commissioned to design the tower in 1927. The sanctuary, an unusual octagonal shaped design with the altar in the center and seats on all sides was constructed and as funds became available and was completed in 1933.

 

Because of the unusual configuration of the property and the resulting restrictions, the architect had great difficulty devising a workable plan. He considered thousands of ideas. McGill’s final design features the church proper, an octagon, with four two-story "wings" that, together with the narthex and the Blessed Sacrament Chapel, create an overall shape of a cross. The roof is built to evoke the feeling of a tent as described in the Book of Exodus. The primitive sanctuaries of the Old Testament were protected by a heavy cover, which was stretched from an elevated central pole and reached down beyond the vertical framework of the sanctuary. The church roof is faced with copper and nickel-chrome steel. The entire structure is capped with a crown, which is surmounted by a golden cross. The crown, forming the base of the cross, also serves as ventilation for the church.

 

This building was made possible by revenues generated by its pastor Father Coughlin, the fiery and controversial radio personality whose broadcasts had 3.5 million listeners at the height of his popularity. Father Coughlin, initially a supporter of the programs of President Franklin Roosevelt, and later a strenuous opponent, spoke on the radio about economics and politics more that religion or spirituality. His broadcasts and his magazine Social Justice espoused anti –Semitic and fascist policies favored by Benito Mussolini and Hitler. He railed against what he called the “Jewish – Bolshevik” conspiracy. He was finally forced off the air in 1939 just after the German invasion of Poland. He continued his efforts in his magazine until he was finally forced by the Bishop of Detroit, to cease his political activity and resume his duties as a parish priest.

 

For more information about Father Coughlin:

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Coughlin

 

and;

 

www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005516

 

and;

 

www.ssa.gov/history/cough.html

I play death, you play life, triple sixes to rise

Can you see the visions I brought you,

And the devilish games that I taught you?

 

I am all that you see,

I am all that you want me to be!

 

I am god, and so the anti-christ

I'm blessed, yet damned

I'm fallen, yet resurrected

I'm all of nothing!

 

Synthetic generation

Stop not, it's indifference high you must know

I am all that you see,

I am all that you want me to be!

 

DEATHSTARS - Synthetic Generation Song

 

Original Pic

 

Morphine Freudenthal

 

Hair by Rayne Morgan ^^

 

 

"I call a lie: wanting not to see something one does see, wanting not to see something as one sees it... The most common lie is the lie one tells to oneself; lying to other is relatively the exception."

~ Friedrich Nietzsche, 1894/1990, The Anti-Christ (R. J. Hollingdale, Trans.), p. 185

 

NEW: I NOW CREATE MUSIC, JOIN ME ON SOUNDCLOUD!

 

SHOP: www.icanvas.com/canvas-art-prints/artist/ben-heine

 

This is a pointillist work I made with blue, red and black ink on paper. I just love Marilyn Manson's personality and crazy style! Everybody should have an aura...

 

Please, see my other portrait of Marilyn Manson

_______________________________________________

 

For more information about my art: info@benheine.com

_______________________________________________

  

Biography

 

Brian Hugh Warner (born January 5, 1969), better known by his stage name Marilyn Manson, is a professional musician. He is the lead singer of the industrial metal band that bears the same name. His stage name is formed from the names Marilyn Monroe and Charles Manson.

 

Brian Hugh Warner was born on January 5th 1969 in Canton, Ohio. He attended Heritage Christian School. After transferring to and later graduating from Canton's GlenOak High School, Warner moved to Fort Lauderdale, Florida with his family. While living in Fort Lauderdale, he studied journalism and theater at Broward Community College, and became the assistant entertainment editor of BCC's student newspaper, the Observer.

 

Romance

 

Warner's first serious relationship was with Melissa "Missi" Romero. As explained in his autobiography, during the production of "Antichrist Superstar," Missi became pregnant with Warner's child, but had an abortion during her second trimester. He has also been linked to Traci Lords and Jenna Jameson. Jameson wrote about her sexual encounter with Manson in her autobiography, How to Make Love Like a Porn Star: A Cautionary Tale in which she noted him as being "massively endowed". Manson was engaged to Rose McGowan, but their relationship ended around the time he became involved with burlesque dancer and fetish model model Dita Von Teese. Manson photographed Von Teese for the December 2002 issue of Playboy. Manson and Von Teese wed in December 2005 in the Irish home of friend Gottfried Helnwein. Von Teese filed for divorce as of December 2006. The divorce came through in January 2007. In April of 2007, Marilyn Manson's girlfriend, Evan Rachel Wood, admitted that they were actually a couple.

 

Marriage

 

Manson and Dita Von Teese started dating on Manson's 32nd birthday, and Manson proposed three years later on March 22, 2004. On December 3, 2005 (court documents say November 28), the couple was married in a non-denominational ceremony at Gurteen Castle in Kilsheelan, County Tipperary, Ireland, the home of Gottfried Helnwein. The wedding was officiated by surrealist film director and comic book writer Alejandro Jodorowsky. Dita Von Teese wore a royal purple silk taffeta gown by Vivienne Westwood, complete with train and petticoats worn over a Mr. Pearl couture corset, topped off by a tricorne hat by Stephen Jones, while Manson wore a John Galliano black silk taffeta tuxedo with velvet trim and a hat also crafted by Stephen Jones. They reportedly exchanged vows in front of approximately 60 guests, including burlesque dancer Catherine Delish, Lisa Marie Presley, Eric Szmanda, David Lynch, Jessicka and Christian Hejnal, and Sharon and Ozzy Osbourne. Vogue magazine ran a multiple-page feature on the wedding in its February 2006 issue. Just before his own wedding, Manson criticized Britney Spears' wedding to Kevin Federline, in which they celebrated by wearing personalized tracksuits: "If you're going to do something like getting married, it should have a sense of celebration to it. It should be grand and not in tracksuits!"

 

As of January 30, 2007 Manson and Dita Von Teese reportedly split after her filing for divorce due to "irreconcilable differences" according to Von Teese. ET.com along with People Magazine has claimed that Manson was having an extramarital affair with actress Evan Rachel Wood, which may or may not be the true cause of the split. Manson's alcohol abuse and distant behaviour have also been cited as cause for the split. It has also been claimed that Manson was not aware of Von Teese's filing for divorce and moving out of their home at the time that the story was published, conceivably due to his reported stay in Paris, France. Von Teese reportedly took their two cats and two dachshunds, Greta and Eva, with her when she left. Manson fought for custody of the two cats, but only received one of them.

 

Evan Rachel Wood attended the grand opening of Manson's new Celebritarian Corporation Gallery of Fine Art and among the most notable artworks were two portraits of Evan. She will also co-star in his upcoming horror film Phantasmagoria: The Visions of Lewis Carroll.

 

In music

 

Jessicka of the band Jack Off Jill was an early friend of Manson's, her band opened most of his South Florida shows. He not only produced most of the band's early recordings but also played guitar on the song "My Cat" and helped name the band. Manson later wrote the liner notes for the band's album Humid Teenage Mediocrity, a collection of early Jack Off Jill recordings.

 

In early 1993, after being instructed by his new label, Interscope Records, not to play any local shows, Manson formed Mrs. Scabtree. Mrs. Scabtree was a side project between he and newly hired Jeordie White. Manson played drums, while White (dressed as a black woman) shared vocal duties with then girlfriend Jessicka from Jack Off Jill who wore a blonde wig. Mrs. Scabtree only played two shows in South Florida.

 

Manson has helped or provided full scores for several major motion pictures, although several of his pieces have been cut, and his name dropped from the credits. Some of his more notable soundtrack score contributions include The Matrix, From Hell and Resident Evil.

 

Manson appeared as a guest on rapper DMX's album Flesh of My Flesh, Blood of My Blood for the track "The Omen", produced by Swizz Beats, and has performed (with the rest of the band) on stage with Eminem as background music in the song "The Way I Am".

 

Manson sang vocals on "Break You Down" off of the Washington, DC-based industrial rock band gODHEAD's 2000 Years of Human Error album. This album is distinguished for being the only one released on Manson's vanity label Posthuman Records.

 

In film and television

 

Manson made a cameo appearance as a doctor in the Murderdolls' music video "Dead in Hollywood", and also appears in the Nine Inch Nails music video "Starfuckers, Inc.", as well as "Gave Up", and Eminem's "The Way I Am" music video.

 

His first appearance in a film was in the role of a pornographic actor in David Lynch's Lost Highway, in 1997. He also had a minor role in former love interest Rose McGowan's 1998 film Jawbreaker and a supporting role in 2003's Party Monster, which is based on the events leading up to and the murder of Angel Melendez by the infamous Michael Alig of club kid fame, where Manson portrayed a psychotic drag queen named Christina . Manson made a cameo appearance in The Hire: Beat the Devil, a short film in the BMW films series (starring Clive Owen as the Driver), which featured James Brown as himself, and Gary Oldman as Satan. His most talked-about film cameo was in the Michael Moore political documentary Bowling for Columbine discussing the motivations of the perpetrators and allegations that his music was somehow a factor. He played himself, in animated form, on an episode of the television series Clone High, in which he sang a song about nutrition and the food pyramid. He is featured prominently throughout Not Another Teen Movie, and covered the song "Tainted Love" for its soundtrack.

 

His music is frequently featured on the show C.S.I.. The character on the show, Greg Sanders, is a big fan of Manson and the actor who plays him, Eric Szmanda, is a personal friend of Manson's.

 

Manson was featured in the 2004 film The Heart Is Deceitful Above All Things, and was set to appear in Abelcain, directed by Alejandro Jodorowsky, and Living Neon Dreams in 2005, although both of these projects are still unreleased as of 2007. He will also be seen as a bartender in an upcoming vampire movie starring Lucy Liu called Rise and possibly has pending roles in Abelcain, RISE and other projects.

 

Manson has produced 23 music videos, most of which have gone beyond the scope of a normal performance video and been well received by critics for their imagery and direction. Manson’s three most recent released videos – Personal Jesus, (s)AINT and Heart-Shaped Glasses – were voluntarily funded with his own money (to a sum of $1,500,000) and largely not that of the record company. Manson stated in June 2006 that he saw himself "as more a student of film than of music".

 

In July 2005, Manson told Rolling Stone that he was shifting his focus from music to filmmaking - "I just don't think the world is worth putting music into right now. I no longer want to make art that other people--particularly record companies--are turning into a product. I just want to make art."

 

By 2006 Manson was working on his directorial debut, Phantasmagoria: The Visions of Lewis Carroll, but has since put the project off until November 2007 to focus on recording Marilyn Manson's sixth studio album, Eat Me, Drink Me, followed by a world tour. The film is said to feature special effects using a magician rather than computer-generated imagery.

 

In graphic art

 

From the beginning Manson has been a recreational painter, the oldest of his surviving pieces dating back to 1995-1996, but it was after his 1998 Grey period that Manson began his career as a watercolour painter. In 1999 he made five-minute concept pieces and sold them to drug dealers with their knowledge that they would accumulate in value over time. Gradually Manson became more drawn to watercolors as an art form in itself, and instead of trading them, kept them and continued to paint at a proficient rate.

 

This manic creativity resulted in an exhibit for his art, The Golden Age of Grotesque, held at the Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibitions Centre on between September 13 and 14, 2002. The reaction to his paintings was largely positive with one critic comparing them to Egon Schele's pieces and describing them as heartfelt and sincerely painted, and Art in America went as far as to liken them to the works of a " psychiatric patient given materials to use as therapy ". Others however saw less merit in the works stating that the value was in the celebrity.

 

Two years later almost to the day, during September 14 and 15, 2004, Manson held his second exhibit on the first night in Paris and the second in Berlin, Trismegistus, which was also the title of the center piece of the exhibit – a large three headed Christ painted onto an antique wood panel. Again the reception to the works could be described as mixed but was largely in favour of the artist.

 

Manson opened his own an art gallery, The Celebritarian Corporation Gallery of Fine Art, on October 31, 2006 in Los Angeles for which his third exhibition (by invitation or appointment only after the opening night) was the inaugural show. From April 2 until April 17, 2007 Manson's recent works were be on show at the Space 39 Modern & Contemporary in Florida.

 

A coffee table art book is in the works, initially titled The Death of Art. The last given title was Quintif. It will be published by the makers of Flaunt magazine.

 

40 pieces from this show were ported to the Gallery Brigitte Schenk in Cologne, Germany to be publicly exhibited from June 28 until July 28, 2007. After this they will return to the Space39 Modern & Contemporary Gallery thus leaving Manson's own gallery in Los Angeles temporarily without his own work until 2008.

 

The price of Manson's works has been a somewhat controversial point for fans and critics alike, with most fans realistically unable to afford the paintings save for fine art editions and lithographs. Manson's prices though are realistic and reasonable considering the long-term value at a time when prices for contemporary art have never been higher.

 

During his European tour 2007 Manson has exhibited his paintings in Germany, Russia and Switzerland.

 

In other areas

 

Manson provided the voice of the alien Edgar in the 2005 first-person shooter video game Area 51, which also featured David Duchovny. Marilyn Manson also appears (as himself) as a playable character in the video game Celebrity Deathmatch. Allegedly, the artist posed nude for photos prior to his rise to fame. The pictures appeared in the March 1999 issue of Honcho.

 

Professional fallouts

 

Trent Reznor

 

One of Manson's high-profile relationships, the defunct friendship with Trent Reznor, has been marked with mutual bitterness and perhaps vendetta. This started in the mid-90s, when Manson was due to make a track that would appear on the soundtrack to David Lynch's Lost Highway, but instead Reznor was the one who wrote a song, "The Perfect Drug", for the film. In 1999, it seemed the two artists had patched their differences, as Manson made an appearance in the video for the Nine Inch Nails song "Starfuckers, Inc."

 

In 2004, Reznor was asked whether he had plans to do any covers; he sarcastically replied, "I was really hoping to do something unique and pertinent - like do an exact copy of "Personal Jesus" - but it was already taken."

 

In a 2005 interview, Manson said Reznor's Nothing Records had lost the master recordings of Manson's first three albums. He implied it was Reznor's intention, "Now that Nothing Records doesn't exist, I think there's only one of two people responsible for that. Out of those two people, there's only one that really has an opinion of me that is voiced very often."

 

Twiggy Ramirez

 

In May 2002 Twiggy Ramirez left the band, citing differences in perspective on the future of the band. He went on to play bass for A Perfect Circle and Nine Inch Nails. During this time, Manson claimed in interviews that he and Ramirez were still close friends, while Ramirez maintained that he rarely spoke to Manson. In an interview in February of 2006 Twiggy stated he was willing to record an album with Marilyn Manson if the right conditions were met. In Autumn 2006, Manson and Ramirez were photographed together at numerous parties in Los Angeles, in amicable poses.

 

In January 2008 it was announced that Ramirez had reunited with the band as live bassist for the last leg of the Rape of the World tour as well as co-writer of the band's seventh studio album. In an interview with The Heirophant on January 11, 2008, Manson revealed that the reconciliation with Ramirez was not as abrupt as it initially seemed, and that the two had been occasionally communicating with each other since speaking at the Roosevelt Hotel in Hollywood, California prior to the Winter European leg of the Rape of the World tour.

 

John 5

 

John 5's reasons for leaving Marilyn Manson were cited as being mutual, despite the mysterious nature of his sudden firing by Manson's manager in 2004.

 

John was quoted at the time as saying about the incident, "I don't know. . . I was nothing but nice to him," he continued. "I never screwed up onstage — well not really badly — and I did everything I could to get along with him. Maybe, just maybe, it had something to do with the fact that I don't drink or do drugs, and he's not like that at all. Maybe he held that against me. I don't know. He never said." John 5 was notorious among fans as being drug and alcohol free.

 

Before the incident, Manson had assaulted John on stage, notably, Manson kicked John in the face during a televised performance, leading to a brief confrontation in front of a packed and roaring audience (available on YouTube). This was during the intro to "The Beautiful People", when played at the Rock AM Ring 2003.

 

Also, during the tour John maintains that Manson spoke about matters other than business only once, "It was on my birthday, and he turned to me and said, "Happy birthday, faggot" — then walked away."

 

Despite this, John maintains he respects Manson, citing his skilled production style and his love for the band's music. John was already a fan of the band before joining in 1998. In response to a question regarding the reason for the split with Manson, John 5 was quoted by Vintage Guitar Magazine as saying, "(laughs) At the end of the last tour, I decided I really wanted to do this solo thing and that I had to devote all my time to it. The split with Manson was totally amicable. It wasn't one of those big breakups. We're friends. I wish there was some good dirt, but there's not (laughs)!"

 

In an interview prior to the January 19, 2008 performance in Orlando, Florida, Marilyn Manson revealed that John 5 would make a guest appearance during the show, stating: "I'll have [John] come on stage and play songs with us this first show. It would practically be the Holy Wood lineup." This guest appearance ultimately did not take place, however.

 

Madonna Wayne Gacy

 

Before leaving the band nothing was heard of Madonna Wayne Gacy for over a year. In an exclusive conference conducted by Marilyn Manson in April 2007, he revealed the upcoming album Eat Me, Drink Me was recorded in collaboration between himself and Tim Skold. Essentially this meant Gacy did not partake in the album, but not ruling out the possibility of him performing as live keyboardist on the upcoming tour. Later, Manson revealed that Chris Vrenna (who previously drummed for the band during Ginger Fish's hiatus in 2004) would be performing as live keyboardist on the tour, in Gacy's place.

 

On August 2, 2007, Gacy filed a lawsuit against Marilyn Manson seeking a back pay of $20 million dollars. Gacy claimed Manson has been using the band's money for personal interests, among which are his collection of Nazi paraphernalia, his drug addictions, his wedding with Dita Von Teese and the production of Phantasmagoria: The Visions of Lewis Carroll.

 

On December 20, 2007, Manson countersued Gacy. As a reaction to the lawsuit Gacy filed against Manson in August, Manson claims, "keyboardist Stephen Bier did not carry out obligations to take part in master recordings [of Eat Me, Drink Me], concerts [of the Rape of the World tour] and the selling of band merchandise," according to this report which states that Manson is seeking unspecified general and special damages.

 

Insight

 

Even though he is known mostly for his music, which some refer to as crude and grotesque, Manson is a very intelligent and insightful man. In interviews he is always well spoken and is calm to the people who challenge him. Most people see his music as delivering the wrong message, but Manson states that his message was to be creative.

 

Causes

 

•In 2002, Manson worked with the Make-A-Wish Foundation to make the wish of a boy with a life-threatening disease come true. 16-year-old Andrew Baines from Tennessee had a wish to sing back-up vocals for a "big" band; Manson jumped on the task and took Baines under his wing to make his dream come true. Manson invited Baines to the studio on August 27, 2002, where he let Baines perform backing vocals for the then-upcoming album, The Golden Age of Grotesque. "Yesterday, I spent the afternoon with Andrew, who reminded me the things I create are only made complete by those who enjoy them. I just want to simply say, 'thank you' to Andrew for sharing such an important wish with me," Manson said, according MarilynManson.com.

 

•In 2005, Manson donated a signed collector's edition mask to Music for Relief to help victims of the 2004's Boxing Day Tsunami; this auction raised $155.

 

•In January 2006, Manson contributed a hand-painted guitar from the Six-String Masterpieces - The Dimebag Darrell Art Tribute to the Little Kids Rock auction. For every $100 raised by the product, Little Kids Rock would provide one low-income child with an instrument and lessons – Manson's guitar raised $6,250.

 

•In 2006, Manson became a benefactor of Project Nightlight, an LA area foundation that uses short films, music, and apparel to grab teenagers attention and inspire them to speak out against sexual and physical abuse. Manson afforded Project Nightlight a stand at the opening of his art gallery, and in April 2007 gave the charity a print of his painting Eve of Destruction and a framed collector's edition mask.

 

Legal history

 

Marilyn Manson was first arrested in Florida on December 27, 1994 after a concert at Jacksonville's Club 5 for "violating the adult entertainment code." Manson was detained for 16 hours before been released without charge. Bizarrely police believed Manson had performed oral sex on stage with a man (when in fact it was Jack Off Jill vocalist Jessicka wearing a fake penis) and thrown either his or the man's penis into the crowd. On February 5, 2001 in Marino, Italy Manson suffered what is to date his only other post-concert arrest when he was accused of blasphemy having worn the outfit of a cardinal on stage during the song "Valentine's Day". Soon after the detention it was ascertained that Manson had not committed a crime and it appeared the legal troubles were over until the next day when Manson was arrested in Bologne on charges of public indecency relating to a 1999 show where it was alleged Manson had exposed his penis. Manson was released and the charges dropped, notably the arrests came a week after two teenagers brutally murdered an Italian nun which some less reputable sections of the Italian press blamed on Manson's music.

 

Sexual misconduct

 

In a civil battery suit, David Diaz, a security officer from a concert in Minneapolis, Minnesota on October 27, 2000, sued for $75,000 in a Minneapolis federal court. After two days deliberation the jury decided that Manson's alleged molestation had been part of the show and that he had not overstepped his boundaries as an artist, ruling in favor of Manson and against Diaz.

 

Manson was charged with "sexual misconduct" on August 16, 2001 after Joshua Keasler filed a complaint that as he was providing security for a July 30 concert Manson had allegedly spat on his head, wrapped his legs around him and began to gyrate his penis along his neck.

 

Oakland County prosecutor David Gorcyca said that "It was offensive, crude and rude. This was not something that was orchestrated or choreographed as part of the act. The security guard was an unknowing and unwilling participant and, ironically, while he was there for protection... was sexually assaulted." The charge, punishable with up to two years imprisonment, was accompanied with a charge of disorderly conduct. The complaint came with an arrest warrant but Manson thwarted this by posting a $25,000 personal bond. In a one-day December 28, 2001 trial the presiding Judge dismissed the charge of "sexual misconduct" as Manson had in his view "gained no sexual gratification from the act." Manson pleaded "no contest" to the outstanding lesser charge, which carried only up to three months imprisonment, and was ordered to pay $4,000 in fines. After the trial Keasler pursued a civil lawsuit against Manson that was dropped when the two settled out of court in February 2004.

 

Lawsuits

 

•In 1997, former Marilyn Manson guitarist Scott Mitchell Putesky filed a lawsuit against Manson seeking unpaid royalties for his contributions to the band's output up to that period, including the band's recently released second studio album Antichrist Superstar. The case was concluded in 1998, although the outcome was confidential.

 

•On January 4, 1999, SPIN editor Craig Marks filed an assault and battery lawsuit against Manson in the New York Supreme Court. Marks alleged that Manson, upset at not making the cover of SPIN, the lawsuit specifically alleged Manson had yelled "I can kill you, I can kill your family, I can kill everyone you know!" before two of Manson's bodyguards were said to have charged him and held him against the wall and threw him to the floor after which it was alleged Manson had said, "That's what you get when you disrespect me." The case was dropped when, weeks later, Marks was fired from SPIN over financial irregularities.

 

•On April 2, 2002, Maria St. John filed a wrongful death lawsuit in Los Angeles Superior Court accusing Manson of providing her adult daughter, Jennifer Syme, with cocaine and allowing her to drive while under the influence. The case was settled out of court.

 

•On August 2, 2007, former Marilyn Manson keyboardist Stephen Bier filed a breech of contract lawsuit against Marilyn Manson seeking $20,000,000 in damages. Bier claimed Manson has used the band's money for personal interests, among which are his collection of Nazi paraphernalia, addictions to cocaine and Valium, his $300,000 wedding with and $150,000 engagement ring given to Dita Von Teese and the production of Phantasmagoria: The Visions of Lewis Carroll as well as Lewis Carroll memorabilia, human skeletons and taxidermy. Manson's lawyers responded in January 2008 with a 101-page rebuttal of the claims, the case will be tried by jury in November 2008 in the Los Angeles Superior Court.

 

Major label discography

 

•Portrait of an American Family (1994)

•Smells Like Children (1995)

•Antichrist Superstar (1996)

•Remix and Repent (1997)

•Mechanical Animals (1998)

•The Last Tour on Earth (Live) (1999)

•Holy Wood (In the Shadow of the Valley of Death) (2000)

•The Golden Age of Grotesque (2003)

•Lest We Forget (The Best Of) (2004)

•Eat Me, Drink Me (2007)

 

Filmography

 

•Lost Highway (cameo, 1997)

•MTV Video Music Awards (commercial, 1998)

•Jawbreaker (cameo, 1999)

•Clone High (cameo, 2000)

•From Hell (score, 2001)

•Not Another Teen Movie (score, 2001)

•Resident Evil (score, 2002)

•Bowling for Columbine (interview, 2002)

•The Hire: Beat the Devil (cameo, 2003)

•Party Monster (2003)

•Doppelherz (director, 2003)

•The Heart Is Deceitful Above All Things (cameo, 2004)

•House of Wax (2005) (acting, score)

•Abelcain (2007)

•Living Neon Dreams (2007)

•Rise (cameo, 2007)

•Phantasmagoria: The Visions of Lewis Carroll (acting, directing, writing, score, 2008)

 

Bibliography

 

•The Long Hard Road out of Hell (1998)

•Holy Wood (Unreleased)

 

Trivia

 

•All Manson's tattoos were done at Tattoos By Lou in Miami, Florida over a four-year span starting in 1991, until a new tattoo emerged in early-2007.

 

•In the 1990s, an Internet rumor spread stating Josh Saviano (who played Paul Pfeiffer in 1980s drama The Wonder Years) grew up to become Marilyn Manson. As of 2007, Josh Saviano is a licensed attorney in New York. He has, however, commented on the rumor, and thinks it is neat people believe him to be in a "goth band".

 

•Contrary to what some may deem "common knowledge", Manson has not had any ribs removed for the purpose of autofellatio. "If I really got my ribs removed," he said in the The Long Hard Road out of Hell autobiography, "I would have been busy sucking my own dick on The Wonder Years instead of chasing Winnie Cooper."

 

•In an E! interview, Manson revealed that he owns a Nintendo DS. "My friend got me this little Japanese lawyer game; it's fucking amazing," he said in reference to Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney. He also mentioned that he was "pretty good at Mario Kart".

 

•In an interview with MTV in 2002 Manson revealed that for most of his paintings he uses a children's Alice in Wonderland tin. He also uses a 1920's mortician paint kit originally used for retouching cadavers.

 

•Manson has Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, an erratic, rapid heartbeat.

 

•Manson, who cites David Bowie as being his biggest influence, claims his favorite songs by him are "Quicksand", "Ashes to Ashes", and "We Are the Dead". He even proposed to his ex-wife, Dita Von Teese, during a David Bowie concert (at the time Bowie was performing "Be My Wife") .

 

•Pets Manson has had in his life include the childhood dog, an Alaskan malamute named Aleusha, an orange tabby named O.J. which he found on the steps of Christian school, four Devon Rex cats named Aleister, Edgar, Herman, and Lily, and two dachshunds named Greta and Eva. After the divorce of Manson and ex-wife Dita Von Teese, Von Teese won the custody of both dachshunds and Aleister. For Manson's 39th birthday on January 5th, 2008, girlfriend Evan Rachel Wood gave him a new cat, Charlie (Manson), as a birthday gift.

 

•When asked in 2007 by Rolling Stone what his current favorite playlist was, Manson chose among Radiohead's "Exit Music (For a Film)", Amy Winehouse's "Rehab" and David Bowie's classic "We Are the Dead".

  

OFFICIAL WEBSITE : marilynmanson.com

MARILYN MANSON on MYSPACE : www.myspace.com/marilynmanson

 

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--> This biography appeared on www.mansonwiki.com/ (Manson Wiki)

Église Saint-Séverin (Church of Saint Severin) is dedicated to Séverin, a hermit monk who lived and worshipped on this spot on the Left Bank at the end of the fifth century. After his death, a small basilica was constructed over his tomb, but eventually destroyed by the Vikings. In the 11th century, a Romanesque church was built on the site but by 1200 the small edifice was no longer adequate for the expanding neighborhood.

 

The new Gothic structure was erected at the beginning of the 13th century, consisting of a central nave accompanied by an aisle on both the north and south sides. By the end of that century, the burgeoning university nearby necessiated further expansion, and in the early 14th century a second aisle was added on the south side of the church.

 

During the Hundred Years War and under the English occupation in 1448, a massive fire destroyed three quarters of the structure. In 1452 the archpriest of Saint Séverin Guillaume d'Estouteville, later archbishop of Rouen, undertook rebuilding of the church in the stunning late Gothic flamboyant style, with the addition of a new side aisle on the north. In 1489, the church was lengthened toward the east, and a semi-circular apse now replaced the earlier flat end wall, featuring a double ambulatory marked by the striking progression of columns that culminates in a mysteriously coiled central shaft. At the beginning of the 16th century construction began on the chapels along the outer aisles, once more expanding the size of building to provide additional space. By 1520 this work was completed and Saint Séverin assumed the basic appearance it enjoys today.

 

A second sacristy was constructed in 1643, and in 1673 the royal architect Jules Hardouin-Mansart built the Communion chapel on the southeast outside corner of the church. In 1684 Charles le Brun, decorator of Versailles, undertook modifications in the interior design of the choir, tearing down the rood screen that then separated choir from nave and making other decorative changes, such as marble facing added to the apse columns. This work was financed by Mademoiselle de Montpensier, cousin of the king and member of the Saint Séverin parish. In the 18th century the blind triforium encircling the nave was punched open to be filled with glass, admitting ever more light into the interior.

 

Until 1790 Saint-Séverin was the seat of the southern archdeaconry of the pre-revolutionary diocese of Paris. During the Revolutionary period the Church was closed to worship, the noble structure assigned to store gunpowder and animal feed. Under Napoleon, as anti-religious restrictions were reversed, the church reopened in 1802.

 

Both lateral facades of the church are richly decorated with pinnacles, gargoyles and flying buttresses. The west entrance façade is dominated by an expansive flamboyant rose window. The soaring bell tower dates from the first Gothic construction in the early 1200's; the oldest bell was cast in 1421. The large Gothic portal on the north façade under the bell tower, showing a relief of St. Martin dividing his cloak, was transferred here in the mid-19th century from the church of St-Pierre-aux-boeufs on the Ile de la Cité when it was demolished.

 

Internal highlights include a set of seven modern windows by Jean René Bazaine, inspired by the seven sacraments of the Catholic church; a deambulatory composed of 10 double spans of pillar-palm trees; ; the oldest triforium in Paris; and one of the oldest organs in Paris, dating to 1745.

 

The upper windows around the church were created from the late 14th to the 15th century, and they allow sunlight to illuminate the church vividly throughout the day. The windows nearest the entrance, to right and left, are the oldest, along with the central choir windows.

 

In the triforium level below, 19th century windows in the choir describe scenes from the life of Christ, while those of the north nave depict saints. Figurative windows in the side chapels of the nave likewise date from the 19th century

Jean Sanders Van Hemessen. 1500-1565. Haarlem.

Jésus chassant les marchands du Temple.

Nancy Musée des Beaux Arts (955)

  

JESUS ET LES MARCHANDS DU TEMPLE

 

" Ils arrivèrent à Jérusalem, et Jésus entra dans le temple. Il se mit à chasser ceux qui vendaient et qui achetaient dans le temple; il renversa les tables des changeurs, et les sièges des vendeurs de pigeons; et il ne laissait personne transporter aucun objet à travers le temple. Et il enseignait et disait: N'est-il pas écrit: Ma maison sera appelée une maison de prière pour toutes les nations? Mais vous, vous en avez fait une caverne de voleurs. Matthieu 21, 12-3

 

Les principaux sacrificateurs et les scribes, l'ayant entendu, cherchèrent les moyens de le faire périr; car ils le craignaient, parce que toute la foule était frappée de sa doctrine. Quand le soir fut venu, Jésus sortit de la ville." Marc 11, 15-19

 

"Jésus entra dans le Temple, et se mit à expulser les marchands. Il leur déclarait : « L'Écriture dit : Ma maison sera une maison de prière. Or vous, vous en avez fait une caverne de bandits. » Il était chaque jour dans le Temple pour enseigner. Les chefs des prêtres et les scribes, ainsi que les notables, cherchaient à le faire mourir." Luc, 19, 45-47

  

Le message du Christ est très différent de celui de l'Ancien Testament sur plusieurs points. L'attitude vis à vis de l'argent et de la richesse est un de ces lieux majeurs d'opposition. Et c'est cette divergence qui sera à l'origine de la condamnation à mort du Christ par les Juifs, et de son exécution par les Romains.

Pour la bible hébraïque la richesse n'est nullement une faute ou un péché. Le riche ne mérite aucun blâme. La richesse est même un signe de distinction, et une preuve de la grâce de Dieu. La même "riche idée" sera reprise par les protestants.

Selon la Bible Hébraïque (l'Ancien Testament) Job est riche, heureux dans sa famille et parmi ses amis, et il le mérite d'ailleurs par sa piété et sa bonne conduite. Dieu, dont les volontés sont impénétrables, va le mettre à l'épreuve, mais face aux malheurs apparemment injustes qui l'accablent, Job reste inébranlable dans sa foi. Il ne désespère pas. Dieu le remet en possession de tous ses biens et Job redevient à nouveau un notable honoré et aimé par les siens et ses relations.

"N’aie pas honte…d’obtenir de petits et de grands profits, de faire du bénéfice en matière commerciale", dit l'Ecclesiaste (42 4-5), livre de la Bible hébraïque que les spécialistes datent du troisième siècle avant notre ère.

Le message des Evangiles est tout autre : Le riche prend par cela même qu'il recherche le profit, et réussit dans la vie matérielle, des risques avec la vie spirituelle, et son entrée dans le Royaume des Cieux est problématique..

" Mes enfants, il est difficile à ceux qui se confient dans les richesses d'entrer dans le royaume de Dieu" Marc (10: 24,25)

"il est plus facile à un chameau de passer par le trou d'une aiguille qu'à un riche d'entrer dans le royaume de Dieu." Matthieu 19-24

Le riche doit racheter sa richesse pour entrer dans le Royaume de Dieu. Le pauvre est, par celà même qu'il est pauvre, presque reçu de droit dans le royaume de Dieu.

Ce ne sont pas des morales identiques. Et elles ne façonnent pas des sociétés semblables.

Ces profondes divergences intellectuelles, spirituelles et morales, expliquent parfaitement la condamnation à mort du Christ par les hautes autorités religieuses juives du Sanhédrin. L'exécution par Rome de la sentence juive n'est en effet, à l'évidence, qu'un épiphénomène politique. Les Romains avaient trop besoin de l'alliance avec le Sanhédrin, autorité judaïque à la fois religieuse et politique, afin d' asseoir un semblant de pouvoir sur la Palestine, pour prendre la responsabilité de mécontenter cette institution qui avait décidé de la mort du Christ. Le Christ n'avait, à l'époque, aucune importance aux yeux des Romains. Le Christ n'était aucunement en rébellion contre eux et ne se présentait pas comme un réformateur politique ou social. Contraint par le Grand Prêtre, le gouverneur romain, Pilate, a fait le choix politique, de maintenir son alliance avec le Sanhédrin, même si c'était au préjudice d'un homme qui ne lui semblait pas bien dangereux. Mais dont la vie ne valait certainement pas de sacrifier l'équilibre instable des pouvoirs en Palestine.

C'est une vérité historique factuelle, parfaitement établie, qu'il faut rappeler, car elle a été beaucoup occultée ces dernières années, pour diverses "raisons" idéologiques : Jamais les Romains n'auraient condamné le Christ à mort de leur propre initiative. L'arrestation et la condamnation par les autorités juives, les gardes du Grand Prêtre, au Jardin des Oliviers, survient tout de suite après le scandale des marchands chassés du temple. Le gouverneur romain a, finalement, après l'Ecce Homo, pour contenter "la clameur publique" parfaitement bien organisée par le Sanhédrin, donné son autorisation pour faire exécuter la sentence de mort des autorités religieuses juives. Les Romains sont les exécutants, au nom de leur propre raison d'état ( sauvegarder leur alliance avec le Sanhédrin pour maintenir leur position en Palestine) d'une décision exclusivement judaïque. C'est la signification symbolique et politique de la scène, vraisemblablement légendaire, de Pilate se lavant les mains des suites de sa décision. Ce n'est que plus tard, dans les années 60, que le pouvoir Romain percevra le christianisme comme un danger pour l'idéologie antique et prendra l'initiative, à son tour, de persécutions antichrétiennes.

Rappelons aussi que le mode d'exécution juif traditionnel, était la lapidation, pas la crucifixion. Les "Vieillards" qui avaient tenté de séduire Suzanne puis de la faire condamner à mort pour adultère ont été lapidés après leur condamnation par Daniel. La lapidation comme méthode d'exécution des sentences de mort des juridictions religieuses juives sera employée plus tard pour St Etienne et St Jacques, quand le pouvoir romain se sera affaibli en Palestine et que les autorités Juives seront en situation de pouvoir faire exécuter leurs sentences sans demander l'aval de Rome. A quelques décennies près, le Christ aurait été lapidé et non pas crucifié.

 

JESUS and the merchants of the TEMPLE

 

They came to Jerusalem, and Jesus entered the temple. He began to hunt those who sold and bought in the temple; He overthrew the tables of the changers, and the seats of the pigeon sellers; And he wouldn't let anyone carry anything through the temple. And he taught and said: Is it not written: My house will be called a house of Prayer for all nations? But you, you made a cave of thieves. Matthew 21, 12-3

The chief priests and the scribes, having heard him, sought the means to destroy him; For they feared him, because the whole crowd was struck with his doctrine. When the evening had come, Jesus came out of the city. " Mark 11, 15-19

"Jesus entered the temple, and began to expel the merchants, declaring to them," The scripture says, My house shall be a house of prayer, and you have made it a cave of bandits." He was every day In the Temple to teach, the chief priests and scribes, as well as the notables, sought to kill him. " Luke, 19, 45-47

 

The message of Christ is very different from that of the Old Testament on many points. The attitude towards money and wealth is one of these major places of opposition. And it is this divergence which will be at the origin of the death sentence of Christ by the Jews, and of its execution by the Romans.

For the Hebrew Bible, wealth is not a fault or a sin. The rich do not deserve any blame. Wealth is even a sign of distinction, and a proof of the grace of God. The same "rich idea" will be taken up by Protestants.

According to the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) Job is rich, happy in his family and among his friends, and he deserves it by his piety and good conduct. God, whose will is impenetrable, will put him to the test, but in the face of the apparently unjust misfortunes that overwhelm him, Job remains unshakable in his faith. He does not despair. God puts him back in possession of all his goods and Job becomes again a notable honored and loved by his people and his relations

"Do not be ashamed ... to obtain small and great profits, to make profit in commercial matters," says Ecclesiastes (42 4-5), a book of the Hebrew Bible that specialists date from the third century before Our era.

The message of the Gospels is very different: The rich person takes by that very fact that the seeks profit, and succeeds in material life, risks with the spiritual life, and his entry into the Kingdom of Heaven is problematic.

"My children, it is difficult for those who entrust themselves in the riches to enter the kingdom of God" Mark (10: 24,25)

"It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God." Matthew 19-24

The rich must redeem his wealth to enter the Kingdom of God. The poor is, by the very fact that he is poor, almost received by right in the kingdom of God.

They are not identical morals. And they do not shape similar societies.

These profound intellectual, spiritual and moral differences perfectly explain the condemnation to death of Christ by the high Jewish religious authorities of the Sanhedrin. The execution by Rome of the Jewish sentence is, in fact, only a political epiphenomenon. The Romans had too much need of the alliance with the Sanhedrin, both religious and political Judaic authority, in order to establish a semblance of power over Palestine, to take responsibility for displeasing the institution that had decided the death of Christ

At the time, Christ had no importance in the eyes of the Romans. Christ was not in rebellion against them and did not present himself as a political or social reformer. Constrained by the High Priest, the Roman governor, Pilate, made the political choice to maintain his alliance with the Sanhedrin, even if it was to the detriment of a man who did not seem very dangerous to him. But whose life was certainly not worth sacrificing the unstable balance of power in Palestine.

It is a factual historical truth, perfectly established, which must be remembered, because it has been largely obscured in recent years, for various ideological "reasons": The Romans would never have condemned Christ to death on their own initiative. The arrest and condemnation by the Jewish authorities, the guards of the High Priest, in the Garden of Olives, comes immediately after the scandal of the merchants driven from the temple.

The Roman governor has finally, after the Ecce Homo, to satisfy the "public clamor" perfectly organized by the Sanhedrin, given his authorization to execute the sentence of death of the Jewish religious authorities. The Romans are the performers, in the name of their own reason of state (to safeguard their alliance with the Sanhedrin to maintain their position in Palestine) of an exclusively Judaic decision. This is the symbolic and political significance of Pilate's seemingly legendary scene washing his hands as a result of his decision. It was only later in the 1960s that the Roman power perceived Christianity as a danger to ancient ideology and took the initiative, in turn, of anti-Christian persecutions.

Let us also recall also that the traditional Jewish mode of execution, was stoning, not crucifixion. The "Vieillards" who tried to seduce Suzanne and then have her sentenced to death for adultery were stoned after their condemnation by Daniel. Stoning as a method of execution of death sentences of Jewish religious courts will be used later for St Stephen and St James, when the Roman power will be weakened in Palestine and the Jewish authorities will be able to enforce their sentences without ask for Rome's approval. A few decades later, Christ would have been stoned and not crucified.

   

Juan Manuel Cossio Madrid 1960

L'enterrement de la vérité. The burial of the truth 2005

Barcelone Musée Européen d'Art Moderne.(MEAM)

  

ART CONTEMPORAIN : L'ENTERREMENT DE LA VÉRITÉ ET DE LA BEAUTÉ

 

Ce Tableau d'art contemporain figuratif du MEAM de Barcelone est un témoignage de "L'Art Caché", des dissidents de l'art d'aujourd'hui (Aude de Kerros 2013). Il peut être interprété comme une mise en accusation de l'Art Contemporain Officiel: le Non-Art laid et absurde, qui proclame dans tout l'Occident sa volonté de déranger les peuples en enterrant la Beauté et la Vérité, 3.000 ans d'art vrai créé pour le bonheur des peuples.

  

CONTEMPORARY ART: THE BURIAL OF TRUTH AND BEAUTY

 

This painting of contemporary figurative art of the MEAM in Barcelona is a testimony of "L'Art Caché", of the dissenters of today' art (Aude de Kerros 2013). It can be interpreted as an indictment of the Official Contemporary Art: the ugly and absurd Non-Art, which proclaims throughout the West its desire to derange the people by burying the Beauty and the Truth, 3,000 years of true art, created for the happiness of peoples.

  

LE BEAU ET LE BIEN. LE LAID ET LE MAL. LE VRAI ET LE FAUX.

 

L'art de tous les temps et dans toutes les sociétés est un moyen pour les élites d'imposer une religion (sacrée) ou une idéologie (profane, laïque). L'art est donc un intéressant révélateur de la pensée philosophique et morale qui inspire les élites d'une société donnée en un temps donné. Ces religions ou idéologies peuvent différer beaucoup quant au bénéfice que les peuples vont, ou non, en retirer. Certaines sont propices à l'établissement de civilisations au long cours (Egypte ancienne, Antiquité greco-romaine, Christianisme, Hindouisme, Bouddhisme, Islam....) d'autres sont plus ou moins rapidement mortelles ( Sociétés Aztèque et Inca, Communisme, National-Socialisme).

En effet certaines idéologies, sacrées ou profanes, conçues par les élites, ont été, à plus ou moins court terme, acceptées et totalement partagées par les peuples qui y ont adhéré sans réticence. Elles peuvent alors s'imposer totalement sans heurter les sentiments et les libertés des populations, ou tout au moins d'une majorité largement significative, voire faire l'unanimité à l'intérieur de leur société durant une longue période de temps.

D'autres idéologies par contre ont été imposées par les élites, mais n'ont pas suscité l'adhésion unanime ou majoritaire des peuples qui sont entrés en résistance, passive ou active avec plus ou moins de succès au bout d'une période plus ou moins longue.

 

Ce n'est certainement pas par hasard si l'art catholique et orthodoxe peignait Dieu, le Christ, la Vierge et les Anges beaux, et Satan et les démons laids. C'est une convention qui se retrouve à peu près dans toutes les civilisations. Platon dans certains de ses dialogues enseigne que le vrai, le beau et le bien sont trois formes de l'être suprême. La Beauté ce serait aussi, selon lui, la Vérité et le Bien. " Le Beau est la splendeur du Vrai". Les artistes des temps passés et leurs commanditaires savaient qu'il existe entre le Beau et le Bien d'une part et le Laid et le Mal, le Vrai et le Faux, d'autre part des correspondances subtiles, des accords profonds. Les peuples qui en restent aux faits apparents, et aux évidences de bon sens simples, mais pas toujours simplistes, ressentent instinctivement, ces consonances.

 

Il faut donc questionner le renversement total des valeurs que les élites politiques et idéologiques, politiquement correctes, et les artistes à leur service , ont imposé à la peinture occidentale depuis le milieu du 20è siècle en décidant de favoriser une peinture (et une sculpture), non seulement absurde, mais aussi totalement et volontairement laide. Un art officiel, académique et obligatoire, qui remplit les musées de tout l'Occident et qui s'exporte avec profit. Un art contemporain qu'il ne faut pas confondre avec l'art commercial privé et celui des rues, mais dont tout l'intérêt est de révéler les réelles tendances, intellectuelles et morales, qui inspirent et motivent, contrairement à tous leurs discours publics, les élites idéologiques et politiques qui gouvernent l'Occident.

Les choix artistiques des élites sont conditionnées par les idéologies, religieuses ou profanes, qu'elles inventent et imposent aux peuples. Ces idéologies ne sont jamais neutres. Elles ont des conséquences bonnes ou mauvaises, plus ou moins bonnes et/ou plus ou moins mauvaises sur les civilisations. Mais en définitive ce sont toujours les peuples qui paient la note.

 

Certes les équivalences Beau-Bien, Laid-Mal, Vrai-Faux peuvent être tout à fait trompeuses. Pour séduire le monde l'Antéchrist sera très Beau, tout le monde chrétien le sait. Certaines théories ou démonstrations scientifiques, qualifiées de magnifiquement belles par les mathématiciens et les physiciens, se sont effondrées : elles étaient fausses. Comme la très belle théorie de la gravitation de Newton, qui devra laisser la place à celle de la relativité générale d'Einstein.

Le bon sens populaire le sait aussi depuis longtemps: "C'est trop beau pour être vrai". "Visage d'ange, âme de démon", "l'habit ne fait pas le moine" etc

Il n'existe pas de lien absolument constant et évidemment nécessaire entre la Beauté et le Bien ou la Vérité. C'est plus subtile que cela, mais le lien est véritable, profond, même s'il n'est que relatif, et apparemment, pour nous, imparfait, aperçu indistinctement, intuitivement ressenti, mais exactement insaisissable en raison discursive.

Certains scientifiques posent clairement la question en termes à la fois affirmatifs et prudents. Paul Dirac :"si l'on travaille avec le but d'obtenir de la beauté dans ses équations on est dans une voie sûre de progrès". Roger Penrose: "c'est une chose mystérieuse que ce qui paraît élégant a de meilleures chances d'être vrai que ce qui est laid". Il est exact aussi que la perception du Beau est partiellement fonction des cultures, des apprentissages, et des intelligences. Il est vrai que Lascaux est beau depuis 30.000 ans, mais peu nombreux sont ceux qui sont capables de ressentir la beauté d'une formule mathématique. Et cela n'a finalement rien d'étonnant. L'hindouisme enseigne depuis plus de deux millénaires que la vérité telle qu'elle peut être perçue par les hommes est plurielle et donc relative. Il est bien normal que le Beau et le Bien fonctionnent selon les mêmes schémas aléatoires pour notre entendement limité.

Quand une forme de beauté ne rend plus compte de la réalité telle qu'elle est ressentie à une certaine époque de l'histoire par une population, ou telle qu'elle peut être techniquement rendue par les artistes de l'époque, il faut changer les critères du Beau. Mais pas nécessairement faire de l'art laid.

C'est ce qu'on fait les artistes des temps paléochrétiens et romans : Ils n'étaient plus capables de peindre comme leurs anciens de l'antiquité gréco-romaine. Ils ont peint autrement. Plus simplement. Ils ont supprimé les volumes, les expressions psychologiques, la perspective. Ils ont créé la "peinture plate" qui a duré en Europe du 5è siècle au début du 14è siècle environ. Ils ont changé les sujets de leur art bien sûr et les ont rendus conformes à l'idéologie chrétienne nouvelle. Mais ils n'ont pas peint laid. Ils n'ont pas peint absurde. Ils ont peint plat, mais beau, et plein de sens.

Un sens compréhensible par les peuples, même et surtout par les illettrés, qui constituaient l'immense majorité de la population européenne à laquelle ces artistes s'adressaient, sur instruction des élites idéologiques et politiques. C'est toute l'explication de l'architecture, mais aussi des fresques, des vitraux, des chapiteaux des églises Paléo-chrétiennes, de celles du "Moyen Age" Roman et Gothique: Communiquer avec les peuples, et bien sûr communiquer un message conforme au catéchisme officiel. Un art techniquement simple, mais inter-social, partagé entre les élites et les populations. Car les deux mondes, élites et peuples, croyaient en une même vision du monde.

De même pour les artistes de l'Art Moderne. Par exemple les Impressionnistes, en opposition aux Académiques. Les impressionnistes ont seulement changé les critères du beau. Cette nouvelle esthétique a suscité quelques oppositions très temporaires. Les taches floues et informes de Delacroix en premier, et des impressionnistes ensuite, vues par Jean Dominique Ingres ou Alexandre Cabanel, c'était l'horreur du non-art. On peut comprendre les deux camps.

Mais les impressionnistes n'ont pas peint laid, ni absurde. Ils n'ont aucunement peint contre les sentiments des peuples. Au contraire, c'étaient eux le peuple face aux grands bourgeois de l'Académie de Peinture. Leurs thèmes, le paysage essentiellement, étaient autrement plus populaires que les grands sujets historiques et mythologiques des peintres académiques. Sur bien des points les pré-impressionnistes et les impressionnistes se mettaient seulement à l'heure de la peinture des Pays Bas du siècle d'or qui avait près de siècles "d'avance", notamment quand aux thèmes, sur la peinture néoclassique et académique. C'est pourquoi d'ailleurs Napoléon III, qui avait tout compris, a très vite créé le Salon des Refusés.

Ce schéma s'est reproduit ensuite avec les post-impressionnistes, plus audacieux encore car ils sont allés chercher leurs modèles plus loin dans le passé. Ces peintres ce sont inspirés de la peinture plate de l'époque et paléo-chrétienne et romane, du premier gothique, qu'ils connaissaient fort bien, parce qu'ils fréquentaient assidument le musée du Louvre. Les post-impressionnistes n'ont pas peint laid ni absurde, ils ont seulement changé les règles du Beau.

Le Beau est un sentiment subjectif, personnel, qui s'objective par le partage et l'approbation des peuples et des élites. C'est un fait d'expérience collective et durable. Il est tout à fait possible de modifier les critères du beau. Ce n'est pas une révolution. C'est juste une évolution qui devra subir l'épreuve de l'approbation des élites, des peuples, et du temps.

Mais quand une élite idéologique et politique remplace, autoritairement et systématiquement, d'en haut, dans tout son art officiel, le beau par le laid, le sens partagé par l'absurde incommunicable, l'harmonie par l'abject, la sensation de joie et de bonheur par un sentiment de déréliction et d'avilissement, cette élite change totalement les repères fondamentaux de l'humanité au point peut être de quitter la civilisation.

C'est une question qui concerne directement les peuples, leur survie même : l'art officiel, laid et absurde, est nécessairement le reflet de la morale et de la politique qui inspire les élites idéologiques et politiques gouvernant l'Occident. Les élites ont nécessairement la morale et la politique de leur esthétique. Le Laid et l'Absurde, dans l'Art Contemporain Officiel, c'est la preuve d'une idéologie et d'une politique globale laide et absurde. Quand une élite érige en modèle artistique, une anti esthétique, c'est qu'elle a perdu le sens de la mesure et de l'harmonie. La négation systématique, méthodique, doctrinale, du Beau et du Sens est nécessairement la négation du Bien et du Vrai.

 

BEAUTIFUL AND GOOD. UGLY AND EVIL. TRUE AND FALSE.

 

The art of all times and in all societies is a means for the elites to impose a (sacred) religion or an ideology (secular, secular). Art is therefore an interesting revealer of the philosophical and moral thought that inspires the elites of a given society in a given time. These religions or ideologies can differ a lot as to the benefit that peoples will or will not withdraw. Some are conducive to the establishment of long-term civilizations (ancient Egypt, Greek-Roman antiquity, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam ...) others are more or less rapidly mortal (Aztec and Inca society, Communism, national Socialism).

Indeed, certain ideologies, sacred or secular, conceived by the elites, have been, more or less short term, accepted and totally shared by the peoples who adhered to it without reluctance. They can then impose themselves completely without hurting the feelings and freedoms of the people, or at least a largely significant majority, even unanimity within their society for a long period of time.

Other ideologies, on the other hand, have been imposed by the elites, but did not generate the membership unanimous or majority of peoples that came into resistance, passive or active with more or less success after a shorter or longer period.

It is certainly not by chance that Catholic and Orthodox art painted God, Christ, the Virgin and the Angels, always beautifuls, and Satan and the demons, always ugly. It is a convention that is found in almost all civilizations. Plato in some of his dialogues teaches that the true, the beautiful and the good are three forms of the supreme being. Beauty is also, according to him, Truth and Good. "Beauty is the splendor of truth". The artists of past times and their sponsors knew that there is between Beauty and Good on the one hand and the Ugly and the Evil, the True and the False, on the other hand, subtle correspondences, deep chords. The peoples who prefer the apparent facts, and the simple but not always simplistic evidences of common sense, instinctively feel these consonances

It is therefore necessary to question the total reversal of the values that the political and ideological elites, politically correct, and the artists at their service have imposed on Western painting since the middle of the 20th century by deciding to favor a painting (and a sculpture), not only absurd, but also totally and willingly ugly. An official, academic and obligatory art, which fills the museums of all the Occident and which exports with profit. A contemporary art that should not be confused with commercial art and that of the streets (street art) , but whose whole interest is to reveal the real trends, intellectual and moral, which inspire and motivate, contrary to all their public speeches, the ideological and political elites that govern the West.

The artistic choices of the elites are conditioned by ideologies, religious or secular, which they invent and impose on the peoples. These ideologies are never neutral. They have good or bad consequences, more or less good and / or more or less bad on civilizations. But ultimately it is always the peoples who pay the bill.

Certainly the equivalences Beau-Bien, Laid-Mal, True-False can be quite misleading. To seduce the world the Antichrist will be very beautiful, every Christian knows it. Some theories or scientific demonstrations, described as magnificently beautiful by mathematicians and physicists, have collapsed: they were false. Like Newton's beautiful theory of gravitation, which will have to be replaced by Einstein's general relativity.

Popular wisdom has also known it for a long time: "It's too good to be true". "Angel face, soul of demon", "the habit does not make the monk" etc.

There is no absolutely constant and obviously necessary link between Beauty and Good or Truth. It is more subtle than that, but the connection is real, profound, even if it is only relative, and apparently, for us, imperfect, seen indistinctly, intuitively felt, but exactly elusive by discursive reason.

Some scientists clearly pose the question in both affirmative and cautious terms. Paul Dirac: "if you work with the goal of obtaining beauty in your equations, you are in a sure way of progress". Roger Penrose: "It's a mysterious thing that what looks elegant has a better chance of being true than what is ugly". It is also true that the perception of beauty is partly a function of cultures, learning, and intelligence. It is true that Lascaux has been beautiful for 30,000 years, but few people are able to feel the beauty of a mathematical formula. And this is not surprising. Hinduism has been teaching for more than two millennia that the truth as it can be perceived by men is plural and therefore relative. It is quite normal that Beauty and Good work according to the same random patterns for our limited understanding.

When a form of beauty no longer reflects reality as it is felt at a certain time in history by a population, or as it can be technically rendered by the artists of the time, we must change the criteria of Beau. But not necessarily make ugly art.

This is what the artists of paleochristian and Romanesque times have done: They were no longer able to paint like their ancients in Greco-Roman antiquity. They painted differently. More simply. They deleted the volumes, the psychological expressions, the perspective. They created the "flat paint" that lasted in Europe from the 5th century to the early 14th century. They changed the subjects of their art of course and made them conform to the new Christian ideology. But they did not paint ugly. They did not paint absurd. They painted flat, but beautiful, and full of meaning.

A meaning understandable by the people, even and especially by the illiterate, who constituted the vast majority of the European population to which these artists addressed, on the instruction of the ideological and political elites. This is the whole explanation of architecture, but also frescoes, stained glass, capitals of the Paleo-Christian churches, those of the "Middle Ages" Roman and Gothic: Communicating with the people, and of course communicating a message conform to the official catechism. A technically simple but inter-social art, shared between elites and populations. The both worlds, elites and peoples, believed in the same vision of the world.

Similarly for artists of Modern Art. For example the Impressionists, in opposition to Academicist. The Impressionists have only changed the criteria of the beautiful. This new aesthetic has given rise to some very temporary oppositions. The fuzzy and shapeless spots of Delacroix first, and the impressionists then, seen by Jean Dominique Ingres or Alexandre Cabanel, was the horror of non-art. We can understand both sides.

But the Impressionists did not paint ugly or absurd. They did not paint against the feelings of the people. On the contrary, they were the people against the great bourgeois of the Academy of Painting. Their themes, essentially the landscape, were far more popular than the great historical and mythological subjects of academicist painters. In many respects the pre-Impressionists and the Impressionists were returned only at the time of the painting of the Netherlands of the Golden Age, which had been "in advance" for two centuries, especially compared to the themes of neoclassicism and of academic painting. This is why Napoleon III, who had understood everything, quickly created the Salon des Refusés.

This pattern was then repeated with the post-Impressionists, even more daring because they went to look for their models further in the past. These painters are inspired by the flat painting of the time paleo-Christian and Romanesque, the first Gothic, which they knew very well, because they frequented the museum of the Louvre. The post-impressionists did not paint ugly or absurd, they only changed the rules of the Beautiful.

The beautiful is a subjective, personal feeling, which is objectified by the sharing and approval of peoples and elites. It is a fact of collective and lasting experience. It is quite possible to change the criteria of the beautiful. It's not a revolution. It is just an evolution that will have to be tested by the approval of elites, peoples, and time.

But when an ideological and political elite replaces, authoritatively and systematically, from above, in all its official art, the beautiful by the ugly, the sense shared by the incommunicable absurd, the harmony by the abject, the sensation of joy and happiness by a feeling of dereliction and degradation, this elite completely changes the fundamental landmarks of humanity, to the point may be, to leave the civilization.

It is a question that directly concerns the peoples, their very survival: the official art, ugly and absurd, is necessarily the reflection of the morality and politics that inspires the ideological and political elites governing the West. The elites necessarily have the moral and the politics of their aesthetics. The Ugly and the Absurd, in the Official Contemporary Art, is the proof of an ideology and an ugly and absurd global policy. When an elite erects as an artistic model, an anti-aesthetic, it is that it has lost the sense of measure and harmony. The systematic, methodical, doctrinal negation of Beauty and Sense is necessarily the negation of Good and Truth.

   

The Chariot, ז) & 7) - by Levi.

 

& Flannery O' Connor- "Everything that Rises Must Converge"..

& - yes BP is still EVIL - VERY evil, are they going to clean up long term?? Or what?

 

& - Taraf De Haidouks -

-

 

THE CHARIOT

 

Weapon, sword, cherubic sword of fire, the sacred septenary, triumph, royalty, priesthood.

 

Hieroglyph, a CUBIC CHARIOT, with four pillars and an azure and starry drapery. In the chariot, between the four pillars, a victor crowned with a circle adorned with three radiant golden pentagrams.

 

Upon his breast are three superposed squares, on his shoulders the URIM and THUMMIM of the sovereign sacrificer, represented by the two crescents of the moon in GEDULAH and GEBURAH; in his hand is a sceptre surmounted by a globe, square and triangle: his attitude is proud and tranquil.

 

A double sphinx or two sphinxes joined at the haunches are harnessed to the chariot; they are pulling in opposite directions, but are looking the same way.

  

They are respectively black and white. On the square which forms the fore part of the chariot is the Indian lingam surmounted by the flying sphere of the Egyptians. This hieroglyph, which we reproduce exactly, is perhaps the most beautiful and complete of all those that are comprised in the Clavicle of the Tarot.

 

THE septenary is the sacred number in all theogonies and in all symbols, because it is composed of the triad and the tetrad.

 

The number seven represents magical power in all its fullness; it is the mind reinforced by all elementary potencies; it is the soul served by Nature; it is the SANCTUM REGNUM mentioned in the Keys of Solomon and represented in the Tarot by a crowned warrior, who bears a triangle on his cuirass and is posed upon a cube, to which two sphinxes are harnessed, straining in opposite directions, while their heads are turned the same way.

  

This warrior is armed with a fiery sword and holds in his left hand a sceptre surmounted by a triangle and a sphere.

  

The cube is the Philosophical Stone; the sphinxes are the two forces of the Great Agent, corresponding to JAKIN and BOAZ, the two Pillars of the Temple; the cuirass is the knowledge of Divine Things, which renders the wise man invulnerable to human assaults; the sceptre is the Magic Wand; the fiery sword is the symbol of victory over the deadly sins, seven in number, like the virtues, the conceptions of both being typified by the ancients under the figures of the seven planets then known.

 

1-7

Balance, attraction and repulsion, life, terror, promise and threat.

    

The link to this excerpt/description is censored & removed by Flickr every time I post it- so it's in the tag at right- if it disappears from there, email me for it..

  

-

 

The writer should never be ashamed of staring. There is nothing that does not require his attention. -- Flannery O'Connor

  

-

  

Late in her life someone asked the American writer Flannery O'Connor why she wrote. She said, "Because I am good at it. "

 

She was good. Yet, she was not always as good a writer as she became. She improved because she listened to others. She changed her stories. She re-wrote them, then re-wrote them again, always working to improve what she was creating.

 

Flannery had always wanted to be a writer. After she graduated from Georgia State College for women, she asked to be accepted at a writing program at the State University of Iowa. The head of the school found it difficult to understand her southern speech. He asked her to write what she wanted. Then he asked to see some examples of her work.

 

He saw immediately that the writing was full of imagination and bright with knowledge, like Flannery O'Connor herself.

 

VOICE TWO:

 

Mary Flannery O'Connor was born March twenty-fifth, nineteen twenty-five, in the southern city of Savannah, Georgia.

 

The year she was born, her father developed a rare disease called lupus. He died of the disease in nineteen forty-one. By that time the family was living in the small southern town of Milledgeville, Georgia, in a house owned by Flannery's mother.

 

Life in a small town in the American South was what O'Connor knew best. Yet she said, "If you know who you are, you can go anywhere. "

 

VOICE ONE:

 

Many people in the town of Milledgeville thought she was different from other girls. She was kind to everyone, but she seemed to stand to one side of what was happening, as if she wanted to see it better. Her mother was her example. Her mother said, "I was brought up to be nice to everyone and not to tell my business to anyone. "

 

Flannery also did not talk about herself. But in her writing a silent and distant anger explodes from the quiet surface of her stories. Some see her as a Roman Catholic religious writer. They see her anger as the search to save her moral being through her belief in Jesus Christ. Others do not deny her Roman Catholic religious beliefs. Yet they see her not writing about things, but presenting the things themselves.

 

VOICE TWO:

 

When she left the writing program at Iowa State University she was invited to join a group of writers at the Yaddo writers' colony. Yaddo is at Saratoga Springs in New York state. It provides a small group of writers with a home and a place to work for a short time.

 

The following year, nineteen forty-nine, she moved to New York City. She soon left the city and lived with her friend Robert Fitzgerald and his family in the northeastern state of Connecticut. Fitzgerald says O'Connor needed to be alone to work during the day. And she needed her friends to talk to when her work was done.

 

(MUSIC)

 

VOICE ONE:

 

While writing her first novel, "Wise Blood", she was stricken with the disease, lupus, that had killed her father. The treatment for lupus weakened her. She moved back to Georgia and lived the rest of her life with her mother on a farm outside Milledgeville. O'Connor was still able to write, travel, and give speeches.

 

"Wise Blood" appeared in nineteen fifty-two. Both it and O'Connor's second novel, "The Violent Bear it Away," are about a young man growing up. In both books the young men are unwilling to accept the work they were most fit to do.

 

Like all of Flannery O'Connor's writing, the book is filled with humor, even when her meaning is serious. It shows the mix of a traditional world with a modern world. It also shows a battle of ideas expressed in the simple, country talk that O'Connor knew very well.

 

VOICE TWO:

 

In "Wise Blood", a young man, Hazel Motes, leaves the Army but finds his home town empty. He flees to a city, looking for "a place to be." On the train, he announces that he does not believe in Jesus Christ. He says, "I wouldn't even if he existed. Even if he was on this train. "

 

His moving to the city is an attempt to move away from the natural world and become a thing, a machine. He decides that all he can know is what he can touch and see.

 

In the end, however, he destroys his physical sight so that he may truly see, because he says that when he had eyes he was blind. Critics say his action seems to show that he is no longer willing to deny the existence of Jesus but now is willing to follow him into the dark.

 

The novel received high praise from critics. It did not become popular with the public, however.

 

VOICE ONE:

 

O'Connor's second novel, "The Violent Bear it Away," was published in nineteen sixty. Like "Wise Blood," it is a story about a young man learning to deal with life.

 

The book opens with the young man, Francis Marion Tarwater, refusing to do the two things his grandfather had ordered him to do. These are to bury the old man deep in the ground, and to bring religion to his uncle's mentally sick child.

 

Instead, Tarwater burns the house where his grandfather died and lets the mentally sick child drown during a religious ceremony.

 

VOICE TWO:

 

Critics say Tarwater's violence comes from his attempt to find truth by denying religion. In the end, however, he accepts that he has been touched by a deeper force, the force of the word of God, and he must accept that word.

 

Both of O'Connor's novels explore the long moment of fear when a young man must choose between the difficulties of growing up and the safe world of a child.

 

(MUSIC)

 

VOICE ONE:

 

Flannery O'Connor is at least as well known for her stories as for her novels. Her first book of stories, "A Good Man is Hard to Find," appeared in nineteen fifty-five. In it she deals with many of the ideas she wrote about in "Wise Blood," such as the search for Jesus Christ.

 

In many of the stories there is a conflict between the world of the spirit and the world of the body. In the story, "The Life You Save May Be Your Own," a traveling workman with only one arm comes to a farm. He claims to be more concerned with things of the spirit than with objects.

 

VOICE TWO:

 

The woman who owns the farm offers to let him marry her deaf daughter. He finally agrees when the mother gives him the farm, her car, and seventeen dollars for the wedding trip. He says, "Lady, a man is divided into two parts, body and spirit. . . The body, lady, is like a house: it don't go anywhere; but the spirit, lady, is like a automobile, always on the move. . . "

 

He marries the daughter and drives off with her. When they stop to eat, the man leaves her and drives off toward the city. On the way he stops and gives a ride to a wandering boy.

 

We learn that when the one-armed man was a child, his mother left him. Critics say that when he helps the boy, he is helping himself.

 

VOICE ONE:

 

In nineteen sixty-four, O'Connor was operated on for a stomach disease. One result of this operation was the return of lupus, the disease that killed her father. On August third, nineteen sixty-four, Flannery O'Connor died.

 

She was thirty-nine years old.

 

Near the end of her life she said, "I'm a born Catholic, and death has always been brother to my imagination."

 

VOICE TWO:

 

The next year, in nineteen sixty-five, her final collection of stories, "Everything That Rises Must Converge," appeared. In it she speaks of the cruelty of disease and the deeper cruelty that exists between parents and children. In these stories, grown children are in a struggle with parents they neither love nor leave. Many of the children feel guilty about hating the mothers who, the children feel, have destroyed them through love. The children want to rebel violently, but they fear losing their mothers' protection.

 

In nineteen seventy-one, O'Connor's "Collected Stories" was published. The book contains most of what she wrote. It has all the stories of her earlier collections. It also has early versions of both novels that were first published as stories. And it has parts of an uncompleted novel and an unpublished story.

 

In nineteen seventy-two this last book won the American book industry's highest prize, The National Book Award. As one critic noted, Flannery O'Connor did not live long, but she lived deeply, and wrote beautifully.

 

(MUSIC)

 

VOICE ONE:

 

This Special English program was written by Richard Thorman. I'm Shirley Griffith.

 

VOICE TWO:

 

And I'm Ray Freeman. Join us again next week for another People in America program on the Voice of America.

  

From: www.unsv.com/voanews/specialenglish/scripts/2005/07/10/00...

 

-

  

British Prime Minister's words fail to placate US's anti-BP sentiments www.youtube.com/watch?v=uKW-19Th46Y

  

Messy cleanup of BP oil spill damages the Gulf

 

By CAIN BURDEAU (AP) – 29 minutes ago

 

FOURCHON BEACH, La. — The 5,600 vessels taking part in the oil spill operation on the Gulf of Mexico make up the largest fleet assembled since the Allied invasion of Normandy, according to the Coast Guard.

 

Hordes of helicopters, bulldozers, Army trucks, ATVs, barges, dredges, airboats, workboats, cleanup crews, media, scientists and volunteers have descended on the beaches, blue waters and golden marshes of the Gulf Coast.

 

That's a lot of propellers, anchors, tires, and feet for a fragile ecosystem to take, and a tough truth is emerging: In many places, the oil cleanup itself is causing environmental damage.

 

Part of that is inevitable — the oil has to get cleaned up somehow, and BP and the government will be subject to second-guessing no matter what.

 

"Absolutely nothing you do to respond to an oil spill is without impacts of its own," said Lisa Jackson, administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.

 

Since the Deepwater Horizon rig exploded April 20, killing 11, and oil began gushing into the Gulf, federal, state and BP officials say they have been guided in their response by picking the less damaging cleanup method.

 

Still, environmentalists and veterans of other spills say the torrent of untested cleanup methods rushed into practice by panicked officials and unqualified experts is wreaking havoc and, at least in spots, may be unnecessary.

 

"The more you disperse (with chemicals), the more you bring in these big machines, the more you bring in inexperienced people and the more sand berms you build, the less chance you have of letting Mother Nature and skimmers and booms do the job," said Mike Brewer of Buras, La., who ran an oil spill response company and is working on the BP cleanup.

 

For starters, the EPA allowed BP PLC to spray a chemical dispersant, a product called Corexit, to break up oil right as it came out of BP's broken well nearly a mile below the surface. The idea is to save shorelines from being clobbered with vast waves of crude.

 

In practice, the use of dispersants that had never been tested that far beneath the surface has made the oil much more difficult to track than it would have been in a single, massive slick. And environmentalists and marine biologists still aren't convinced the chemicals are safe for sea life.

 

The EPA halted underwater spraying while it tested samples collected by BP, then allowed it to resume once the results came back to the agency's satisfaction. Further tests are ongoing, and crews quit spraying dispersant once the well was contained this week, Jackson said.

 

"Basically, we conducted uncontrolled experiments in the open ocean — that does not seem like a good idea to me," said John Hocevar, the oceans campaign director for Greenpeace USA.

 

Jackson said there was little evidence that the chemical dispersants had caused damage and called their effects "relatively mild."

 

Eager to be seen as taking charge, Gov. Bobby Jindal began building a series of untested sand islands and other barriers along the Louisiana coast, making construction of these berms a personal crusade. In theory, sand berms and jetties will stop the oil from entering sensitive estuaries.

 

But berms and jetties interrupt shrimp and fish migrations as well as tidal flows; the work can even undermine what little is left of Louisiana's gooey and sediment-layered shoreline.

 

"None of the coastal scientists have signed onto this thing," said Leonard Bahr, a former adviser to both Republican and Democratic governors in Louisiana on coastal restoration issues.

 

Fishermen and locals, however, almost unanimously agree with Jindal's unorthodox barrier plans.

 

"We know these (berms) stop the oil. It worked on Fourchon Beach," said Windell Curole, a levee manager in south Lafourche Parish, an area long struggling with erosion. "The people that are pushing for these things are more invested in it than the scientists."

 

In a move that put its compensation costs toward curtailing the spill's environmental effects, BP hired truckloads of inexperienced oil spill responders — shrimpers, unemployed workers, college students, and migrant workers. The manpower is essential, but their footprint can be huge, especially if they're not used to watching their step.

 

"It was like the Wild West there for a while, and it still is to some degree," said Drew Wheelan, a wildlife biologist with the American Bird Association Inc., a conservation group.

 

Wheelan said cleanup crews trampled on numerous nesting bird colonies, including at least one batch of least tern eggs he saw. Wilson's plovers and endangered black skimmers on Louisiana's Grand Isle and East Grand Terre islands were threatened by intensive beach cleanups.

 

"The whole entire area in the past two weeks has been completely crisscrossed by tire tracks. The entire cleanup there has been entirely sickening," Wheelan said recently of East Grand Terre. "There are tire tracks from the low tide line all the way up into the dune vegetation. Not an inch of that frontal beach has been spared from traffic."

 

Out on the Gulf, BP brought in a super-sized skimmer from Taiwan — the "A Whale" — capable of sucking up 20 million gallons of water a day, aiming to corral huge quantities of oiled water at once. Like some of the other methods, it had never been tested and scientists worried that it could cause serious damage.

 

"It will suck in a lot of biology," said James Cowan, a Louisiana State University fisheries scientist.

 

Coast Guard officials questioned its effectiveness, noting that it would be better for attacking a single huge slick than for the countless smaller pools that the dispersant helped create. Authorities announced last week that the massive ship was dropping out of the spill operation.

 

Forrest Travirca has seen the cleanup's side effects up close as a land manager for the Wisner estate, a public land trust that includes Fourchon Beach and a large marsh area that has seen some of the heaviest oil so far.

 

On an airboat cruise through marsh, signs of the messy cleanup jumped out. Reddish-brown and sticky tar coated the blades of marsh grass behind a beach lined with sand baskets brought in by Army dump trucks. Absorbent boom lay washed up against shorelines. Crews had staked down shade tents every few hundred yards.

 

Almost as soon as he stepped onto the sand, Travirca saw something he didn't like: Two ATV tracks meandering carefree across the sands. Someone with the cleanup had strayed from designated traffic corridors.

 

"This really upsets me," Travirca said, standing over the fresh set of tracks. "They're not supposed to be driving back here. They've got to drive along the front of the beach. Birds nest back here."

 

He walked a few paces away and pointed out another set of ATV tracks he discovered a few days before. "This track here was inches from a tern nest with eggs."

 

At least now, more than three months after the spill, the cleanup is becoming more organized.

 

In the beginning, he said, the beach "looked like the autobahn."

 

From:

www.google.com/hostednews/ap/article/ALeqM5h69WGhR_2XJBoQ...

   

Taraf De Haidouks - Turceasca -

 

Sooo brilliant - listen!!! You will DIE!! It's one of the most beautiful songs on earth!! - : www.youtube.com/watch?v=xnNCidccbG8

 

Taraf De Haidouks - Doina, hora si briu www.youtube.com/watch?v=gTuxzoLnBnU

 

-

 

"Trust in the Lord with all your heart, and do not lean on your own understanding. In all your ways acknowledge him, and he will make straight your paths." Proverbs 3: 5-6

  

"Now faith is the assurance of things hoped for, the conviction of things not seen."

Hebrews 11: 1

   

"All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness " ~ 2 Timothy 3:16

 

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 

Testimony

  

I have many christian testimonies of God's intervention but I will share with you the latest one TODAY ! .

 

My husband had a bike accident last week , had injury on his forehead and on area surrounding the eye ,but not fatal , one important thing it missed his eye , could have been so bad , but his whole arm was on plaster cast for days due to fracture on his radius . He is off sick from work , added to that ,it makes things with me bit more tough in the house . We normally share household chores as we are both working . For one thing I don't like shopping groceries . I just make the lists and he will do one big shopping once a week .It's normal routine since the beginning even before we got married .We always have this arrangements with chores .I cook , he cooks ,but now I will do all that . I felt it was tough in the last few days .

 

Just when this accident happened he was in such agony and went to A&E ( Accident and Emergency ). I prayed to God ,like a conversation, he wouldn't have fractures . But he came out and diagnosed having fractured his radius shown from the X-ray results . His arm was put on a plaster cast soon and to be seen again soon . It was a bit tough on him especially being stuck and can't do much things .

 

Came the time today of another hospital check on his arm - the result was ,they can't see any fracture from another X-ray , buffled , they said he was misdiagnosed . He came with a soft splint in his arm for the bruise , not even a sprain ,I can't see much bruise either , he is not anymore in such pain .He 's back on his bike today . :) -- and volunteered it's his turn to cook dinner ( while I am posting this one on flickr :) He didn't know I was writing about him in my post . How good God is - you see :)

 

Praise God for the healing !

 

GOD IS SO GOOD !

  

If you love God and delight in Him and His righteous ways ,he will be right with you when you need Him .Make sure you dial the right number --- through Jesus Christ alone !

 

Because there's no name given under heaven whereby we are save and put right with God !

   

The Bible said so :

 

"And there is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among men by which we must be saved.” ~Acts 4:12

 

“For God so loved the world, that he gave his only Son, that whoever believes in him should not perish but have eternal life. " John 3 : 16

 

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

    

Walid Shoebat , a former muslim talks of Christianity and Islam eschatology , Jesus and Muhammad , muslims ,christians and Jews ,cresent moon , Israel , Anti-christ , the coming big events in the middleast etc .Very interesting - he has the points ,it sounds right when you have prior background awareness with old testamment prophecies. I just don't agree of him ignoring the Vatican / Toman Catholic church in the prophecies and its big involvement in the end time scenario /one world government -one world religion which the Vatican is promoting .Yet his discussion of Islam on another branch of eschatology hard to ignore . This isn't an indignation to our muslim brothers and sisters but as an encouragement for many to also try looking into the Bible ,have a comparatve reading with Quran - read it , heartily pray and search for truth .

 

* Prophecy 101 by Walid Shoebat

    

* Walid Shoebat : ISLAM IN BIBLE PROPHECY

   

* Walid Shoebat : End Times Today ( Quran and the Bible , Christianity and Islam , Israel and long persecution,Satan ,Angle of light , great deception , Biblical prophetic associations connected with the Quran / symbols ,Muhammad ,Revelations )

   

SIGNS OF THE TIMES :

    

* What Happens When You Ignore God's WARNINGS

  

* Paul Begley : Bank of England "Plans" for Euro Collapse

 

* Chagas Disease, an incurable infection, called the ‘new AIDS of the Americas'

 

* Quake reveals day of Jesus' crucifixion, researchers believe

    

* Saudis Suppy 90% of Jihad funding

 

* How can 1.2bn people be identified quickly?

 

* Money Flies Out of Spain, Regions Pressured

    

* The Pacific Ocean Is Dying: Special Report On Fukushima Nuclear Catastrophe

   

* Fukushima Reactor 4 poses massive global risk

  

* JERUSALEM POST: Yielding Temple Mount would be a fatal mistake

 

* Steve Quayle : Severe Warning !

  

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 

I'm still so busy at the moment and hardly be able to spend extented time on flickr ,so I wouldn't be visting your photo streams sooner or answer your emails. But many thanks of your visits and kind comments .Take care friends ,I'll see you later :)

My photos for sale on Getty images

gettyimages contributor

  

Φαρμακείον Ραφαλιάς

Η οικογένεια Ραφαλιά έχει ιστορία 400 ετών

στο νησί της Ύδρας.

 

Ο Ευάγγελος Ραφαλιάς (1868-1936) ολοκλήρωσε τις σπουδές Φαρμακευτικής στην Αθήνα και ίδρυσε το φαρμακείο Ραφαλιά το 1890.

 

Ο γιος του Ανδρέας, σπουδάζει Ιατρική, όμως, το φαρμακείο περνάει στα χέρια της γυναίκας του γιου του, Κυριακής.

 

Σήμερα, ιδιοκτήτης είναι ο εγγονός του ιδρυτή, Ευάγγελος, που ανέλαβε το 1978.

 

Το συγκεκριμένο φαρμακείο αποτελεί μνημείο πολιτιστικής και αρχιτεκτονικής παράδοσης, αφού δεν έχουν γίνει επεμβάσεις στο κτίριο και η επίπλωση παραμένει η αρχική.

 

Ο σημερινός ιδιοκτήτης επιδεικνύει ιδιαίτερη φροντίδα για τη διαρκή συντήρηση του φαρμακείου. Η επίπλωση κατασκευάστηκε από σουηδικό πεύκο, ξύλο εξαιρετικά ανθεκτικό στη φθορά. Αξιοσημείωτος είναι και ο δεύτερος χώρος του φαρμακείου, όπου παλιότερα διεξάγονταν ιατρικές εξετάσεις. Τέλος, υπάρχει πλούσια συλλογή από πορσελάνινα και γυάλινα βάζα, σκεύη, εργαλεία και εκδόσεις φαρμακευτικών βιβλίων.

Πηγή

  

Η ανάρτηση,φυσικά, γίνεται με την αφορμή του εορτασμού σήμερα,22 Δεκεμβρίου,της Αγίας Αναστασίας της Φαρμακολυτρίας προστάτιδος των φαρμακοποιών

Ἀναστασία φάρμακον πιστοῖς μέγα,

Πᾶν φάρμακον λύουσα, καὶ κεκαυμένη.

Καύθη Ἀναστασία πυρὶ δευτέρᾳ εἰκάδι λαύρῳ.

Βιογραφία

Η καταγωγή της Αγίας Αναστασίας ήταν από την Ρώμη. Ο πατέρας της ονομαζόταν Πραιτεξτάτος και ήταν Ρωμαίος πατρίκιος ενώ την μητέρα της την έλεγαν Φαύστα. Η Αναστασία διακρινόταν για την ομορφιά του σώματος, τη μόρφωση, το άμεμπτο ήθος και τη σωφροσύνη της.

 

Παντρεύτηκε σε νεαρή ηλικία τον Ποπλίωνα, άρχοντα των Ρωμαίων και φανατικό ειδωλολάτρη. Η Αναστασία όμως, κατηχήθηκε στο λόγο του Χριστού και έλαβε το Θείο Βάπτισμα. Επειδή δεν φανέρωσε δημόσια, λόγω του ανδρός της, την χριστιανική της πίστη βοηθούσε κρυφά όσους είχαν ανάγκη από ένα χέρι βοηθείας ή ένα λόγο παρηγοριάς. Ντυνόταν πενιχρά και μετέβαινε στις φυλακές πηγαίνοντας τροφή και χρήματα. Γι' αυτό ονομάστηκε «Φαρμακολύτρια».

 

Όταν έμαθε ο Ποπλίωνας την δράση της Αγίας, εξοργίστηκε. Αρχικά προσπάθησε να την μεταπείσει με συμβουλές. Όμως, η Αναστασία παρέμενε ακλόνητη στην πίστη της ακόμα και όταν την κακοποίησε. Αυτή η επιμονή της, εξόργισε τον Ποπλίωνα και την κατέδωσε στον αυτοκράτορα Διοκλητιανό, ο οποίος διέταξε την φυλάκισή της. Επειδή εξακολουθούσε να υμνολογεί τον Κύριο, ο Διοκλητιανός διέταξε τον βασανισμό της.

 

Τελικά η αγία Αναστασία παρέδωσε το πνεύμα της στην πυρά το 290 μ.Χ.

Pharmacy of Rafalia

The Rafaella family has a history of 400 years

on the island of Hydra.

 

Evangelos Rafalas (1868-1936) completed his Pharmaceutical Studies in Athens and founded the Pharmacy of Pharmacy in 1890.

 

His son Andreas is studying Medicine, but the pharmacy passes into the hands of his son's wife, Sunday.

 

Today, the owner is the grandson of the founder, Evangelos, who took over in 1978.

 

This pharmacy is a monument of cultural and architectural tradition, since there have been no interventions in the building and the furniture remains the original one.

 

The current owner is particularly concerned about the continued maintenance of the pharmacy. The furnishings were made from Swedish pine wood, extremely resistant to wear. Also noteworthy is the second area of ​​the pharmacy, where previously medical examinations were held. Finally, there is a rich collection of porcelain and glass vases, utensils, tools and publishing of pharmaceutical books.

Source

  

The posting, of course, takes place on the occasion of the celebration today, December 22, of St. Anastasia of Pharmacoculture Protector of Pharmacists

An anti-inflammatory medication,

It's a lustful, burning medicine.

Burns Protection of fire extinguishers.

Biography

The origin of Saint Anastasia was from Rome. Her father was called Pretextatos and was a Roman patrician while her mother was called Fausta. Anastasia was distinguished for the beauty of the body, its education, its impeccable ethos and wisdom.

 

Married to a young age, Archangel of Rome and a fanatic idol. Anastasia, however, abudged in the word of Christ and received the Divine Baptism. Because she did not reveal publicly because of her husband, her Christian faith secretly helped those who needed a hand of help or a consolation. He dressed mildly and went to prison for food and money. That's why it was named "Pharmacologist".

 

When Pyloeon learned the action of the Holy One, he was outraged. Initially she tried to turn her off with advice. But Anastasia remained unshaken in her faith even when she abused her. Her persistence, angered the Poleios and handed her over to Emperor Diocletian, who ordered her imprisonment. Because he continued to praise the Lord, Diocletian ordered his torture.

 

Eventually Saint Anastasia delivered her spirit to the fire in 290 AD.

 

Location: Ancient Heirapolis amphitheater, adjacent to Pamukkale, Southwestern Anatolia, Turkey. This also is

around 10 minutes walk from the Antique Thermal pool,

ending the day with a good sunset on top of the theater

with a view.

 

It was actually a very tiring walk climbing up the hill to this amphitheater.After a good warm soak at the Thermal bath, I felt so lethargic and wish a snooze. Ten minutes walk if quick enough. Myself , took me an hour, oops no, lol , around 20 mins as I kept entertaining a strange dog escorting me from outside the Thermal pool towards the Ancient amphitheater.

 

I ignored the potential of rabies ... I don't think it will bite me, it's too friendly. It send me off to the entrance gate and was waiting for me from the outside of the amphitheater. The strange dog escorted me back until we cruise descending the travertines. I always get attach quickly, something in mind, hmmm wish I could take that dog home, it might have an owner though.But there seem no houses nearby. I know it's impossible, only wishful thinking.

Chances are it was a stray dog, poor thing, it looks emaciated. I wished I bought a meal for it to leave it happy. But the resto was already closed for anything like a sausage or a sandwich. - dogs eat anything.

_________________________________________

 

SIGNS OF THE TIMES

 

*ISIS Abduct 90 Christians & Burn 8,000 Rare Books

Please pray for these abducted Christians endurance in faith be overcomers. I don't think they have much ahead of them when they're in the hands of these cold blooded ISIS demons.

 

We have to thank God and praise him that most of us here can still peacefully log into the internet, go in and out of our houses, have our jobs, can shop, take photos if we like to, have a good sleep. We should take everything we enjoy as a package of blessings. Whilst other millions of Christians are terrorized and some even to a horrible painful death in some parts of the world. Persecutions to the believers of Jesus is prophetic fulfillment. We've been warned about this coming 2000 years ago.

  

I listened to this in few stages as this is very long (3 hours) but was blessed by the message.

*Celestial Events taking place now and the Melchizedek with Augusto Perez

 

*Wake up Christians who are sleeping. Persecution will soon be with us. Hold on to faith and be right with Jesus.

*CHRISTIANS RISE! † A SPECIAL REPORT | ALEXANDER BACKMAN

There are extreme graphic clips along the video just to warn you ahead, in case you watch with kids or those who are faint at heart. Let me describe one, there's a Christian lady which was slaughtered like a goat or pig, sliced her throat , kept the blood on a big container to sell them to occult rituals for thousands of $$ . This evil practice is going on. I've read this new before.Things of this nature of magnitude of evil exists . I am not squeamish, but my heart sank into the deepest, being aware how other Christians out there have suffered whilst I'm in relatively comfort. How long will these Christians endure the beyond barbaric , totally from the pits of hell practice. We are in the end times truly. The birth pangs is getting intense.

Come now Lord Jesus, bring it on !

  

*A Call to Stand Against the Evil of ISIS and radical Islam by Dr. Robert Jeffress

Some heavenly encouragement when we reach our finishing line in the Lord :

 

*Mansions in Heaven, Rapture Ready and Focusing Jesus - Elvi Zapata

  

*Iraqi Army Downs 2 UK Planes Carrying Weapons for ISIL ?

 

*Hidden Secrets Of The Antartic

 

*Self Love & Selfies: NEW AGE of Anti-Christ

 

*New York Moves to Ban Machetes, Possession Could Put You Behind Bars

 

*Tribulation now radio : Angel Wars and Luciferian rebellion show 38

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

This is the time to keep watching . Things aren't getting better

even getting worse around the world. This isn't scaremongering

but as words of encouragement -- put your house in order, seek

the Lord, even consider the Biblical prophetic declarations. Many

have happened and yet to happen , and some are happening right

in our face. If you aren't sleeping , you'll know.

It's happening right now, from Egypt , then to

Syria as Isaiah prophesied ...all goes back to the ancient Biblical text

as told. From transhumanism to new world order /global government to fall

on us. Time is near my friends.

 

1 Thessalonians 5 : 1-11

But concerning the times and the seasons, brethren, you have

no need that I should write to you. 2 For you yourselves know

perfectly that the day of the Lord so comes as a thief in the

night. 3 For when they say, “Peace and safety!” then sudden

destruction comes upon them, as labor pains upon a pregnant

woman. And they shall not escape. 4 But you, brethren, are not

in darkness, so that this Day should overtake you as a thief.

5 You are all sons of light and sons of the day. We are not of

the night nor of darkness. 6 Therefore let us not sleep, as others

do, but let us watch and be sober. 7 For those who sleep, sleep

at night, and those who get drunk are drunk at night. 8 But let us

who are of the day be sober, putting on the breastplate of faith

and love, and as a helmet the hope of salvation. 9 For God did

not appoint us to wrath, but to obtain salvation through our

Lord Jesus Christ, 10 who died for us, that whether we wake

or sleep, we should live together with Him."

================================================

 

SIGNS OF THE TIMES

 

*Tribulation-Now, 20th Feb 2014 - Apocalyptic Potpourri and NWO Timeline (Part 2 - Redux)

 

*The Law has Passed: Killing American Christians by Guillotine

If this has to put you in denying Christ to survive or by guillotine , just go with the guillotine and never deny your faith ! I don't think this is singled out to America alone but

I believe in no doubt will happen all around Europe. Just Like the Great horrible Inquistion

orchestrated by the Vatican through hundreds of years. God has put this in my heart

this will happen in the same way again , full blown -- and horrific persecutions

during the tribulation .

Never deny your faith in Jesus whatsoever , as you'll live again and with reward

of a crown of life , not anymore in this devil infested rock but forever living

victorious throughout eternity.

Thank God He opened my eyes.

 

*Naked Man Bites Victim

 

*Steve Quayle and Sheila Zilinsky on Xenogenesis -Changing Men Into Monsters

 

*Return Of The Gods :They Are Coming Hagmann and Hagmann Report / Steve Quayle 2014

 

*The Shocking Truth Behind The Coming Collapse

 

*The Birth Must Come

  

*Peope Are Undergoing Extreme Body Modification In Order to Look ore Like The Devil

 

You have to know !

*Vatican Series Part 1

 

*Vatican Series Pt2 : 7 Churches of Revelation

 

*Peace Agreement Very Close To Be Complete By Paul Begley / YT

 

*Counterfit Christianity: Exposing The Satanic System

 

*SNOW FLEAS BY THE THOUSANDS DROPPED FROM AIRCRAFTS

 

War drums ?

*Putin Orders Troops To Crimea Passes, Warns NATO Of War

 

Doesn't look good eh ....

*US In “Shock And Turmoil” After Snowden Info Lets Russia Tap Top Obama Officials

 

*Russian Navy on the Move in Ukraine

 

*CATHOLICISM AND THE KABBALAH

 

*:Prophecy : The Coming Blood Moons and Middleast war

*

*THE COMING FOUR BLOOD MOONS APRIL 2014 - 2015

 

*Fallen Angels Get Bold: Elenin, Immortals, 9/11 In Movies? Antichrist foretold?

 

*Fallen Angels "ALIEN RACE" Deception: Hollywood's Extinction Of Mankind, & Anti-Christ Rising!

Details located here : thealbinoandthewretch.com/2018/04/12/25-bucks-and-a-cracker/

 

"Excuse me, but can I be you for a while

My dog won't bite if you sit real still

I got the Anti-Christ in the kitchen yellin' at me again

Yeah, I can hear that

Been saved again by the garbage truck

I got something to say, you know, but nothing comes

Yes, I know what you think of me, you never shut up

Yeah, I can hear that

My scream got lost in a paper cup

You think there's a heaven where some screams have gone

I got twenty-five bucks an' a cracker

Do you think it's enough to get us there

Silent all these years..."

 

Colosseum

Following, a text, in english, from the Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia:

The Colosseum, or the Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering.

Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum, its construction started between 70 and 72 AD[1] under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus,[2] with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign (81–96).[3] The name "Amphitheatrum Flavium" derives from both Vespasian's and Titus's family name (Flavius, from the gens Flavia).

Capable of seating 50,000 spectators,[1][4][5] the Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, and a Christian shrine.

Although in the 21st century it stays partially ruined because of damage caused by devastating earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum is an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome. It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close connections with the Roman Catholic Church, as each Good Friday the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession that starts in the area around the Colosseum.[6]

The Colosseum is also depicted on the Italian version of the five-cent euro coin.

The Colosseum's original Latin name was Amphitheatrum Flavium, often anglicized as Flavian Amphitheater. The building was constructed by emperors of the Flavian dynasty, hence its original name, after the reign of Emperor Nero.[7] This name is still used in modern English, but generally the structure is better known as the Colosseum. In antiquity, Romans may have referred to the Colosseum by the unofficial name Amphitheatrum Caesareum; this name could have been strictly poetic.[8][9] This name was not exclusive to the Colosseum; Vespasian and Titus, builders of the Colosseum, also constructed an amphitheater of the same name in Puteoli (modern Pozzuoli).[10]

The name Colosseum has long been believed to be derived from a colossal statue of Nero nearby.[3] (the statue of Nero itself being named after one of the original ancient wonders, the Colossus of Rhodes[citation needed]. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Helios (Sol) or Apollo, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. Nero's head was also replaced several times with the heads of succeeding emperors. Despite its pagan links, the statue remained standing well into the medieval era and was credited with magical powers. It came to be seen as an iconic symbol of the permanence of Rome.

In the 8th century, a famous epigram attributed to the Venerable Bede celebrated the symbolic significance of the statue in a prophecy that is variously quoted: Quamdiu stat Colisæus, stat et Roma; quando cadet colisæus, cadet et Roma; quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus ("as long as the Colossus stands, so shall Rome; when the Colossus falls, Rome shall fall; when Rome falls, so falls the world").[11] This is often mistranslated to refer to the Colosseum rather than the Colossus (as in, for instance, Byron's poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage). However, at the time that the Pseudo-Bede wrote, the masculine noun coliseus was applied to the statue rather than to what was still known as the Flavian amphitheatre.

The Colossus did eventually fall, possibly being pulled down to reuse its bronze. By the year 1000 the name "Colosseum" had been coined to refer to the amphitheatre. The statue itself was largely forgotten and only its base survives, situated between the Colosseum and the nearby Temple of Venus and Roma.[12]

The name further evolved to Coliseum during the Middle Ages. In Italy, the amphitheatre is still known as il Colosseo, and other Romance languages have come to use similar forms such as le Colisée (French), el Coliseo (Spanish) and o Coliseu (Portuguese).

Construction of the Colosseum began under the rule of the Emperor Vespasian[3] in around 70–72AD. The site chosen was a flat area on the floor of a low valley between the Caelian, Esquiline and Palatine Hills, through which a canalised stream ran. By the 2nd century BC the area was densely inhabited. It was devastated by the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64, following which Nero seized much of the area to add to his personal domain. He built the grandiose Domus Aurea on the site, in front of which he created an artificial lake surrounded by pavilions, gardens and porticoes. The existing Aqua Claudia aqueduct was extended to supply water to the area and the gigantic bronze Colossus of Nero was set up nearby at the entrance to the Domus Aurea.[12]

Although the Colossus was preserved, much of the Domus Aurea was torn down. The lake was filled in and the land reused as the location for the new Flavian Amphitheatre. Gladiatorial schools and other support buildings were constructed nearby within the former grounds of the Domus Aurea. According to a reconstructed inscription found on the site, "the emperor Vespasian ordered this new amphitheatre to be erected from his general's share of the booty." This is thought to refer to the vast quantity of treasure seized by the Romans following their victory in the Great Jewish Revolt in 70AD. The Colosseum can be thus interpreted as a great triumphal monument built in the Roman tradition of celebrating great victories[12], placating the Roman people instead of returning soldiers. Vespasian's decision to build the Colosseum on the site of Nero's lake can also be seen as a populist gesture of returning to the people an area of the city which Nero had appropriated for his own use. In contrast to many other amphitheatres, which were located on the outskirts of a city, the Colosseum was constructed in the city centre; in effect, placing it both literally and symbolically at the heart of Rome.

The Colosseum had been completed up to the third story by the time of Vespasian's death in 79. The top level was finished and the building inaugurated by his son, Titus, in 80.[3] Dio Cassius recounts that over 9,000 wild animals were killed during the inaugural games of the amphitheatre. The building was remodelled further under Vespasian's younger son, the newly designated Emperor Domitian, who constructed the hypogeum, a series of underground tunnels used to house animals and slaves. He also added a gallery to the top of the Colosseum to increase its seating capacity.

In 217, the Colosseum was badly damaged by a major fire (caused by lightning, according to Dio Cassius[13]) which destroyed the wooden upper levels of the amphitheatre's interior. It was not fully repaired until about 240 and underwent further repairs in 250 or 252 and again in 320. An inscription records the restoration of various parts of the Colosseum under Theodosius II and Valentinian III (reigned 425–455), possibly to repair damage caused by a major earthquake in 443; more work followed in 484[14] and 508. The arena continued to be used for contests well into the 6th century, with gladiatorial fights last mentioned around 435. Animal hunts continued until at least 523, when Anicius Maximus celebrated his consulship with some venationes, criticised by King Theodoric the Great for their high cost.

The Colosseum underwent several radical changes of use during the medieval period. By the late 6th century a small church had been built into the structure of the amphitheatre, though this apparently did not confer any particular religious significance on the building as a whole. The arena was converted into a cemetery. The numerous vaulted spaces in the arcades under the seating were converted into housing and workshops, and are recorded as still being rented out as late as the 12th century. Around 1200 the Frangipani family took over the Colosseum and fortified it, apparently using it as a castle.

Severe damage was inflicted on the Colosseum by the great earthquake in 1349, causing the outer south side, lying on a less stable alluvional terrain, to collapse. Much of the tumbled stone was reused to build palaces, churches, hospitals and other buildings elsewhere in Rome. A religious order moved into the northern third of the Colosseum in the mid-14th century and continued to inhabit it until as late as the early 19th century. The interior of the amphitheatre was extensively stripped of stone, which was reused elsewhere, or (in the case of the marble façade) was burned to make quicklime.[12] The bronze clamps which held the stonework together were pried or hacked out of the walls, leaving numerous pockmarks which still scar the building today.

During the 16th and 17th century, Church officials sought a productive role for the vast derelict hulk of the Colosseum. Pope Sixtus V (1585–1590) planned to turn the building into a wool factory to provide employment for Rome's prostitutes, though this proposal fell through with his premature death.[15] In 1671 Cardinal Altieri authorized its use for bullfights; a public outcry caused the idea to be hastily abandoned.

In 1749, Pope Benedict XIV endorsed as official Church policy the view that the Colosseum was a sacred site where early Christians had been martyred. He forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry and consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who perished there (see Christians and the Colosseum). However there is no historical evidence to support Benedict's claim, nor is there even any evidence that anyone prior to the 16th century suggested this might be the case; the Catholic Encyclopedia concludes that there are no historical grounds for the supposition. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects, removing the extensive vegetation which had overgrown the structure and threatened to damage it further. The façade was reinforced with triangular brick wedges in 1807 and 1827, and the interior was repaired in 1831, 1846 and in the 1930s. The arena substructure was partly excavated in 1810–1814 and 1874 and was fully exposed under Benito Mussolini in the 1930s.

The Colosseum is today one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions, receiving millions of visitors annually. The effects of pollution and general deterioration over time prompted a major restoration programme carried out between 1993 and 2000, at a cost of 40 billion Italian lire ($19.3m / €20.6m at 2000 prices). In recent years it has become a symbol of the international campaign against capital punishment, which was abolished in Italy in 1948. Several anti–death penalty demonstrations took place in front of the Colosseum in 2000. Since that time, as a gesture against the death penalty, the local authorities of Rome change the color of the Colosseum's night time illumination from white to gold whenever a person condemned to the death penalty anywhere in the world gets their sentence commuted or is released,[16] or if a jurisdiction abolishes the death penalty. Most recently, the Colosseum was illuminated in gold when capital punishment was abolished in the American state of New Mexico in April 2009.

Because of the ruined state of the interior, it is impractical to use the Colosseum to host large events; only a few hundred spectators can be accommodated in temporary seating. However, much larger concerts have been held just outside, using the Colosseum as a backdrop. Performers who have played at the Colosseum in recent years have included Ray Charles (May 2002),[18] Paul McCartney (May 2003),[19] Elton John (September 2005),[20] and Billy Joel (July 2006).

Exterior

Unlike earlier Greek theatres that were built into hillsides, the Colosseum is an entirely free-standing structure. It derives its basic exterior and interior architecture from that of two Roman theatres back to back. It is elliptical in plan and is 189 meters (615 ft / 640 Roman feet) long, and 156 meters (510 ft / 528 Roman feet) wide, with a base area of 6 acres (24,000 m2). The height of the outer wall is 48 meters (157 ft / 165 Roman feet). The perimeter originally measured 545 meters (1,788 ft / 1,835 Roman feet). The central arena is an oval 87 m (287 ft) long and 55 m (180 ft) wide, surrounded by a wall 5 m (15 ft) high, above which rose tiers of seating.

The outer wall is estimated to have required over 100,000 cubic meters (131,000 cu yd) of travertine stone which were set without mortar held together by 300 tons of iron clamps.[12] However, it has suffered extensive damage over the centuries, with large segments having collapsed following earthquakes. The north side of the perimeter wall is still standing; the distinctive triangular brick wedges at each end are modern additions, having been constructed in the early 19th century to shore up the wall. The remainder of the present-day exterior of the Colosseum is in fact the original interior wall.

The surviving part of the outer wall's monumental façade comprises three stories of superimposed arcades surmounted by a podium on which stands a tall attic, both of which are pierced by windows interspersed at regular intervals. The arcades are framed by half-columns of the Tuscan, Ionic, and Corinthian orders, while the attic is decorated with Corinthian pilasters.[21] Each of the arches in the second- and third-floor arcades framed statues, probably honoring divinities and other figures from Classical mythology.

Two hundred and forty mast corbels were positioned around the top of the attic. They originally supported a retractable awning, known as the velarium, that kept the sun and rain off spectators. This consisted of a canvas-covered, net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center.[3] It covered two-thirds of the arena, and sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors, specially enlisted from the Roman naval headquarters at Misenum and housed in the nearby Castra Misenatium, were used to work the velarium.[22]

The Colosseum's huge crowd capacity made it essential that the venue could be filled or evacuated quickly. Its architects adopted solutions very similar to those used in modern stadiums to deal with the same problem. The amphitheatre was ringed by eighty entrances at ground level, 76 of which were used by ordinary spectators.[3] Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. The northern main entrance was reserved for the Roman Emperor and his aides, whilst the other three axial entrances were most likely used by the elite. All four axial entrances were richly decorated with painted stucco reliefs, of which fragments survive. Many of the original outer entrances have disappeared with the collapse of the perimeter wall, but entrances XXIII (23) to LIV (54) still survive.[12]

Spectators were given tickets in the form of numbered pottery shards, which directed them to the appropriate section and row. They accessed their seats via vomitoria (singular vomitorium), passageways that opened into a tier of seats from below or behind. These quickly dispersed people into their seats and, upon conclusion of the event or in an emergency evacuation, could permit their exit within only a few minutes. The name vomitoria derived from the Latin word for a rapid discharge, from which English derives the word vomit.

Interior

According to the Codex-Calendar of 354, the Colosseum could accommodate 87,000 people, although modern estimates put the figure at around 50,000. They were seated in a tiered arrangement that reflected the rigidly stratified nature of Roman society. Special boxes were provided at the north and south ends respectively for the Emperor and the Vestal Virgins, providing the best views of the arena. Flanking them at the same level was a broad platform or podium for the senatorial class, who were allowed to bring their own chairs. The names of some 5th century senators can still be seen carved into the stonework, presumably reserving areas for their use.

The tier above the senators, known as the maenianum primum, was occupied by the non-senatorial noble class or knights (equites). The next level up, the maenianum secundum, was originally reserved for ordinary Roman citizens (plebians) and was divided into two sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. Specific sectors were provided for other social groups: for instance, boys with their tutors, soldiers on leave, foreign dignitaries, scribes, heralds, priests and so on. Stone (and later marble) seating was provided for the citizens and nobles, who presumably would have brought their own cushions with them. Inscriptions identified the areas reserved for specific groups.

Another level, the maenianum secundum in legneis, was added at the very top of the building during the reign of Domitian. This comprised a gallery for the common poor, slaves and women. It would have been either standing room only, or would have had very steep wooden benches. Some groups were banned altogether from the Colosseum, notably gravediggers, actors and former gladiators.

Each tier was divided into sections (maeniana) by curved passages and low walls (praecinctiones or baltei), and were subdivided into cunei, or wedges, by the steps and aisles from the vomitoria. Each row (gradus) of seats was numbered, permitting each individual seat to be exactly designated by its gradus, cuneus, and number.

The arena itself was 83 meters by 48 meters (272 ft by 157 ft / 280 by 163 Roman feet).[12] It comprised a wooden floor covered by sand (the Latin word for sand is harena or arena), covering an elaborate underground structure called the hypogeum (literally meaning "underground"). Little now remains of the original arena floor, but the hypogeum is still clearly visible. It consisted of a two-level subterranean network of tunnels and cages beneath the arena where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. Eighty vertical shafts provided instant access to the arena for caged animals and scenery pieces concealed underneath; larger hinged platforms, called hegmata, provided access for elephants and the like. It was restructured on numerous occasions; at least twelve different phases of construction can be seen.[12]

The hypogeum was connected by underground tunnels to a number of points outside the Colosseum. Animals and performers were brought through the tunnel from nearby stables, with the gladiators' barracks at the Ludus Magnus to the east also being connected by tunnels. Separate tunnels were provided for the Emperor and the Vestal Virgins to permit them to enter and exit the Colosseum without needing to pass through the crowds.[12]

Substantial quantities of machinery also existed in the hypogeum. Elevators and pulleys raised and lowered scenery and props, as well as lifting caged animals to the surface for release. There is evidence for the existence of major hydraulic mechanisms[12] and according to ancient accounts, it was possible to flood the arena rapidly, presumably via a connection to a nearby aqueduct.

The Colosseum and its activities supported a substantial industry in the area. In addition to the amphitheatre itself, many other buildings nearby were linked to the games. Immediately to the east is the remains of the Ludus Magnus, a training school for gladiators. This was connected to the Colosseum by an underground passage, to allow easy access for the gladiators. The Ludus Magnus had its own miniature training arena, which was itself a popular attraction for Roman spectators. Other training schools were in the same area, including the Ludus Matutinus (Morning School), where fighters of animals were trained, plus the Dacian and Gallic Schools.

Also nearby were the Armamentarium, comprising an armory to store weapons; the Summum Choragium, where machinery was stored; the Sanitarium, which had facilities to treat wounded gladiators; and the Spoliarium, where bodies of dead gladiators were stripped of their armor and disposed of.

Around the perimeter of the Colosseum, at a distance of 18 m (59 ft) from the perimeter, was a series of tall stone posts, with five remaining on the eastern side. Various explanations have been advanced for their presence; they may have been a religious boundary, or an outer boundary for ticket checks, or an anchor for the velarium or awning.

Right next to the Colosseum is also the Arch of Constantine.

he Colosseum was used to host gladiatorial shows as well as a variety of other events. The shows, called munera, were always given by private individuals rather than the state. They had a strong religious element but were also demonstrations of power and family prestige, and were immensely popular with the population. Another popular type of show was the animal hunt, or venatio. This utilized a great variety of wild beasts, mainly imported from Africa and the Middle East, and included creatures such as rhinoceros, hippopotamuses, elephants, giraffes, aurochs, wisents, barbary lions, panthers, leopards, bears, caspian tigers, crocodiles and ostriches. Battles and hunts were often staged amid elaborate sets with movable trees and buildings. Such events were occasionally on a huge scale; Trajan is said to have celebrated his victories in Dacia in 107 with contests involving 11,000 animals and 10,000 gladiators over the course of 123 days.

During the early days of the Colosseum, ancient writers recorded that the building was used for naumachiae (more properly known as navalia proelia) or simulated sea battles. Accounts of the inaugural games held by Titus in AD 80 describe it being filled with water for a display of specially trained swimming horses and bulls. There is also an account of a re-enactment of a famous sea battle between the Corcyrean (Corfiot) Greeks and the Corinthians. This has been the subject of some debate among historians; although providing the water would not have been a problem, it is unclear how the arena could have been waterproofed, nor would there have been enough space in the arena for the warships to move around. It has been suggested that the reports either have the location wrong, or that the Colosseum originally featured a wide floodable channel down its central axis (which would later have been replaced by the hypogeum).[12]

Sylvae or recreations of natural scenes were also held in the arena. Painters, technicians and architects would construct a simulation of a forest with real trees and bushes planted in the arena's floor. Animals would be introduced to populate the scene for the delight of the crowd. Such scenes might be used simply to display a natural environment for the urban population, or could otherwise be used as the backdrop for hunts or dramas depicting episodes from mythology. They were also occasionally used for executions in which the hero of the story — played by a condemned person — was killed in one of various gruesome but mythologically authentic ways, such as being mauled by beasts or burned to death.

The Colosseum today is now a major tourist attraction in Rome with thousands of tourists each year paying to view the interior arena, though entrance for EU citizens is partially subsidised, and under-18 and over-65 EU citizens' entrances are free.[24] There is now a museum dedicated to Eros located in the upper floor of the outer wall of the building. Part of the arena floor has been re-floored. Beneath the Colosseum, a network of subterranean passageways once used to transport wild animals and gladiators to the arena opened to the public in summer 2010.[25]

The Colosseum is also the site of Roman Catholic ceremonies in the 20th and 21st centuries. For instance, Pope Benedict XVI leads the Stations of the Cross called the Scriptural Way of the Cross (which calls for more meditation) at the Colosseum[26][27] on Good Fridays.

In the Middle Ages, the Colosseum was clearly not regarded as a sacred site. Its use as a fortress and then a quarry demonstrates how little spiritual importance was attached to it, at a time when sites associated with martyrs were highly venerated. It was not included in the itineraries compiled for the use of pilgrims nor in works such as the 12th century Mirabilia Urbis Romae ("Marvels of the City of Rome"), which claims the Circus Flaminius — but not the Colosseum — as the site of martyrdoms. Part of the structure was inhabited by a Christian order, but apparently not for any particular religious reason.

It appears to have been only in the 16th and 17th centuries that the Colosseum came to be regarded as a Christian site. Pope Pius V (1566–1572) is said to have recommended that pilgrims gather sand from the arena of the Colosseum to serve as a relic, on the grounds that it was impregnated with the blood of martyrs. This seems to have been a minority view until it was popularised nearly a century later by Fioravante Martinelli, who listed the Colosseum at the head of a list of places sacred to the martyrs in his 1653 book Roma ex ethnica sacra.

Martinelli's book evidently had an effect on public opinion; in response to Cardinal Altieri's proposal some years later to turn the Colosseum into a bullring, Carlo Tomassi published a pamphlet in protest against what he regarded as an act of desecration. The ensuing controversy persuaded Pope Clement X to close the Colosseum's external arcades and declare it a sanctuary, though quarrying continued for some time.

At the instance of St. Leonard of Port Maurice, Pope Benedict XIV (1740–1758) forbade the quarrying of the Colosseum and erected Stations of the Cross around the arena, which remained until February 1874. St. Benedict Joseph Labre spent the later years of his life within the walls of the Colosseum, living on alms, prior to his death in 1783. Several 19th century popes funded repair and restoration work on the Colosseum, and it still retains a Christian connection today. Crosses stand in several points around the arena and every Good Friday the Pope leads a Via Crucis procession to the amphitheatre.

 

Coliseu (Colosseo)

A seguir, um texto, em português, da Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre:

 

O Coliseu, também conhecido como Anfiteatro Flaviano, deve seu nome à expressão latina Colosseum (ou Coliseus, no latim tardio), devido à estátua colossal de Nero, que ficava perto a edificação. Localizado no centro de Roma, é uma excepção de entre os anfiteatros pelo seu volume e relevo arquitectónico. Originalmente capaz de albergar perto de 50 000 pessoas, e com 48 metros de altura, era usado para variados espetáculos. Foi construído a leste do fórum romano e demorou entre 8 a 10 anos a ser construído.

O Coliseu foi utilizado durante aproximadamente 500 anos, tendo sido o último registro efetuado no século VI da nossa era, bastante depois da queda de Roma em 476. O edifício deixou de ser usado para entretenimento no começo da era medieval, mas foi mais tarde usado como habitação, oficina, forte, pedreira, sede de ordens religiosas e templo cristão.

Embora esteja agora em ruínas devido a terremotos e pilhagens, o Coliseu sempre foi visto como símbolo do Império Romano, sendo um dos melhores exemplos da sua arquitectura. Actualmente é uma das maiores atrações turísticas em Roma e em 7 de julho de 2007 foi eleita umas das "Sete maravilhas do mundo moderno". Além disso, o Coliseu ainda tem ligações à igreja, com o Papa a liderar a procissão da Via Sacra até ao Coliseu todas as Sextas-feiras Santas.

O coliseu era um local onde seriam exibidos toda uma série de espectáculos, inseridos nos vários tipos de jogos realizados na urbe. Os combates entre gladiadores, chamados muneras, eram sempre pagos por pessoas individuais em busca de prestígio e poder em vez do estado. A arena (87,5 m por 55 m) possuía um piso de madeira, normalmente coberto de areia para absorver o sangue dos combates (certa vez foi colocada água na representação de uma batalha naval), sob o qual existia um nível subterrâneo com celas e jaulas que tinham acessos diretos para a arena; Alguns detalhes dessa construção, como a cobertura removível que poupava os espectadores do sol, são bastante interessantes, e mostram o refinamento atingido pelos construtores romanos. Formado por cinco anéis concêntricos de arcos e abóbadas, o Coliseu representa bem o avanço introduzido pelos romanos à engenharia de estruturas. Esses arcos são de concreto (de cimento natural) revestidos por alvenaria. Na verdade, a alvenaria era construída simultaneamente e já servia de forma para a concretagem. Outro tipo de espetáculos era a caça de animais, ou venatio, onde eram utilizados animais selvagens importados de África. Os animais mais utilizados eram os grandes felinos como leões, leopardos e panteras, mas animais como rinocerontes, hipopótamos, elefantes, girafas, crocodilos e avestruzes eram também utilizados. As caçadas, tal como as representações de batalhas famosas, eram efetuadas em elaborados cenários onde constavam árvores e edifícios amovíveis.

Estas últimas eram por vezes representadas numa escala gigante; Trajano celebrou a sua vitória em Dácia no ano 107 com concursos envolvendo 11 000 animais e 10 000 gladiadores no decorrer de 123 dias.

Segundo o documentário produzido pelo canal televisivo fechado, History Channel, o Coliseu também era utilizado para a realização de naumaquias, ou batalhas navais. O coliseu era inundado por dutos subterrâneos alimentados pelos aquedutos que traziam água de longe. Passada esta fase, foi construída uma estrutura, que é a que podemos ver hoje nas ruínas do Coliseu, com altura de um prédio de dois andares, onde no passado se concentravam os gladiadores, feras e todo o pessoal que organizava os duelos que ocorreriam na arena. A arena era como um grande palco, feito de madeira, e se chama arena, que em italiano significa areia, porque era jogada areia sob a estrutura de madeira para esconder as imperfeições. Os animais podiam ser inseridos nos duelos a qualquer momento por um esquema de elevadores que surgiam em alguns pontos da arena; o filme "Gladiador" retrata muito bem esta questão dos elevadores. Os estudiosos, há pouco tempo, descobriram uma rede de dutos inundados por baixo da arena do Coliseu. Acredita-se que o Coliseu foi construído onde, outrora, foi o lago do Palácio Dourado de Nero; O imperador Vespasiano escolheu o local da construção para que o mal causado por Nero fosse esquecido por uma construção gloriosa.

Sylvae, ou recreações de cenas naturais eram também realizadas no Coliseu. Pintores, técnicos e arquitectos construiriam simulações de florestas com árvores e arbustos reais plantados no chão da arena. Animais seriam então introduzidos para dar vida à simulação. Esses cenários podiam servir só para agrado do público ou como pano de fundo para caçadas ou dramas representando episódios da mitologia romana, tão autênticos quanto possível, ao ponto de pessoas condenadas fazerem o papel de heróis onde eram mortos de maneiras horríveis mas mitologicamente autênticas, como mutilados por animais ou queimados vivos.

Embora o Coliseu tenha funcionado até ao século VI da nossa Era, foram proibidos os jogos com mortes humanas desde 404, sendo apenas massacrados animais como elefantes, panteras ou leões.

O Coliseu era sobretudo um enorme instrumento de propaganda e difusão da filosofia de toda uma civilização, e tal como era já profetizado pelo monge e historiador inglês Beda na sua obra do século VII "De temporibus liber": "Enquanto o Coliseu se mantiver de pé, Roma permanecerá; quando o Coliseu ruir, Roma ruirá e quando Roma cair, o mundo cairá".

A construção do Coliseu foi iniciada por Vespasiano, nos anos 70 da nossa era. O edifício foi inaugurado por Tito, em 80, embora apenas tivesse sido finalizado poucos anos depois. Empresa colossal, este edifício, inicialmente, poderia sustentar no seu interior cerca de 50 000 espectadores, constando de três andares. Aquando do reinado de Alexandre Severo e Gordiano III, é ampliado com um quarto andar, podendo suster agora cerca de 90 000 espectadores. A grandiosidade deste monumento testemunha verdadeiramente o poder e esplendor de Roma na época dos Flávios.

Os jogos inaugurais do Coliseu tiveram lugar ano 80, sob o mandato de Tito, para celebrar a finalização da construção. Depois do curto reinado de Tito começar com vários meses de desastres, incluindo a erupção do Monte Vesúvio, um incêndio em Roma, e um surto de peste, o mesmo imperador inaugurou o edifício com uns jogos pródigos que duraram mais de cem dias, talvez para tentar apaziguar o público romano e os deuses. Nesses jogos de cem dias terão ocorrido combates de gladiadores, venationes (lutas de animais), execuções, batalhas navais, caçadas e outros divertimentos numa escala sem precedentes.

O Coliseu, como não se encontrava inserido numa zona de encosta, enterrado, tal como normalmente sucede com a generalidade dos teatros e anfiteatros romanos, possuía um “anel” artificial de rocha à sua volta, para garantir sustentação e, ao mesmo tempo, esta substrutura serve como ornamento ao edifício e como condicionador da entrada dos espectadores. Tal como foi referido anteriormente, possuía três pisos, sendo mais tarde adicionado um outro. É construído em mármore, pedra travertina, ladrilho e tufo (pedra calcária com grandes poros). A sua planta elíptica mede dois eixos que se estendem aproximadamente de 190 m por 155 m. A fachada compõe-se de arcadas decoradas com colunas dóricas, jónicas e coríntias, de acordo com o pavimento em que se encontravam. Esta subdivisão deve-se ao facto de ser uma construção essencialmente vertical, criando assim uma diversificação do espaço.

 

Os assentos eram em mármore e a cavea, escadaria ou arquibancada, dividia-se em três partes, correspondentes às diferentes classes sociais: o podium, para as classes altas; as maeniana, sector destinado à classe média; e os portici, ou pórticos, construídos em madeira, para a plebe e as mulheres. O pulvinar, a tribuna imperial, encontrava-se situada no podium e era balizada pelos assentos reservados aos senadores e magistrados. Rampas no interior do edifício facilitavam o acesso às várias zonas de onde podiam visualizar o espectáculo, sendo protegidos por uma barreira e por uma série de arqueiros posicionados numa passagem de madeira, para o caso de algum acidente. Por cima dos muros ainda são visíveis as mísulas, que sustentavam o velarium, enorme cobertura de lona destinada a proteger do sol os espectadores e, nos subterrâneos, ficavam as jaulas dos animais, bem como todas as celas e galerias necessárias aos serviços do anfiteatro.

O monumento permaneceu como sede principal dos espetáculos da urbe romana até ao período do imperador Honorius, no século V. Danificado por um terremoto no começo do mesmo século, foi alvo de uma extensiva restauração na época de Valentinianus III. Em meados do século XIII, a família Frangipani transformou-o em fortaleza e, ao longo dos séculos XV e XVI, foi por diversas vezes saqueado, perdendo grande parte dos materiais nobres com os quais tinha sido construído.

Os relatos romanos referem-se a cristãos sendo martirizados em locais de Roma descritos pouco pormenorizadamente (no anfiteatro, na arena...), quando Roma tinha numerosos anfiteatros e arenas. Apesar de muito provavelmente o Coliseu não ter sido utilizado para martírios, o Papa Bento XIV consagrou-o no século XVII à Paixão de Cristo e declarou-o lugar sagrado. Os trabalhos de consolidação e restauração parcial do monumento, já há muito em ruínas, foram feitos sobretudo pelos pontífices Gregório XVI e Pio IX, no século XIX.

#smalltowninertia Carlos in his apartment reading his Bible July 2017

 

The interior of Carlo’s apartment is sparse, a small television and stereo, a fish tank, a few old photographs of his estranged family, a table, chairs, a single bed, his Bible and his medication.

 

Immediately upon my arrival, Carlos showed me copious correspondence regarding health assessments to determine if he is eligible for continued support and benefits to, essentially, given the nature of his illness, keep him alive.

 

Left in a state of terror and confusion, ‘Is my Doctor talking with the assessors?’ , ‘Why are benefits changing?’, ‘Why am I being called to be assessed?’ , the past few months have been a nightmare, every moment abducted by fear with the resulting stress having a detrimental impact on his condition and his mental well being.

 

Carlos works hard at mastering the language but people rush words, have such little patience, correspondence is in English and vague at best and he has no transport, no phone and it’s painful and very difficult to move, to walk.

 

The stress, the constant downpour of stress, the anxiety, the isolation, little to no money, all make life and living, harder and harder.

 

In spite of his health challenges, Carlos wanted and wants to work. He had an interview and secured a job at a local factory, packing boxes but as soon as they learned of his illness, he was dismissed.

 

It all became too much, where to turn and how to breathe beneath the weight of such fears, problems?.

 

When Carlos attempted suicide, he had nowhere and no one to turn to. “Jesus Christ appeared to me and said ‘NO!, Carlos, now it is not your time.”

 

Keeping the noose on the shelf of a small table, often picking it up, holding it, folding it into the palm of his hands, letting it slip through his fingers, a dark black snake, an anti rosary, remembering.

 

Yesterday, after much talking, we decided it best to take it and throw it into the trash.

 

Afterwards, Carlos read from his bible and prayed.

Glacier National Park. It's funny, I was following around like six different goats on this particular day, and the one picture that I found that I thought was truly perfect was, ironically, named "DSC_0666"... Kinda creepy. I wouldn't have thought anything of it if it wasn't a picture of a goat either haha.

this is my idea of what the Anti-Christ might look like when walking the Earth...his image hasn't been caught on Security cameras like us mere mortals & bet he hasn't been done for motoring offences either...... thanks for looking....hope you have a great week

+++++++++ from Wikipedia +++++++++++

 

Aigues-Mortes, en occitan Aigas-Mòrtas, est une commune française située dans la pointe sud du département du Gard,

Administration

Pays Drapeau de la France France

Région Occitanie

Département Gard

Arrondissement Nîmes

Canton Aigues-Mortes

(bureau centralisateur)

Intercommunalité Communauté de communes Terre de Camargue

(siège)

Maire

Mandat Pierre Mauméjean

2014-2020

Code postal 30220

Code commune 30003

Démographie

Gentilé Aigues-Mortais, Aigues-Mortaise

Population

municipale 8 417 hab. (2014)

Densité 146 hab./km2

Géographie

Coordonnées 43° 34′ 03″ nord, 4° 11′ 36″ est

Altitude Min. 0 m

Max. 3 m

Superficie 57,78 km2

Localisation

 

Géolocalisation sur la carte : France

Voir la carte topographique de France

City locator 14.svg

Aigues-Mortes

 

Voir sur la carte administrative du Gard

Voir sur la carte topographique du Gard

Voir la carte administrative de France

 

Liens

Site web ville-aigues-mortes.fr

modifier Consultez la documentation du modèle

 

Ses habitants s'appellent les Aigues-Mortais et Aigues-Mortaises et aigamortencs en occitan.

 

Sommaire

GéographieModifier

LocalisationModifier

 

Par le réseau routier, Aigues-Mortes est située à 35 km environ de Nîmes (préfecture du Gard) et 30 km de Montpellier (Hérault). À vol d'oiseau : 32,5 km de Nîmes et 26 km de Montpellier[1].

SiteModifier

 

Le territoire communal est composé d'une partie de la plaine humide et des étangs de Petite Camargue dont les plus grands sont l'étang du Roy au sud-est, l'étang de la Ville immédiatement au sud d'Aigues-Mortes, une partie de l'étang de Caitives dont le reste se trouve sur St-Laurent-d'Aigouze, l'étang de la Marette au sud-ouest de la ville, et environ 63 hectares de l'étang de Mauguio à l'ouest.

 

Au sud-ouest il est séparé du golfe du Lion (mer Méditerranée) par la commune du Grau-du-Roi. Aigues-Mortes est cependant reliée à la mer par le canal du Grau-du-Roi. Ainsi les communes de Saint-Laurent-d'Aigouze et Le Grau-du-Roi sont limitrophes à celle d'Aigues-Mortes.

 

À l'ouest, la commune est contigüe par un angle de sa limite à celle de Mauguio (Hérault) qu'elle effleure sur la pointe de la Radelle dans l'étang de Mauguio. Au sud-ouest elle est mitoyenne des Stes-Maries-de-la-Mer sur environ 800 m.

 

Tout le territoire de la moitié sud de la commune est occupé par des salines, des étangs et des marais, qui sont également largement dominants dans la partie nord. Ainsi il n'y a que très peu de hameaux : Corbière, mas du Bosquet, mas du grand Môle, mas du Petit Chaumont et mazet de Bel-Air[1].

 

Aigues-Mortes est l'une des 81 communes membres du Schéma de cohérence territoriale SCOT du Sud du Gard et fait également partie des 34 communes du pays Vidourle-Camargue. Aigues-Mortes est l'une des 4 communes Loi Littoral du SCOT du Sud du Gard.

Communes limitrophesModifier

Rose des vents Marsillargues

(Hérault) Marsillargues

(Hérault) St-Laurent-d'Aigouze Rose des vents

Mauguio (Hérault)

La Grande-Motte N St-Laurent-d'Aigouze

O Aigues-Mortes E

S

Le Grau-du-Roi Le Grau-du-Roi Stes-Maries-de-la-Mer

(Bouches-du-Rhône)

Hydrographie et reliefModifier

Cette section est vide, insuffisamment détaillée ou incomplète. Votre aide est la bienvenue ! Comment faire ?

ClimatModifier

 

Le climat est de type méditerranéen.

TransportsModifier

Vue aérienne d'Aigues-Mortes.

FluvialModifier

 

La ville d'Aigues-Mortes est à un carrefour de canaux :

 

canal du Rhône à Sète venant du nord-est et repartant vers l'ouest ;

canal de Bourgidou vers le sud-est, et qui rejoint le Petit Rhône par l'intermédiaire d'autres canaux aux limites du Gard et des Bouches-du-Rhône ;

et le grau du roi, entretenu depuis le Moyen Âge et reliant Aigues-Mortes à la partie centrale du Grau-du-Roi.

 

FerroviaireModifier

 

La ligne Nîmes - Le Grau-du-Roi dessert les villes et villages des Costières et du littoral, avec terminus au Grau-du-Roi. Elle est également utilisée pour le transport du sel fabriqué par une des exploitations salinières du groupe Salins (voir le lien ci-dessous).

RoutierModifier

 

Le développement du tourisme balnéaire depuis les années 1960 a été marqué par la construction de nouvelles stations balnéaires (La Grande-Motte) ou l'extension des existantes (Le Grau-du-Roi-Port-Camargue). Pour faciliter leur accès aux touristes, le réseau routier littoral a été densifié et relié à l'autoroute A 9. Aigues-Mortes bénéficie ainsi de ces axes :

 

à l'est, la départementale D 58 relie la ville aux Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer et à la commune d'Arles. Cette route serpente à travers les rizières et les différents étangs qui composent la Camargue ;

à l'ouest, la D 62 a été élargie en 2 × 2 voies pour permettre une jonction rapide vers Montpellier ;

au nord, la départementale D 979 relie directement la ville à l'autoroute au niveau de Gallargues-le-Montueux.

 

La ligne de bus 106 permet aussi de rallier Montpellier ainsi que les Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer.

ToponymieModifier

 

Le nom d'Aquae Mortuae est cité lors de l'embarquement de Saint Louis en 1248 en ce lieu pour sa première croisade[2]. Ce nom procède de l'occitan Aigas Mòrtas « eaux mortes », c'est-à-dire « eaux stagnantes », équivalent des types toponymiques de langue d'oïl « Morteau »[3].

 

Le nom d’Aigues-Mortes provient des marais et des étangs qui s'étendaient autour du village et aussi du fait qu'il n'y a jamais eu d'eaux vives à Aigues-Mortes[réf. souhaitée].

 

Grau est issu de l'occitan grau « étang avec bief ». Ainsi Grau du Roy signifie en français « étang du Roi »[réf. nécessaire].

HistoireModifier

 

Les remparts d'Aigues-Mortes ont été construits par Saint Louis. En effet, dès le début de son règne Louis IX souhaite se doter d'un débouché sur la Méditerranée ; c'est dans ce contexte qu'il fait construire le port d'Aigues-Mortes.

AntiquitéModifier

 

Un Romain du nom de Peccius aménage les premiers marais salins et donne son nom au marais du Peccais[4]. L'exploitation du sel avait commencé dès le Néolithique et s'était continuée à la période hellénistique, mais l'exploitation antique des salins n'a donné lieu à aucune découverte archéologique majeure et il est prévisible que ces vestiges aient été détruits par les installations des salins modernes[5].

Moyen ÂgeModifier

 

En 791, Charlemagne fait ériger la tour Matafère, au milieu des marécages, pour la sûreté des pêcheurs et des ouvriers des salins. Certains avancent que la signalisation et la transmission des nouvelles n’étaient pas étrangères à l’édification de cette tour destinée à donner l’alerte, en cas d’arrivée d’une flotte, à la tour Magne, à Nîmes. La vocation de cette tour passe du plan guerrier au plan spirituel quand Charlemagne l’octroie à l’abbaye de Bénédictins, consacrés à l’Opus Dei (l'œuvre de Dieu) et dont les incessantes psalmodies, de jour comme de nuit, font désigner leur couvent du titre de Psalmody ou Psalmodi. Ce couvent existe en 812, comme le confirme un acte de dotation faite par le Nîmois Badila à l’abbaye[6]. À cette époque, les habitants, qui vivent dans des cabanes en roseaux, tirent leur subsistance de la pêche, de la chasse et de la production du sel produit dans différents petits marais salants en bordure de mer. La région est alors sous la domination des moines de l'abbaye de Psalmodie.

 

En 1240, Louis IX, qui veut se débarrasser de l'emprise des marines italiennes pour le transport des troupes pour les croisades, s'intéresse à la position stratégique que représente ce lieu pour son royaume. À cette époque, Marseille appartient à son frère Charles d'Anjou, roi de Naples, Agde au Comte de Toulouse et Montpellier au roi d'Aragon. Saint Louis souhaite un accès direct à la mer Méditerranée. Il obtint des moines de l'Abbaye la ville et les terres alentour par échange de propriétés. Les habitants sont exemptés de la gabelle, impôt prélevé sur le sel qu'ils peuvent prendre sans contrainte[7]. Il construit une route entre les marais et y bâtit la tour Carbonnière pour servir de tour de guet et ainsi protéger l'accès à la ville. Saint-Louis construit ensuite la tour de Constance pour abriter sa garnison. En 1272, le fils et successeur de Louis IX, Philippe le Hardi, ordonne la poursuite de la construction de remparts pour ceinturer complètement la petite ville. Les travaux ne s’achèveront que 30 ans plus tard grâce à Philippe le Bel.

 

C'est de cette ville que Louis IX part par deux fois pour les Croisades : la septième croisade en 1248 et la huitième croisade en 1270 pour Tunis, où il meurt de dysenterie. 1270 constitue à tort, pour beaucoup d'historiens, la dernière étape d'un processus engagé à la fin du XIe siècle. Le jugement est hâtif car le transfert de croisés ou de mercenaires à partir du port d'Aigues-Mortes a continué. L'ordonnance donnée en 1275 au chevalier Guillaume de Roussillon par Philippe III le Hardi et le pape Grégoire X après le concile de Lyon de 1274 en guise de renfort à Saint-Jean d'Acre en Orient, démontre que l'activité maritime y perdure toujours en vue d'une neuvième croisade qui n'aura jamais lieu[8]. De ce fait de 1270 découle la croyance populaire voulant que la mer atteigne Aigues-Mortes à cette époque. En fait, comme le confirment les études de l'ingénieur Charles Léon Dombre, l'ensemble du port d'Aigues-Mortes comprenait le port proprement dit, qui se trouvait dans l'étang de la Marette, le Canal-Viel et le Grau-Louis, le Canal-Viel étant le chenal d'accès à la mer. C'est approximativement sur le Grau-Louis qu'est construite aujourd'hui La Grande-Motte.

 

Au début du XIVe siècle, Philippe le Bel utilisa le site fortifié pour y incarcérer les Templiers. Entre le 8 et le 11 novembre 1307, quarante-cinq d'entre eux furent mis à la question, reconnus coupables et retenus prisonniers dans la Tour de Constance[9].

 

Louis IX sur une nef, au départ d'Aigues-Mortes, lors de la septième croisade.

 

Plan d'Aigues-Mortes et de ses accès à la mer.

 

Plan d'Aigues-Mortes.

 

Raoul Berthelé. Enceinte médiévale d'Aigues-Mortes. Archives municipales de Toulouse.

 

Raoul Berthelé. Enceinte médiévale d'Aigues-Mortes. Archives municipales de Toulouse.

 

Raoul Berthelé. Enceinte médiévale d'Aigues-Mortes. Archives municipales de Toulouse.

 

Acte de résiliation[10].

 

Cliquez sur une vignette pour l’agrandir.

Époque moderneModifier

 

Aigues-Mortes conservait encore ses privilèges accordés par les rois[11]. Curieusement c´est un des grands protestants en la personne de Jean d'Harambure dit « le Borgne », commandant des chevau-légers du roi Henri IV et ancien gouverneur de Vendôme qui sera nommé gouverneur d'Aigues-Mortes et de la Tour Carbonnière le 4 septembre 1607. Pour ce faire, il prête serment entre les mains du connétable Henri de Montmorency, alors gouverneur du Languedoc. Mais celui-ci catholique, soutient le rival Adrien de Chanmont, Seigneur de Berichère. Le conflit dure jusqu'en 1612 et Harambure, soutenu par les pasteurs du Bas-Languedoc et les habitants finit par avoir raison d´autant qu´il a l´appui personnel de la reine. (BN L. K7 50) Il finit par démissionner le 27 février 1615 en faveur de son fils Jean d´Harambure, mais le roi Louis XIII le rétablit pour six ans. Le 27 juillet 1616 il quitte ses fonctions au profit de Gaspard de Coligny, non sans avoir obtenu un témoignage de reconnaissance des magistrats et consuls de la ville.

 

Au début du XVe siècle, d'importants travaux sont entrepris pour faciliter l'accès d'Aigues-Mortes à la mer. L'ancien Grau-Louis, creusé pour les croisades, est remplacé par le Grau-de-la-Croisette et un port est creusé à l'aplomb de la Tour de Constance. Celui-ci perd son importance, dès 1481, lorsque la Provence et Marseille sont rattachés au royaume de France. Seule l'exploitation du sel du marais de Peccais incite François Ier, en 1532, à faire relier les salins d'Aigues-Mortes à la mer. Mais ce chenal, dit Grau-Henri, s'ensable à son tour. L'ouverture, en 1752, du Grau-du-Roi résout pour un temps le problème. Celui-ci trouve enfin une solution, en 1806, en transformant Aigues-Mortes en port fluvial grâce au canal du Rhône à Sète[12] (qui débouche dans l'étang de Thau dans la partie territoriale frontignanaise).

Époque contemporaineModifier

 

Pendant la Révolution française, la ville est appelée Port-Pelletier[13]. À cette époque le port a failli disparaitre en raison d'un envasement induit par l'intensification du labour dans le bassin versant, contemporain d'une reprise des défrichements des bois et forêts à la suite de l'abolition des privilèges. Le recul du couvert boisé a favorisé l'érosion des sols et par suite un apport plus important d'alluvions qui se déposent dans les ports de la région. Ainsi, en 1804 le préfet « M. de Barante père » écrivait-il dans un rapport [14] que « Les côtes de ce département sont plus exposées aux atterrissements[note 1].... Les ports de Maguelonne et d'Aigues Mortes et le vieux port de Cette n'ont plus d'existence que dans l'histoire » alerte-t-il ; « Un désir immodéré de recueillir a multiplié ces défrichements depuis 1790.... L'avidité de jouir a dévoré en peu d'années la ressource de l'avenir; les montagnes, ouvertes parla charrue, n'ont montré bientôt qu'un roc nu et stérile; chaque sillon est devenu un ravin; la terre végétale, entraînée par les orages, a été portée dans les rivières, et de là dans les parties inférieures, où elle sert chaque jour à l'atterrissement des parties les plus basses et les plus marécageuses »

Le massacre des Italiens (août 1893)Modifier

Massacre des saliniers italiens d'Aigues-Mortes.

Article détaillé : Massacre des Italiens d'Aigues-Mortes.

 

La Compagnie des Salins du Midi lance à l'été 1893 le recrutement des ouvriers pour le battage et le levage du sel. L'embauche est en réduction en raison de la crise économique que connaît l'Europe alors que la perspective de trouver un emploi saisonnier a attiré, cette année-là, un plus grand nombre d'ouvriers.

Ceux-ci se partagent en trois catégories surnommées les « Ardéchois », paysans, pas forcément originaire d'Ardèche, qui laissent leur terre le temps de la saison, les « Piémontais » composés d'Italiens originaires de tout le nord de l'Italie et recrutés sur place par des chefs d'équipe, les chefs de colle, et les « trimards » composés en partie de vagabonds[15].

En raison du recrutement opéré par la Compagnie des Salins du Midi, les chefs de colle sont contraints de composer des équipes comprenant des Français et des Italiens[16]. Dès le début de la matinée du 16 août, une rixe éclate entre les deux communautés qui se transforme rapidement en lutte d'honneur[17]. Cette lutte est parfois considérée comme le plus grand pogrom de l'histoire contemporaine de la France[18],[19], représenté dans les journaux de l'époque comme Le Monde Illustré[20].

Malgré l'intervention du juge de paix et des gendarmes, la situation dégénère rapidement[21]. Certains trimards rejoignent Aigues-Mortes et y affirment que des Italiens ont tué des Aiguemortais, ce qui fait grossir leurs rangs de la population et des personnes qui n'ont pas réussi à se faire embaucher[21].

Un groupe d'Italiens est alors attaqué et doit se réfugier dans une boulangerie que les émeutiers veulent incendier. Le préfet fait appel à la troupe vers 4 heures du matin. Celle-ci n'arrive sur les lieux qu'à 18 heures, après le drame[22].

Dès le début de la matinée, la situation s'envenime. Les émeutiers se rendent dans les salins de Peccais où se trouvent le plus grand nombre d'Italiens que le capitaine des gendarmes Cabley essaie de protéger en promettant aux émeutiers de chasser les Italiens une fois raccompagnés à la gare d'Aigues-Mortes[23]. C'est durant le trajet que les Italiens assaillis par les émeutiers sont massacrés par une foule que les gendarmes ne réussissent pas à contenir. Il y a sept morts et une cinquantaine de blessés dont certains conserveront des séquelles à vie[24],[25], ce qui constitue le plus grand massacre d'immigrés de l'histoire contemporaine de la France mais aussi l'un des plus grands scandales de son histoire judiciaire[26] puisque aucune condamnation ne sera jamais prononcée.

L'affaire devient un enjeu diplomatique et la presse étrangère, dont celle transalpine, prend fait et cause pour les Italiens[27]. Des émeutes anti-françaises éclatent en Italie[28]. Un règlement diplomatique est trouvé et les parties sont indemnisés[29] alors que le maire nationaliste Marius Terras doit démissionner[30].

 

Une pièce de théâtre de Serge Valletti, Sale Août, se fonde sur ces événements tragiques.

XXIe siècleModifier

 

Le 25 avril 2014, la ville d'Aigues-Mortes organise des cérémonies commémoratives à l'occasion du 800e anniversaire de la naissance de Louis IX, auxquelles participe son descendant Louis de Bourbon, duc d'Anjou, ainsi que son épouse Marie-Marguerite. Le prince rappelle alors que son aïeul au XIIIe siècle ouvrit la voie à une profonde réforme institutionnelle en octroyant une des premières chartes communales, permettant d’affranchir les villes du pouvoir féodal[31]. À cette occasion, le maire Pierre Mauméjean rappelle « l’amour et l’attachement réel des Aigues-Mortais pour le roi fondateur de la cité et leur reconnaissance pour tout ce qu’il a fait pour eux ». Il ajoute « combien Aigues-Mortes est fière et honorée de recevoir pour la deuxième fois l'homme (Louis de Bourbon) qui avait été fait citoyen de la ville, lors de la Saint Louis de 1992, par le maire de l'époque René Jeannot, présent ce jour »[32].

 

Le canal du Rhône à Sète traversant Aigues-Mortes.

 

Lettre de M. Fargeon

1806.

 

Le canal du Rhône à Sète

1915.

 

Cliquez sur une vignette pour l’agrandir.

Politique et administrationModifier

Tendances politiques et résultatsModifier

Article connexe : Élections municipales de 2014 dans le Gard.

 

Les dernières élections municipales à Aigues-Mortes ont eu lieu les 23 et 30 mars 2014.

 

Cinq listes étaient présentes au premier tour, une liste PS représentée par le maire sortant Cédric Bonato, une liste divers gauche et écologistes représentée par Didier Caire, une liste d’union de la droite UDI-UMP représentée par Pierre Mauméjean, une liste divers droite représentée par Isabelle Secrétan et une cinquième liste apparentée FN portée par Stéphane Pignan.

 

Les résultats du premier tour : Pierre Mauméjean (Union de la droite) 35,84 %, Cédric Bonato (PS) 34,51 %, Isabelle Secrétan (Divers Droite) 11,43 %, Stéphane Pignan 11,09 % et Didier Caire (divers gauche) 7,1 %.

 

Inscrits 6 951, abstentions 1 859 (26,74 %), votants 5 092 (73,26 %), Blancs et Nuls 126 (1.81 %), exprimés 4 966 (71.44 %)

 

Les résultats du second tour : Pierre Mauméjean (Union de la droite) 50,16 %, Cédric Bonato (PS) 43,2 %, Stéphane Pignan (FN) 6,62 %.

 

Inscrits 6 951, abstentions 1 569 (22,57 %), votants 5 382 (77,43 %), Blancs et Nuls 163 (2,34 %), exprimés 5219 (75,08 %)

 

Pierre Mauméjean devient le 7e maire d’Aigues-Mortes de la Cinquième République.

Administration municipaleModifier

Centre-ville d'Aigues-Mortes.

 

Le conseil municipal aigues-mortais comprend 29 membres, dont le maire, 8 adjoints et 20 conseillers municipaux.

 

Depuis les dernières élections municipales, sa composition est la suivante :

Groupe Président Effectif Statut

Unis pour Aigues-Mortes

LR-UDI-DVD Pierre Mauméjean 22 majorité

Tous pour Aigues-Mortes avec Cédric Bonato

DVG Cédric Bonato 6 opposition

Pour une droite unie et forte

DVD Stéphane Pignan 1 opposition

Liste des mairesModifier

Article détaillé : Liste des maires d'Aigues-Mortes.

Mairie d'Aigues-Mortes.

JumelagesModifier

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Population et sociétéModifier

DémographieModifier

 

L'évolution du nombre d'habitants est connue à travers les recensements de la population effectués dans la commune depuis 1793. À partir du 1er janvier 2009, les populations légales des communes sont publiées annuellement dans le cadre d'un recensement qui repose désormais sur une collecte d'information annuelle, concernant successivement tous les territoires communaux au cours d'une période de cinq ans. Pour les communes de moins de 10 000 habitants, une enquête de recensement portant sur toute la population est réalisée tous les cinq ans, les populations légales des années intermédiaires étant quant à elles estimées par interpolation ou extrapolation[33]. Pour la commune, le premier recensement exhaustif entrant dans le cadre du nouveau dispositif a été réalisé en 2005[34],[Note 1].

 

En 2014, la commune comptait 8 417 habitants, en augmentation de 3,71 % par rapport à 2009 (Gard : 4,64 % , France hors Mayotte : 2,49 %)

Évolution de la population [modifier] 1793 1800 1806 1821 1831 1836 1841 1846 1851

2 800 2 605 2 630 2 577 2 897 3 240 3 393 3 968 4 046

1856 1861 1866 1872 1876 1881 1886 1891 1896

3 677 3 865 3 932 3 833 4 113 3 564 3 906 3 981 3 897

1901 1906 1911 1921 1926 1931 1936 1946 1954

4 511 3 899 3 900 4 348 3 878 4 123 3 839 3 616 3 746

1962 1968 1975 1982 1990 1999 2005 2010 2014

4 203 4 197 4 531 4 472 4 999 6 012 6 798 8 341 8 417

De 1962 à 1999 : population sans doubles comptes ; pour les dates suivantes : population municipale.

(Sources : Ldh/EHESS/Cassini jusqu'en 1999[13] puis Insee à partir de 2006[35].)

Histogramme de l'évolution démographique

Pyramide des âgesModifier

 

La répartition de la population de la commune par tranches d'âge est la suivante :

 

47,6 % d’hommes (0-14 ans = 17,7 %, 15 à 29 ans = 17,1 %, 30 à 44 ans = 22 %, 45 à 59 ans =21,1 %, plus de 60 ans =22 %)

52,4 % de femmes (0-14 ans = 16,9 %, 15 à 29 ans = 15,1 %, 30 à 44 ans = 23,5 %, 45 à 59 ans =19,9 %, plus de 60 ans =24,5 %)

 

La population féminine est en surreprésentation par rapport à celle des hommes. Le taux (52,4 %) est sensiblement du même ordre que le taux national (51,8 %).

Pyramide des âges à Aigues-Mortes en 2007 en pourcentage[36]. Hommes Classe d’âge Femmes

0,3

90 ans ou +

1,2

6,0

75 à 89 ans

7,4

15,7

60 à 74 ans

15,9

21,1

45 à 59 ans

19,9

22,0

30 à 44 ans

23,5

17,1

15 à 29 ans

15,1

17,7

0 à 14 ans

16,9

Pyramide des âges du département du Gard en 2007 en pourcentage[37]. Hommes Classe d’âge Femmes

0,4

90 ans ou +

1,1

6,9

75 à 89 ans

9,9

14,6

60 à 74 ans

15,1

21,3

45 à 59 ans

20,9

19,9

30 à 44 ans

19,8

17,7

15 à 29 ans

16,1

19,1

0 à 14 ans

17,0

EnseignementModifier

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SantéModifier

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Manifestations culturelles et festivitésModifier

Plan des arènes d'Aigues-Mortes.

 

Aigues-Mortes est une ville de traditions camarguaises. Chaque année, la seconde semaine d’octobre, elle célèbre la fin des vendanges ainsi que la fin de la récolte du sel.

 

La fête votive est l’occasion pour les familles du village de se retrouver autour de traditions ancestrales qui font le socle du patrimoine culturel aigues-mortais. Côté remparts Sud, chaque famille construit son « théâtre » ; les 101 théâtres forment le plan, une arène éphémère qui, une semaine durant (et un weekend de revivre), accueille des courses camarguaises où chacun peut s’essayer à l’art du raset avec des vaches et taureaux emboulés.

 

Cette semaine festive est fréquentée par des milliers de touristes et d’habitués de la région ; c'est un moment de ferveur et de partage qui met en valeur l’identité camarguaise de la cité médiévale.

 

Un comité des fêtes est constitué pour cette occasion ; il a la charge d’organiser chaque année ces festivités en respectant les traditions ancestrales et en veillant à la sécurité de toutes et tous les participants.

SportsModifier

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MédiasModifier

 

Delta FM, radio locale diffusant sur le 88.9

 

ÉconomieModifier

Flamant rose géant au rond-point D 62-D 718.

AgricultureModifier

Les toits d'Aigues-Mortes, les remparts puis les salins et la mer.

 

Culture de la vigne et de l'asperge.

 

Article connexe : Sable-de-camargue.

 

L'élevage de taureaux et de chevaux de Camargue. Les deux sont élevés pratiquement à l'état sauvage dans les marais environnants.

Le taureau camarguais est plus petit que les taureaux de combat espagnols, trapu, les cornes et la tête hautes. Il mesure environ 1,40 m au garrot. Il est principalement destiné à la course à la cocarde qui est très populaire dans la région.

Le cheval de Camargue est le compagnon indispensable des gardians pour se déplacer dans les marais et trier les taureaux. D'après certaines découvertes d'ossements, il semblerait que le cheval de Solutré de l'ère quaternaire soit son ancêtre. De ce fait, le cheval de Camargue n'est pas très grand, 1,50 m environ. Il possède une énorme résistance adaptée au terrain. Sa robe est marron à la naissance pour progressivement devenir blanche après quelques années.

 

IndustriesModifier

 

Production du sel par l'exploitation salinière du groupe Salins. Sans doute exploités dès l'Antiquité, les salins d'Aigues-Mortes attirèrent pêcheurs et sauniers. Les moines bénédictins y établirent dès le VIIIe siècle l'abbaye de Psalmodie, afin d'exploiter cette denrée précieuse dans les étangs de Peccais. Les salines resteront très longtemps une des principales ressources de la ville. Pour parvenir aux « tables saunantes », l'eau pompée dans la mer parcourt plus de 70 km dans les roubines[note 2] ; la concentration de chlorure de sodium y passe de 29 à plus de 260 g/l. Récolté mécaniquement, le sel est amoncelé en de scintillantes « camelles » avant d'être conditionné. On le réserve à l'usage alimentaire.

 

Aigues-Mortes et salins

TourismeModifier

 

Le patrimoine médiéval des XIIIe et XIVe siècles de la commune et sa proximité de la mer attirent de nombreux touristes et des résidents.

 

Culture locale et patrimoineModifier

Édifices civilsModifier

La tour de Constance et les rempartsModifier

Vue panoramique des remparts. Vue du sud-est, côté mer.

Tour de Constance.

 

Les tours et remparts d'Aigues Mortes forment un monument ouvert au public par le Centre des monuments nationaux. La tour de Constance, fut érigée en 1242 par Saint Louis sur l’ancien emplacement de la tour Matafère, construite par Charlemagne vers 790, pour abriter la garnison du roi. Les travaux se terminèrent en 1254. Son diamètre est de 22 mètres, sa hauteur au sommet de la lanterne est de 33 ou 40 mètres selon diverses sources… L’épaisseur des murs à la base est de 6 mètres. Au rez-de-chaussée, on trouve la salle des gardes avec son accès protégé par une herse. Au centre de la pièce, une ouverture circulaire permet d’accéder aux sous-sols qui servaient de garde-manger, de réserve de munitions et aussi de cachots. Ce lieu s’appelait les « culs de basse fosse ». Au premier étage, on accède à la salle des chevaliers. Elle ressemble de par sa structure à la salle des gardes. C’est dans cette salle que furent emprisonnées au XVIIIe siècle des protestantes dont la plus connue fut Marie Durand qui grava sur la margelle du puits le mot « résister ». Ce mot est toujours visible de nos jours. Elle fut emprisonnée à l’âge de 15 ans et libérée 38 ans plus tard, avec des prisonniers politiques (Abraham Mazel, chef camisard). Entre ces deux salles, un étroit chemin de ronde, fut construit dans l'épaisseur du mur pour surveiller la salle basse. Après la salle des chevaliers, on accède à la terrasse qui offre un large panorama sur la région, représentant ainsi un poste idéal de surveillance. Les prisonnières étaient quelquefois autorisées à venir y respirer l’air pur.

 

Dans les tours et les remparts, sont organisées des expositions : en 2014, par exemple, pour célébrer le 800e anniversaire de la naissance de Saint Louis, le Centre des monuments nationaux a organisé une exposition intitulée Saint Louis, de l'Occident à l'Orient, sur Saint Louis et les croisades[38]. Les remparts se déploient sur une longueur de 1 600 mètres. Spectaculaires par leur hauteur et l'état de leur conservation (ils n'ont pas été restaurés au XIXe siècle comme cela fut le cas, par exemple, pour Carcassonne), ils constituent, avec la tour de Constance, un témoignage exceptionnel en Europe occidentale de l'architecture militaire en milieu marécageux aux XIIIe et XIVe siècles. Le classement de cet ensemble à l'Unesco , sous le thème de l'homme dans son milieu, est un sujet de mobilisation[39] : un dossier a été constitué en 2011, et de nombreuses actions, dont la suppression des poteaux électriques[40], ont été entreprises pour permettre ce classement. Cette procédure est malheureusement contrariée par les classements déjà effectifs de sites très proches tels le Pont du Gard, Avignon ou Arles…[réf. nécessaire]

Le Plan des ThéâtresModifier

Article détaillé : Plan des Théâtres (Aigues-Mortes).

 

Le Plan des Théâtres sont des arènes, construites à la fin du XIXe siècle[41], destinées aux courses camarguaises. Elles ont été inscrites en 1993 sur l'inventaire supplémentaire de la liste des Monuments historiques (MH)[41] pour leur intérêt ethnologique et culturel. Elles peuvent accueillir plus de six cents personnes[42].

 

Murs de la ville - 1

 

Murs de la ville - 2

 

Murs de la ville - 3

 

Murs de la ville - 4

 

Murs de la ville - 5

 

Murs de la ville - 6

 

Murs de la ville - 7

 

Murs de la ville - 8

 

La porte de la reine Aigues-Morte en 1867, de Frédéric Bazille, exposé au Metropolitan Museum of Art.

 

Cliquez sur une vignette pour l’agrandir.

La tour CarbonnièreModifier

Article détaillé : Tour Carbonnière.

 

Située sur la commune de Saint-Laurent-d'Aigouze, la tour Carbonnière est citée pour la première fois dans un texte daté de 1346 qui donne des précisions sur la fonction de l’ouvrage. Il y est dit que « cette forteresse est la clé du royaume en cette contrée. » En effet, située au milieu des marais, elle était le passage obligé pour accéder à Aigues-Mortes. Elle était tenue par une garnison composée d’un châtelain et de plusieurs gardes. Depuis sa terrasse qui pouvait supporter jusqu’à quatre pièces d’artillerie, on a une vue panoramique sur la Petite Camargue.

 

La tour Carbonnière.

 

Vue aérienne.

 

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La place Saint-LouisModifier

Statue de Saint Louis.

 

Elle est le cœur touristique de la cité. Au centre, face à l'entrée principale de la Porte de la Gardette, est érigée la statue de Saint Louis, œuvre de James Pradier en 1849.

Édifices religieuxModifier

L’église Notre-Dame-des-SablonsModifier

Article détaillé : Église Notre Dame des Sablons d'Aigues-Mortes.

 

Elle a vraisemblablement été construite avant les remparts, vers le milieu du XIIIe siècle, à l'époque de saint Louis et est de style gothique. Collégiale en 1537, elle fut saccagée par les protestants en 1575. Après la reconstruction du clocher en 1634 elle devint successivement sous la Révolution, temple de la Raison, caserne, magasin à grains et entrepôt de sel. Elle fut rendue au culte en 1804 et restaurée dans un style « néo classique-baroque » assez chargé. De 1964 à 1967 tout ce décor XIXe disparaît, notamment les plafonds à caissons, pour laisser place à l'église beaucoup plus sobre et dans l'esprit médiéval que nous voyons aujourd'hui. Depuis 1991, des vitraux créés par Claude Viallat, artiste contemporain appartenant au mouvement artistique Supports/Surfaces, donnent à l'édifice une lumière et une couleur extraordinaires. Le reste du mobilier XVIIIe et XIXe siècles a disparu à cette occasion à l'exception de quelques statues. La façade est surmontée d'un très sobre clocher à peigne abritant 3 cloches. La plus importante, 1,07 m de diamètre, date de 1740, classée MH elle fut réalisée par le maître fondeur Jean Poutingon. L'église abrite aussi une statue de saint Louis.

 

Église Notre-Dame-des-Sablons.

 

Statue de saint-Louis dans l'église Notre-Dame-des-Sablons.

 

Reste d'un crucifix dans l'église de Notre Dame des Sablons.

 

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La chapelle des Pénitents grisModifier

Article détaillé : Chapelle des Pénitents gris d'Aigues-Mortes.

 

Située à l'est de la Place de la Viguerie, elle est la propriété de la confrérie des Pénitents gris créée en 1400. La façade est du style Louis XIV. La porte d'entrée du XVIIe siècle est ornée d'une statue en bois. Retable sculpté en 1687 par Sabatier.

 

À l'intérieur, un retable représente la passion du Christ. Il fut construit en stuc de plâtre gris en 1687 par le sculpteur montpelliérain Sabatier. Ce retable, sur lequel figurent les armoiries de la confrérie, occupe tout le fond du chœur.

La chapelle des Pénitents blancsModifier

Chapelle des Pénitents Blancs, intérieur.

Article détaillé : Chapelle des Pénitents blancs d'Aigues-Mortes.

 

Située à l'angle de la rue de la République et de la rue Louis-Blanc, elle appartient à la confrérie des Pénitents blancs créée en 1622[43].

 

Au-dessus du chœur, sur la voûte, on peut voir une copie du retable de Jérusalem où le Christ a célébré la Pâque et le jeudi Saint avec ses apôtres. Autour du maître-autel, une peinture sur toile retrace la descente du Saint Esprit le jour de la Pentecôte. On l'attribue à Xavier Sigalon, peintre né à Uzès en 1778. De chaque côté du chœur se dressent deux statues : à gauche saint Félix pour la rédemption des captifs, à droite saint Jacques le Mineur, premier évêque de Jérusalem.

Patrimoine culturelModifier

Lou DrapéModifier

 

Lou Drapé est un cheval imaginaire mentionné dans le folklore local, qui était censé se promener la nuit autour des remparts de la ville, prendre 50 à 100 enfants sur son dos, et les faire disparaître « on ne sait où ».

Article détaillé : Drapé (légende).

Patrimoine gastronomiqueModifier

La fougasse d'Aigues-MortesModifier

 

La fougasse appartient aux premières pâtisseries à base levée. Elle peut être sucrée (dénommé parfois « tarte au sucre ») ou salée (avec ou sans gratillons). Traditionnellement, la confection de la fougasse au sucre à Aigues-Mortes était réservée à la période de Noël, au sein des treize desserts. À base de pâte à brioche, sucre, beurre et fleur d'oranger, elle était fabriquée par le boulanger avec les ingrédients apportés par le client. À présent, la fougasse d'Aigues-Mortes se vend toute l'année.

Vues aériennesModifier

 

Aigues-mortes vu du ciel 1

 

Aigues-mortes vu du ciel 2

 

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Patrimoine naturelModifier

 

Aigues-Mortes est concerné par 5 zones naturelles protégées, 10 ZNIEFF[44], deux zones spéciales de conservation (ZSC) (sites d'intérêt communautaire (SIC) sous la Directive Habitat)[45],[46] et deux zones de protection spéciale (ZPS) (SIC sous la Directive Oiseaux)[47],[48].

 

41 797 ha de la Petite Camargue sont classés comme « zone humide protégée par la convention de Ramsar » et concernent 16 communes dont Aigues-Mortes[note 3],[49].

 

Côté sud elle jouxte le Parc naturel régional de Camargue[1].

Minneapolis, Minnesota.

  

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View On Black

 

One of several gorgeous maracujá flowers (Passion Flowers) on a vine-covered fence in Santa Catarina, Brazil.

 

Family: Passifloraceae

Genus: Passiflora

Species: incarnata, edulis

 

Passionflower is a hardy woody vine that grows up to 10 m long and puts off tendrils, enabling it to climb up and over other plants in the rainforest canopy. It bears striking, large white flowers with pink or purple centers. The flowers gave it the name passionflower (or flower of passion) because Spanish missionaries thought they represented some of the objects associated with the Crucification of Christ. [...] There are over 200 species of passionflower vines; the most prevalent species in the Amazon are Passiflora edulis and P. incarnata. [...] Passionflower is widely employed by herbalists and natural health practitioners around the world today for its sedative, nervine, anti-spasmodic and analgesic effects.

 

www.rain-tree.com/maracuja.htm

  

Earth Day is a day designed to inspire awareness and appreciation for the Earth's environment. It was founded by U.S. Senator Gaylord Nelson as an environmental teach-in held on April 22, 1970.[1] Earth Day is celebrated in spring in the Northern Hemisphere and autumn in the Southern Hemisphere. Many communities celebrate Earth Week, an entire week of activities focused on environmental issues. The first Earth Week originated in Philadelphia in 1970 (starting April 16 and culminating on Earth Day, April 22.)[2]

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earth_Day

NEW: I NOW CREATE MUSIC, JOIN ME ON SOUNDCLOUD!

 

SHOP: www.icanvas.com/canvas-art-prints/artist/ben-heine

 

This is a pointillist work I made with yellow, red blue and black ink on paper. I just love Marilyn Manson's personality and crazy style! Everybody should have an aura...

 

Please, see my other portrait of Marilyn Manson

_______________________________________________

 

For more information about my art: info@benheine.com

_______________________________________________

  

Biography

 

Brian Hugh Warner (born January 5, 1969), better known by his stage name Marilyn Manson, is a professional musician. He is the lead singer of the industrial metal band that bears the same name. His stage name is formed from the names Marilyn Monroe and Charles Manson.

 

Brian Hugh Warner was born on January 5th 1969 in Canton, Ohio. He attended Heritage Christian School. After transferring to and later graduating from Canton's GlenOak High School, Warner moved to Fort Lauderdale, Florida with his family. While living in Fort Lauderdale, he studied journalism and theater at Broward Community College, and became the assistant entertainment editor of BCC's student newspaper, the Observer.

 

Romance

 

Warner's first serious relationship was with Melissa "Missi" Romero. As explained in his autobiography, during the production of "Antichrist Superstar," Missi became pregnant with Warner's child, but had an abortion during her second trimester. He has also been linked to Traci Lords and Jenna Jameson. Jameson wrote about her sexual encounter with Manson in her autobiography, How to Make Love Like a Porn Star: A Cautionary Tale in which she noted him as being "massively endowed". Manson was engaged to Rose McGowan, but their relationship ended around the time he became involved with burlesque dancer and fetish model model Dita Von Teese. Manson photographed Von Teese for the December 2002 issue of Playboy. Manson and Von Teese wed in December 2005 in the Irish home of friend Gottfried Helnwein. Von Teese filed for divorce as of December 2006. The divorce came through in January 2007. In April of 2007, Marilyn Manson's girlfriend, Evan Rachel Wood, admitted that they were actually a couple.

 

Marriage

 

Manson and Dita Von Teese started dating on Manson's 32nd birthday, and Manson proposed three years later on March 22, 2004. On December 3, 2005 (court documents say November 28), the couple was married in a non-denominational ceremony at Gurteen Castle in Kilsheelan, County Tipperary, Ireland, the home of Gottfried Helnwein. The wedding was officiated by surrealist film director and comic book writer Alejandro Jodorowsky. Dita Von Teese wore a royal purple silk taffeta gown by Vivienne Westwood, complete with train and petticoats worn over a Mr. Pearl couture corset, topped off by a tricorne hat by Stephen Jones, while Manson wore a John Galliano black silk taffeta tuxedo with velvet trim and a hat also crafted by Stephen Jones. They reportedly exchanged vows in front of approximately 60 guests, including burlesque dancer Catherine Delish, Lisa Marie Presley, Eric Szmanda, David Lynch, Jessicka and Christian Hejnal, and Sharon and Ozzy Osbourne. Vogue magazine ran a multiple-page feature on the wedding in its February 2006 issue. Just before his own wedding, Manson criticized Britney Spears' wedding to Kevin Federline, in which they celebrated by wearing personalized tracksuits: "If you're going to do something like getting married, it should have a sense of celebration to it. It should be grand and not in tracksuits!"

 

As of January 30, 2007 Manson and Dita Von Teese reportedly split after her filing for divorce due to "irreconcilable differences" according to Von Teese. ET.com along with People Magazine has claimed that Manson was having an extramarital affair with actress Evan Rachel Wood, which may or may not be the true cause of the split. Manson's alcohol abuse and distant behaviour have also been cited as cause for the split. It has also been claimed that Manson was not aware of Von Teese's filing for divorce and moving out of their home at the time that the story was published, conceivably due to his reported stay in Paris, France. Von Teese reportedly took their two cats and two dachshunds, Greta and Eva, with her when she left. Manson fought for custody of the two cats, but only received one of them.

 

Evan Rachel Wood attended the grand opening of Manson's new Celebritarian Corporation Gallery of Fine Art and among the most notable artworks were two portraits of Evan. She will also co-star in his upcoming horror film Phantasmagoria: The Visions of Lewis Carroll.

 

In music

 

Jessicka of the band Jack Off Jill was an early friend of Manson's, her band opened most of his South Florida shows. He not only produced most of the band's early recordings but also played guitar on the song "My Cat" and helped name the band. Manson later wrote the liner notes for the band's album Humid Teenage Mediocrity, a collection of early Jack Off Jill recordings.

 

In early 1993, after being instructed by his new label, Interscope Records, not to play any local shows, Manson formed Mrs. Scabtree. Mrs. Scabtree was a side project between he and newly hired Jeordie White. Manson played drums, while White (dressed as a black woman) shared vocal duties with then girlfriend Jessicka from Jack Off Jill who wore a blonde wig. Mrs. Scabtree only played two shows in South Florida.

 

Manson has helped or provided full scores for several major motion pictures, although several of his pieces have been cut, and his name dropped from the credits. Some of his more notable soundtrack score contributions include The Matrix, From Hell and Resident Evil.

 

Manson appeared as a guest on rapper DMX's album Flesh of My Flesh, Blood of My Blood for the track "The Omen", produced by Swizz Beats, and has performed (with the rest of the band) on stage with Eminem as background music in the song "The Way I Am".

 

Manson sang vocals on "Break You Down" off of the Washington, DC-based industrial rock band gODHEAD's 2000 Years of Human Error album. This album is distinguished for being the only one released on Manson's vanity label Posthuman Records.

 

In film and television

 

Manson made a cameo appearance as a doctor in the Murderdolls' music video "Dead in Hollywood", and also appears in the Nine Inch Nails music video "Starfuckers, Inc.", as well as "Gave Up", and Eminem's "The Way I Am" music video.

 

His first appearance in a film was in the role of a pornographic actor in David Lynch's Lost Highway, in 1997. He also had a minor role in former love interest Rose McGowan's 1998 film Jawbreaker and a supporting role in 2003's Party Monster, which is based on the events leading up to and the murder of Angel Melendez by the infamous Michael Alig of club kid fame, where Manson portrayed a psychotic drag queen named Christina . Manson made a cameo appearance in The Hire: Beat the Devil, a short film in the BMW films series (starring Clive Owen as the Driver), which featured James Brown as himself, and Gary Oldman as Satan. His most talked-about film cameo was in the Michael Moore political documentary Bowling for Columbine discussing the motivations of the perpetrators and allegations that his music was somehow a factor. He played himself, in animated form, on an episode of the television series Clone High, in which he sang a song about nutrition and the food pyramid. He is featured prominently throughout Not Another Teen Movie, and covered the song "Tainted Love" for its soundtrack.

 

His music is frequently featured on the show C.S.I.. The character on the show, Greg Sanders, is a big fan of Manson and the actor who plays him, Eric Szmanda, is a personal friend of Manson's.

 

Manson was featured in the 2004 film The Heart Is Deceitful Above All Things, and was set to appear in Abelcain, directed by Alejandro Jodorowsky, and Living Neon Dreams in 2005, although both of these projects are still unreleased as of 2007. He will also be seen as a bartender in an upcoming vampire movie starring Lucy Liu called Rise and possibly has pending roles in Abelcain, RISE and other projects.

 

Manson has produced 23 music videos, most of which have gone beyond the scope of a normal performance video and been well received by critics for their imagery and direction. Manson’s three most recent released videos – Personal Jesus, (s)AINT and Heart-Shaped Glasses – were voluntarily funded with his own money (to a sum of $1,500,000) and largely not that of the record company. Manson stated in June 2006 that he saw himself "as more a student of film than of music".

 

In July 2005, Manson told Rolling Stone that he was shifting his focus from music to filmmaking - "I just don't think the world is worth putting music into right now. I no longer want to make art that other people--particularly record companies--are turning into a product. I just want to make art."

 

By 2006 Manson was working on his directorial debut, Phantasmagoria: The Visions of Lewis Carroll, but has since put the project off until November 2007 to focus on recording Marilyn Manson's sixth studio album, Eat Me, Drink Me, followed by a world tour. The film is said to feature special effects using a magician rather than computer-generated imagery.

 

In graphic art

 

From the beginning Manson has been a recreational painter, the oldest of his surviving pieces dating back to 1995-1996, but it was after his 1998 Grey period that Manson began his career as a watercolour painter. In 1999 he made five-minute concept pieces and sold them to drug dealers with their knowledge that they would accumulate in value over time. Gradually Manson became more drawn to watercolors as an art form in itself, and instead of trading them, kept them and continued to paint at a proficient rate.

 

This manic creativity resulted in an exhibit for his art, The Golden Age of Grotesque, held at the Los Angeles Contemporary Exhibitions Centre on between September 13 and 14, 2002. The reaction to his paintings was largely positive with one critic comparing them to Egon Schele's pieces and describing them as heartfelt and sincerely painted, and Art in America went as far as to liken them to the works of a " psychiatric patient given materials to use as therapy ". Others however saw less merit in the works stating that the value was in the celebrity.

 

Two years later almost to the day, during September 14 and 15, 2004, Manson held his second exhibit on the first night in Paris and the second in Berlin, Trismegistus, which was also the title of the center piece of the exhibit – a large three headed Christ painted onto an antique wood panel. Again the reception to the works could be described as mixed but was largely in favour of the artist.

 

Manson opened his own an art gallery, The Celebritarian Corporation Gallery of Fine Art, on October 31, 2006 in Los Angeles for which his third exhibition (by invitation or appointment only after the opening night) was the inaugural show. From April 2 until April 17, 2007 Manson's recent works were be on show at the Space 39 Modern & Contemporary in Florida.

 

A coffee table art book is in the works, initially titled The Death of Art. The last given title was Quintif. It will be published by the makers of Flaunt magazine.

 

40 pieces from this show were ported to the Gallery Brigitte Schenk in Cologne, Germany to be publicly exhibited from June 28 until July 28, 2007. After this they will return to the Space39 Modern & Contemporary Gallery thus leaving Manson's own gallery in Los Angeles temporarily without his own work until 2008.

 

The price of Manson's works has been a somewhat controversial point for fans and critics alike, with most fans realistically unable to afford the paintings save for fine art editions and lithographs. Manson's prices though are realistic and reasonable considering the long-term value at a time when prices for contemporary art have never been higher.

 

During his European tour 2007 Manson has exhibited his paintings in Germany, Russia and Switzerland.

 

In other areas

 

Manson provided the voice of the alien Edgar in the 2005 first-person shooter video game Area 51, which also featured David Duchovny. Marilyn Manson also appears (as himself) as a playable character in the video game Celebrity Deathmatch. Allegedly, the artist posed nude for photos prior to his rise to fame. The pictures appeared in the March 1999 issue of Honcho.

 

Professional fallouts

 

Trent Reznor

 

One of Manson's high-profile relationships, the defunct friendship with Trent Reznor, has been marked with mutual bitterness and perhaps vendetta. This started in the mid-90s, when Manson was due to make a track that would appear on the soundtrack to David Lynch's Lost Highway, but instead Reznor was the one who wrote a song, "The Perfect Drug", for the film. In 1999, it seemed the two artists had patched their differences, as Manson made an appearance in the video for the Nine Inch Nails song "Starfuckers, Inc."

 

In 2004, Reznor was asked whether he had plans to do any covers; he sarcastically replied, "I was really hoping to do something unique and pertinent - like do an exact copy of "Personal Jesus" - but it was already taken."

 

In a 2005 interview, Manson said Reznor's Nothing Records had lost the master recordings of Manson's first three albums. He implied it was Reznor's intention, "Now that Nothing Records doesn't exist, I think there's only one of two people responsible for that. Out of those two people, there's only one that really has an opinion of me that is voiced very often."

 

Twiggy Ramirez

 

In May 2002 Twiggy Ramirez left the band, citing differences in perspective on the future of the band. He went on to play bass for A Perfect Circle and Nine Inch Nails. During this time, Manson claimed in interviews that he and Ramirez were still close friends, while Ramirez maintained that he rarely spoke to Manson. In an interview in February of 2006 Twiggy stated he was willing to record an album with Marilyn Manson if the right conditions were met. In Autumn 2006, Manson and Ramirez were photographed together at numerous parties in Los Angeles, in amicable poses.

 

In January 2008 it was announced that Ramirez had reunited with the band as live bassist for the last leg of the Rape of the World tour as well as co-writer of the band's seventh studio album. In an interview with The Heirophant on January 11, 2008, Manson revealed that the reconciliation with Ramirez was not as abrupt as it initially seemed, and that the two had been occasionally communicating with each other since speaking at the Roosevelt Hotel in Hollywood, California prior to the Winter European leg of the Rape of the World tour.

 

John 5

 

John 5's reasons for leaving Marilyn Manson were cited as being mutual, despite the mysterious nature of his sudden firing by Manson's manager in 2004.

 

John was quoted at the time as saying about the incident, "I don't know. . . I was nothing but nice to him," he continued. "I never screwed up onstage — well not really badly — and I did everything I could to get along with him. Maybe, just maybe, it had something to do with the fact that I don't drink or do drugs, and he's not like that at all. Maybe he held that against me. I don't know. He never said." John 5 was notorious among fans as being drug and alcohol free.

 

Before the incident, Manson had assaulted John on stage, notably, Manson kicked John in the face during a televised performance, leading to a brief confrontation in front of a packed and roaring audience (available on YouTube). This was during the intro to "The Beautiful People", when played at the Rock AM Ring 2003.

 

Also, during the tour John maintains that Manson spoke about matters other than business only once, "It was on my birthday, and he turned to me and said, "Happy birthday, faggot" — then walked away."

 

Despite this, John maintains he respects Manson, citing his skilled production style and his love for the band's music. John was already a fan of the band before joining in 1998. In response to a question regarding the reason for the split with Manson, John 5 was quoted by Vintage Guitar Magazine as saying, "(laughs) At the end of the last tour, I decided I really wanted to do this solo thing and that I had to devote all my time to it. The split with Manson was totally amicable. It wasn't one of those big breakups. We're friends. I wish there was some good dirt, but there's not (laughs)!"

 

In an interview prior to the January 19, 2008 performance in Orlando, Florida, Marilyn Manson revealed that John 5 would make a guest appearance during the show, stating: "I'll have [John] come on stage and play songs with us this first show. It would practically be the Holy Wood lineup." This guest appearance ultimately did not take place, however.

 

Madonna Wayne Gacy

 

Before leaving the band nothing was heard of Madonna Wayne Gacy for over a year. In an exclusive conference conducted by Marilyn Manson in April 2007, he revealed the upcoming album Eat Me, Drink Me was recorded in collaboration between himself and Tim Skold. Essentially this meant Gacy did not partake in the album, but not ruling out the possibility of him performing as live keyboardist on the upcoming tour. Later, Manson revealed that Chris Vrenna (who previously drummed for the band during Ginger Fish's hiatus in 2004) would be performing as live keyboardist on the tour, in Gacy's place.

 

On August 2, 2007, Gacy filed a lawsuit against Marilyn Manson seeking a back pay of $20 million dollars. Gacy claimed Manson has been using the band's money for personal interests, among which are his collection of Nazi paraphernalia, his drug addictions, his wedding with Dita Von Teese and the production of Phantasmagoria: The Visions of Lewis Carroll.

 

On December 20, 2007, Manson countersued Gacy. As a reaction to the lawsuit Gacy filed against Manson in August, Manson claims, "keyboardist Stephen Bier did not carry out obligations to take part in master recordings [of Eat Me, Drink Me], concerts [of the Rape of the World tour] and the selling of band merchandise," according to this report which states that Manson is seeking unspecified general and special damages.

 

Insight

 

Even though he is known mostly for his music, which some refer to as crude and grotesque, Manson is a very intelligent and insightful man. In interviews he is always well spoken and is calm to the people who challenge him. Most people see his music as delivering the wrong message, but Manson states that his message was to be creative.

 

Causes

 

•In 2002, Manson worked with the Make-A-Wish Foundation to make the wish of a boy with a life-threatening disease come true. 16-year-old Andrew Baines from Tennessee had a wish to sing back-up vocals for a "big" band; Manson jumped on the task and took Baines under his wing to make his dream come true. Manson invited Baines to the studio on August 27, 2002, where he let Baines perform backing vocals for the then-upcoming album, The Golden Age of Grotesque. "Yesterday, I spent the afternoon with Andrew, who reminded me the things I create are only made complete by those who enjoy them. I just want to simply say, 'thank you' to Andrew for sharing such an important wish with me," Manson said, according MarilynManson.com.

 

•In 2005, Manson donated a signed collector's edition mask to Music for Relief to help victims of the 2004's Boxing Day Tsunami; this auction raised $155.

 

•In January 2006, Manson contributed a hand-painted guitar from the Six-String Masterpieces - The Dimebag Darrell Art Tribute to the Little Kids Rock auction. For every $100 raised by the product, Little Kids Rock would provide one low-income child with an instrument and lessons – Manson's guitar raised $6,250.

 

•In 2006, Manson became a benefactor of Project Nightlight, an LA area foundation that uses short films, music, and apparel to grab teenagers attention and inspire them to speak out against sexual and physical abuse. Manson afforded Project Nightlight a stand at the opening of his art gallery, and in April 2007 gave the charity a print of his painting Eve of Destruction and a framed collector's edition mask.

 

Legal history

 

Marilyn Manson was first arrested in Florida on December 27, 1994 after a concert at Jacksonville's Club 5 for "violating the adult entertainment code." Manson was detained for 16 hours before been released without charge. Bizarrely police believed Manson had performed oral sex on stage with a man (when in fact it was Jack Off Jill vocalist Jessicka wearing a fake penis) and thrown either his or the man's penis into the crowd. On February 5, 2001 in Marino, Italy Manson suffered what is to date his only other post-concert arrest when he was accused of blasphemy having worn the outfit of a cardinal on stage during the song "Valentine's Day". Soon after the detention it was ascertained that Manson had not committed a crime and it appeared the legal troubles were over until the next day when Manson was arrested in Bologne on charges of public indecency relating to a 1999 show where it was alleged Manson had exposed his penis. Manson was released and the charges dropped, notably the arrests came a week after two teenagers brutally murdered an Italian nun which some less reputable sections of the Italian press blamed on Manson's music.

 

Sexual misconduct

 

In a civil battery suit, David Diaz, a security officer from a concert in Minneapolis, Minnesota on October 27, 2000, sued for $75,000 in a Minneapolis federal court. After two days deliberation the jury decided that Manson's alleged molestation had been part of the show and that he had not overstepped his boundaries as an artist, ruling in favor of Manson and against Diaz.

 

Manson was charged with "sexual misconduct" on August 16, 2001 after Joshua Keasler filed a complaint that as he was providing security for a July 30 concert Manson had allegedly spat on his head, wrapped his legs around him and began to gyrate his penis along his neck.

 

Oakland County prosecutor David Gorcyca said that "It was offensive, crude and rude. This was not something that was orchestrated or choreographed as part of the act. The security guard was an unknowing and unwilling participant and, ironically, while he was there for protection... was sexually assaulted." The charge, punishable with up to two years imprisonment, was accompanied with a charge of disorderly conduct. The complaint came with an arrest warrant but Manson thwarted this by posting a $25,000 personal bond. In a one-day December 28, 2001 trial the presiding Judge dismissed the charge of "sexual misconduct" as Manson had in his view "gained no sexual gratification from the act." Manson pleaded "no contest" to the outstanding lesser charge, which carried only up to three months imprisonment, and was ordered to pay $4,000 in fines. After the trial Keasler pursued a civil lawsuit against Manson that was dropped when the two settled out of court in February 2004.

 

Lawsuits

 

•In 1997, former Marilyn Manson guitarist Scott Mitchell Putesky filed a lawsuit against Manson seeking unpaid royalties for his contributions to the band's output up to that period, including the band's recently released second studio album Antichrist Superstar. The case was concluded in 1998, although the outcome was confidential.

 

•On January 4, 1999, SPIN editor Craig Marks filed an assault and battery lawsuit against Manson in the New York Supreme Court. Marks alleged that Manson, upset at not making the cover of SPIN, the lawsuit specifically alleged Manson had yelled "I can kill you, I can kill your family, I can kill everyone you know!" before two of Manson's bodyguards were said to have charged him and held him against the wall and threw him to the floor after which it was alleged Manson had said, "That's what you get when you disrespect me." The case was dropped when, weeks later, Marks was fired from SPIN over financial irregularities.

 

•On April 2, 2002, Maria St. John filed a wrongful death lawsuit in Los Angeles Superior Court accusing Manson of providing her adult daughter, Jennifer Syme, with cocaine and allowing her to drive while under the influence. The case was settled out of court.

 

•On August 2, 2007, former Marilyn Manson keyboardist Stephen Bier filed a breech of contract lawsuit against Marilyn Manson seeking $20,000,000 in damages. Bier claimed Manson has used the band's money for personal interests, among which are his collection of Nazi paraphernalia, addictions to cocaine and Valium, his $300,000 wedding with and $150,000 engagement ring given to Dita Von Teese and the production of Phantasmagoria: The Visions of Lewis Carroll as well as Lewis Carroll memorabilia, human skeletons and taxidermy. Manson's lawyers responded in January 2008 with a 101-page rebuttal of the claims, the case will be tried by jury in November 2008 in the Los Angeles Superior Court.

 

Major label discography

 

•Portrait of an American Family (1994)

•Smells Like Children (1995)

•Antichrist Superstar (1996)

•Remix and Repent (1997)

•Mechanical Animals (1998)

•The Last Tour on Earth (Live) (1999)

•Holy Wood (In the Shadow of the Valley of Death) (2000)

•The Golden Age of Grotesque (2003)

•Lest We Forget (The Best Of) (2004)

•Eat Me, Drink Me (2007)

 

Filmography

 

•Lost Highway (cameo, 1997)

•MTV Video Music Awards (commercial, 1998)

•Jawbreaker (cameo, 1999)

•Clone High (cameo, 2000)

•From Hell (score, 2001)

•Not Another Teen Movie (score, 2001)

•Resident Evil (score, 2002)

•Bowling for Columbine (interview, 2002)

•The Hire: Beat the Devil (cameo, 2003)

•Party Monster (2003)

•Doppelherz (director, 2003)

•The Heart Is Deceitful Above All Things (cameo, 2004)

•House of Wax (2005) (acting, score)

•Abelcain (2007)

•Living Neon Dreams (2007)

•Rise (cameo, 2007)

•Phantasmagoria: The Visions of Lewis Carroll (acting, directing, writing, score, 2008)

 

Bibliography

 

•The Long Hard Road out of Hell (1998)

•Holy Wood (Unreleased)

 

Trivia

 

•All Manson's tattoos were done at Tattoos By Lou in Miami, Florida over a four-year span starting in 1991, until a new tattoo emerged in early-2007.

 

•In the 1990s, an Internet rumor spread stating Josh Saviano (who played Paul Pfeiffer in 1980s drama The Wonder Years) grew up to become Marilyn Manson. As of 2007, Josh Saviano is a licensed attorney in New York. He has, however, commented on the rumor, and thinks it is neat people believe him to be in a "goth band".

 

•Contrary to what some may deem "common knowledge", Manson has not had any ribs removed for the purpose of autofellatio. "If I really got my ribs removed," he said in the The Long Hard Road out of Hell autobiography, "I would have been busy sucking my own dick on The Wonder Years instead of chasing Winnie Cooper."

 

•In an E! interview, Manson revealed that he owns a Nintendo DS. "My friend got me this little Japanese lawyer game; it's fucking amazing," he said in reference to Phoenix Wright: Ace Attorney. He also mentioned that he was "pretty good at Mario Kart".

 

•In an interview with MTV in 2002 Manson revealed that for most of his paintings he uses a children's Alice in Wonderland tin. He also uses a 1920's mortician paint kit originally used for retouching cadavers.

 

•Manson has Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, an erratic, rapid heartbeat.

 

•Manson, who cites David Bowie as being his biggest influence, claims his favorite songs by him are "Quicksand", "Ashes to Ashes", and "We Are the Dead". He even proposed to his ex-wife, Dita Von Teese, during a David Bowie concert (at the time Bowie was performing "Be My Wife") .

 

•Pets Manson has had in his life include the childhood dog, an Alaskan malamute named Aleusha, an orange tabby named O.J. which he found on the steps of Christian school, four Devon Rex cats named Aleister, Edgar, Herman, and Lily, and two dachshunds named Greta and Eva. After the divorce of Manson and ex-wife Dita Von Teese, Von Teese won the custody of both dachshunds and Aleister. For Manson's 39th birthday on January 5th, 2008, girlfriend Evan Rachel Wood gave him a new cat, Charlie (Manson), as a birthday gift.

 

•When asked in 2007 by Rolling Stone what his current favorite playlist was, Manson chose among Radiohead's "Exit Music (For a Film)", Amy Winehouse's "Rehab" and David Bowie's classic "We Are the Dead".

  

OFFICIAL WEBSITE : marilynmanson.com

MARILYN MANSON on MYSPACE : www.myspace.com/marilynmanson

 

---------------------

 

--> This biography appeared on www.mansonwiki.com/ (Manson Wiki)

Colosseum

Following, a text, in english, from the Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia:

The Colosseum, or the Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering.

Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum, its construction started between 70 and 72 AD[1] under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus,[2] with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign (81–96).[3] The name "Amphitheatrum Flavium" derives from both Vespasian's and Titus's family name (Flavius, from the gens Flavia).

Capable of seating 50,000 spectators,[1][4][5] the Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, and a Christian shrine.

Although in the 21st century it stays partially ruined because of damage caused by devastating earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum is an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome. It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close connections with the Roman Catholic Church, as each Good Friday the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession that starts in the area around the Colosseum.[6]

The Colosseum is also depicted on the Italian version of the five-cent euro coin.

The Colosseum's original Latin name was Amphitheatrum Flavium, often anglicized as Flavian Amphitheater. The building was constructed by emperors of the Flavian dynasty, hence its original name, after the reign of Emperor Nero.[7] This name is still used in modern English, but generally the structure is better known as the Colosseum. In antiquity, Romans may have referred to the Colosseum by the unofficial name Amphitheatrum Caesareum; this name could have been strictly poetic.[8][9] This name was not exclusive to the Colosseum; Vespasian and Titus, builders of the Colosseum, also constructed an amphitheater of the same name in Puteoli (modern Pozzuoli).[10]

The name Colosseum has long been believed to be derived from a colossal statue of Nero nearby.[3] (the statue of Nero itself being named after one of the original ancient wonders, the Colossus of Rhodes[citation needed]. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Helios (Sol) or Apollo, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. Nero's head was also replaced several times with the heads of succeeding emperors. Despite its pagan links, the statue remained standing well into the medieval era and was credited with magical powers. It came to be seen as an iconic symbol of the permanence of Rome.

In the 8th century, a famous epigram attributed to the Venerable Bede celebrated the symbolic significance of the statue in a prophecy that is variously quoted: Quamdiu stat Colisæus, stat et Roma; quando cadet colisæus, cadet et Roma; quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus ("as long as the Colossus stands, so shall Rome; when the Colossus falls, Rome shall fall; when Rome falls, so falls the world").[11] This is often mistranslated to refer to the Colosseum rather than the Colossus (as in, for instance, Byron's poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage). However, at the time that the Pseudo-Bede wrote, the masculine noun coliseus was applied to the statue rather than to what was still known as the Flavian amphitheatre.

The Colossus did eventually fall, possibly being pulled down to reuse its bronze. By the year 1000 the name "Colosseum" had been coined to refer to the amphitheatre. The statue itself was largely forgotten and only its base survives, situated between the Colosseum and the nearby Temple of Venus and Roma.[12]

The name further evolved to Coliseum during the Middle Ages. In Italy, the amphitheatre is still known as il Colosseo, and other Romance languages have come to use similar forms such as le Colisée (French), el Coliseo (Spanish) and o Coliseu (Portuguese).

Construction of the Colosseum began under the rule of the Emperor Vespasian[3] in around 70–72AD. The site chosen was a flat area on the floor of a low valley between the Caelian, Esquiline and Palatine Hills, through which a canalised stream ran. By the 2nd century BC the area was densely inhabited. It was devastated by the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64, following which Nero seized much of the area to add to his personal domain. He built the grandiose Domus Aurea on the site, in front of which he created an artificial lake surrounded by pavilions, gardens and porticoes. The existing Aqua Claudia aqueduct was extended to supply water to the area and the gigantic bronze Colossus of Nero was set up nearby at the entrance to the Domus Aurea.[12]

Although the Colossus was preserved, much of the Domus Aurea was torn down. The lake was filled in and the land reused as the location for the new Flavian Amphitheatre. Gladiatorial schools and other support buildings were constructed nearby within the former grounds of the Domus Aurea. According to a reconstructed inscription found on the site, "the emperor Vespasian ordered this new amphitheatre to be erected from his general's share of the booty." This is thought to refer to the vast quantity of treasure seized by the Romans following their victory in the Great Jewish Revolt in 70AD. The Colosseum can be thus interpreted as a great triumphal monument built in the Roman tradition of celebrating great victories[12], placating the Roman people instead of returning soldiers. Vespasian's decision to build the Colosseum on the site of Nero's lake can also be seen as a populist gesture of returning to the people an area of the city which Nero had appropriated for his own use. In contrast to many other amphitheatres, which were located on the outskirts of a city, the Colosseum was constructed in the city centre; in effect, placing it both literally and symbolically at the heart of Rome.

The Colosseum had been completed up to the third story by the time of Vespasian's death in 79. The top level was finished and the building inaugurated by his son, Titus, in 80.[3] Dio Cassius recounts that over 9,000 wild animals were killed during the inaugural games of the amphitheatre. The building was remodelled further under Vespasian's younger son, the newly designated Emperor Domitian, who constructed the hypogeum, a series of underground tunnels used to house animals and slaves. He also added a gallery to the top of the Colosseum to increase its seating capacity.

In 217, the Colosseum was badly damaged by a major fire (caused by lightning, according to Dio Cassius[13]) which destroyed the wooden upper levels of the amphitheatre's interior. It was not fully repaired until about 240 and underwent further repairs in 250 or 252 and again in 320. An inscription records the restoration of various parts of the Colosseum under Theodosius II and Valentinian III (reigned 425–455), possibly to repair damage caused by a major earthquake in 443; more work followed in 484[14] and 508. The arena continued to be used for contests well into the 6th century, with gladiatorial fights last mentioned around 435. Animal hunts continued until at least 523, when Anicius Maximus celebrated his consulship with some venationes, criticised by King Theodoric the Great for their high cost.

The Colosseum underwent several radical changes of use during the medieval period. By the late 6th century a small church had been built into the structure of the amphitheatre, though this apparently did not confer any particular religious significance on the building as a whole. The arena was converted into a cemetery. The numerous vaulted spaces in the arcades under the seating were converted into housing and workshops, and are recorded as still being rented out as late as the 12th century. Around 1200 the Frangipani family took over the Colosseum and fortified it, apparently using it as a castle.

Severe damage was inflicted on the Colosseum by the great earthquake in 1349, causing the outer south side, lying on a less stable alluvional terrain, to collapse. Much of the tumbled stone was reused to build palaces, churches, hospitals and other buildings elsewhere in Rome. A religious order moved into the northern third of the Colosseum in the mid-14th century and continued to inhabit it until as late as the early 19th century. The interior of the amphitheatre was extensively stripped of stone, which was reused elsewhere, or (in the case of the marble façade) was burned to make quicklime.[12] The bronze clamps which held the stonework together were pried or hacked out of the walls, leaving numerous pockmarks which still scar the building today.

During the 16th and 17th century, Church officials sought a productive role for the vast derelict hulk of the Colosseum. Pope Sixtus V (1585–1590) planned to turn the building into a wool factory to provide employment for Rome's prostitutes, though this proposal fell through with his premature death.[15] In 1671 Cardinal Altieri authorized its use for bullfights; a public outcry caused the idea to be hastily abandoned.

In 1749, Pope Benedict XIV endorsed as official Church policy the view that the Colosseum was a sacred site where early Christians had been martyred. He forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry and consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who perished there (see Christians and the Colosseum). However there is no historical evidence to support Benedict's claim, nor is there even any evidence that anyone prior to the 16th century suggested this might be the case; the Catholic Encyclopedia concludes that there are no historical grounds for the supposition. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects, removing the extensive vegetation which had overgrown the structure and threatened to damage it further. The façade was reinforced with triangular brick wedges in 1807 and 1827, and the interior was repaired in 1831, 1846 and in the 1930s. The arena substructure was partly excavated in 1810–1814 and 1874 and was fully exposed under Benito Mussolini in the 1930s.

The Colosseum is today one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions, receiving millions of visitors annually. The effects of pollution and general deterioration over time prompted a major restoration programme carried out between 1993 and 2000, at a cost of 40 billion Italian lire ($19.3m / €20.6m at 2000 prices). In recent years it has become a symbol of the international campaign against capital punishment, which was abolished in Italy in 1948. Several anti–death penalty demonstrations took place in front of the Colosseum in 2000. Since that time, as a gesture against the death penalty, the local authorities of Rome change the color of the Colosseum's night time illumination from white to gold whenever a person condemned to the death penalty anywhere in the world gets their sentence commuted or is released,[16] or if a jurisdiction abolishes the death penalty. Most recently, the Colosseum was illuminated in gold when capital punishment was abolished in the American state of New Mexico in April 2009.

Because of the ruined state of the interior, it is impractical to use the Colosseum to host large events; only a few hundred spectators can be accommodated in temporary seating. However, much larger concerts have been held just outside, using the Colosseum as a backdrop. Performers who have played at the Colosseum in recent years have included Ray Charles (May 2002),[18] Paul McCartney (May 2003),[19] Elton John (September 2005),[20] and Billy Joel (July 2006).

Exterior

Unlike earlier Greek theatres that were built into hillsides, the Colosseum is an entirely free-standing structure. It derives its basic exterior and interior architecture from that of two Roman theatres back to back. It is elliptical in plan and is 189 meters (615 ft / 640 Roman feet) long, and 156 meters (510 ft / 528 Roman feet) wide, with a base area of 6 acres (24,000 m2). The height of the outer wall is 48 meters (157 ft / 165 Roman feet). The perimeter originally measured 545 meters (1,788 ft / 1,835 Roman feet). The central arena is an oval 87 m (287 ft) long and 55 m (180 ft) wide, surrounded by a wall 5 m (15 ft) high, above which rose tiers of seating.

The outer wall is estimated to have required over 100,000 cubic meters (131,000 cu yd) of travertine stone which were set without mortar held together by 300 tons of iron clamps.[12] However, it has suffered extensive damage over the centuries, with large segments having collapsed following earthquakes. The north side of the perimeter wall is still standing; the distinctive triangular brick wedges at each end are modern additions, having been constructed in the early 19th century to shore up the wall. The remainder of the present-day exterior of the Colosseum is in fact the original interior wall.

The surviving part of the outer wall's monumental façade comprises three stories of superimposed arcades surmounted by a podium on which stands a tall attic, both of which are pierced by windows interspersed at regular intervals. The arcades are framed by half-columns of the Tuscan, Ionic, and Corinthian orders, while the attic is decorated with Corinthian pilasters.[21] Each of the arches in the second- and third-floor arcades framed statues, probably honoring divinities and other figures from Classical mythology.

Two hundred and forty mast corbels were positioned around the top of the attic. They originally supported a retractable awning, known as the velarium, that kept the sun and rain off spectators. This consisted of a canvas-covered, net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center.[3] It covered two-thirds of the arena, and sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors, specially enlisted from the Roman naval headquarters at Misenum and housed in the nearby Castra Misenatium, were used to work the velarium.[22]

The Colosseum's huge crowd capacity made it essential that the venue could be filled or evacuated quickly. Its architects adopted solutions very similar to those used in modern stadiums to deal with the same problem. The amphitheatre was ringed by eighty entrances at ground level, 76 of which were used by ordinary spectators.[3] Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. The northern main entrance was reserved for the Roman Emperor and his aides, whilst the other three axial entrances were most likely used by the elite. All four axial entrances were richly decorated with painted stucco reliefs, of which fragments survive. Many of the original outer entrances have disappeared with the collapse of the perimeter wall, but entrances XXIII (23) to LIV (54) still survive.[12]

Spectators were given tickets in the form of numbered pottery shards, which directed them to the appropriate section and row. They accessed their seats via vomitoria (singular vomitorium), passageways that opened into a tier of seats from below or behind. These quickly dispersed people into their seats and, upon conclusion of the event or in an emergency evacuation, could permit their exit within only a few minutes. The name vomitoria derived from the Latin word for a rapid discharge, from which English derives the word vomit.

Interior

According to the Codex-Calendar of 354, the Colosseum could accommodate 87,000 people, although modern estimates put the figure at around 50,000. They were seated in a tiered arrangement that reflected the rigidly stratified nature of Roman society. Special boxes were provided at the north and south ends respectively for the Emperor and the Vestal Virgins, providing the best views of the arena. Flanking them at the same level was a broad platform or podium for the senatorial class, who were allowed to bring their own chairs. The names of some 5th century senators can still be seen carved into the stonework, presumably reserving areas for their use.

The tier above the senators, known as the maenianum primum, was occupied by the non-senatorial noble class or knights (equites). The next level up, the maenianum secundum, was originally reserved for ordinary Roman citizens (plebians) and was divided into two sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. Specific sectors were provided for other social groups: for instance, boys with their tutors, soldiers on leave, foreign dignitaries, scribes, heralds, priests and so on. Stone (and later marble) seating was provided for the citizens and nobles, who presumably would have brought their own cushions with them. Inscriptions identified the areas reserved for specific groups.

Another level, the maenianum secundum in legneis, was added at the very top of the building during the reign of Domitian. This comprised a gallery for the common poor, slaves and women. It would have been either standing room only, or would have had very steep wooden benches. Some groups were banned altogether from the Colosseum, notably gravediggers, actors and former gladiators.

Each tier was divided into sections (maeniana) by curved passages and low walls (praecinctiones or baltei), and were subdivided into cunei, or wedges, by the steps and aisles from the vomitoria. Each row (gradus) of seats was numbered, permitting each individual seat to be exactly designated by its gradus, cuneus, and number.

The arena itself was 83 meters by 48 meters (272 ft by 157 ft / 280 by 163 Roman feet).[12] It comprised a wooden floor covered by sand (the Latin word for sand is harena or arena), covering an elaborate underground structure called the hypogeum (literally meaning "underground"). Little now remains of the original arena floor, but the hypogeum is still clearly visible. It consisted of a two-level subterranean network of tunnels and cages beneath the arena where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. Eighty vertical shafts provided instant access to the arena for caged animals and scenery pieces concealed underneath; larger hinged platforms, called hegmata, provided access for elephants and the like. It was restructured on numerous occasions; at least twelve different phases of construction can be seen.[12]

The hypogeum was connected by underground tunnels to a number of points outside the Colosseum. Animals and performers were brought through the tunnel from nearby stables, with the gladiators' barracks at the Ludus Magnus to the east also being connected by tunnels. Separate tunnels were provided for the Emperor and the Vestal Virgins to permit them to enter and exit the Colosseum without needing to pass through the crowds.[12]

Substantial quantities of machinery also existed in the hypogeum. Elevators and pulleys raised and lowered scenery and props, as well as lifting caged animals to the surface for release. There is evidence for the existence of major hydraulic mechanisms[12] and according to ancient accounts, it was possible to flood the arena rapidly, presumably via a connection to a nearby aqueduct.

The Colosseum and its activities supported a substantial industry in the area. In addition to the amphitheatre itself, many other buildings nearby were linked to the games. Immediately to the east is the remains of the Ludus Magnus, a training school for gladiators. This was connected to the Colosseum by an underground passage, to allow easy access for the gladiators. The Ludus Magnus had its own miniature training arena, which was itself a popular attraction for Roman spectators. Other training schools were in the same area, including the Ludus Matutinus (Morning School), where fighters of animals were trained, plus the Dacian and Gallic Schools.

Also nearby were the Armamentarium, comprising an armory to store weapons; the Summum Choragium, where machinery was stored; the Sanitarium, which had facilities to treat wounded gladiators; and the Spoliarium, where bodies of dead gladiators were stripped of their armor and disposed of.

Around the perimeter of the Colosseum, at a distance of 18 m (59 ft) from the perimeter, was a series of tall stone posts, with five remaining on the eastern side. Various explanations have been advanced for their presence; they may have been a religious boundary, or an outer boundary for ticket checks, or an anchor for the velarium or awning.

Right next to the Colosseum is also the Arch of Constantine.

he Colosseum was used to host gladiatorial shows as well as a variety of other events. The shows, called munera, were always given by private individuals rather than the state. They had a strong religious element but were also demonstrations of power and family prestige, and were immensely popular with the population. Another popular type of show was the animal hunt, or venatio. This utilized a great variety of wild beasts, mainly imported from Africa and the Middle East, and included creatures such as rhinoceros, hippopotamuses, elephants, giraffes, aurochs, wisents, barbary lions, panthers, leopards, bears, caspian tigers, crocodiles and ostriches. Battles and hunts were often staged amid elaborate sets with movable trees and buildings. Such events were occasionally on a huge scale; Trajan is said to have celebrated his victories in Dacia in 107 with contests involving 11,000 animals and 10,000 gladiators over the course of 123 days.

During the early days of the Colosseum, ancient writers recorded that the building was used for naumachiae (more properly known as navalia proelia) or simulated sea battles. Accounts of the inaugural games held by Titus in AD 80 describe it being filled with water for a display of specially trained swimming horses and bulls. There is also an account of a re-enactment of a famous sea battle between the Corcyrean (Corfiot) Greeks and the Corinthians. This has been the subject of some debate among historians; although providing the water would not have been a problem, it is unclear how the arena could have been waterproofed, nor would there have been enough space in the arena for the warships to move around. It has been suggested that the reports either have the location wrong, or that the Colosseum originally featured a wide floodable channel down its central axis (which would later have been replaced by the hypogeum).[12]

Sylvae or recreations of natural scenes were also held in the arena. Painters, technicians and architects would construct a simulation of a forest with real trees and bushes planted in the arena's floor. Animals would be introduced to populate the scene for the delight of the crowd. Such scenes might be used simply to display a natural environment for the urban population, or could otherwise be used as the backdrop for hunts or dramas depicting episodes from mythology. They were also occasionally used for executions in which the hero of the story — played by a condemned person — was killed in one of various gruesome but mythologically authentic ways, such as being mauled by beasts or burned to death.

The Colosseum today is now a major tourist attraction in Rome with thousands of tourists each year paying to view the interior arena, though entrance for EU citizens is partially subsidised, and under-18 and over-65 EU citizens' entrances are free.[24] There is now a museum dedicated to Eros located in the upper floor of the outer wall of the building. Part of the arena floor has been re-floored. Beneath the Colosseum, a network of subterranean passageways once used to transport wild animals and gladiators to the arena opened to the public in summer 2010.[25]

The Colosseum is also the site of Roman Catholic ceremonies in the 20th and 21st centuries. For instance, Pope Benedict XVI leads the Stations of the Cross called the Scriptural Way of the Cross (which calls for more meditation) at the Colosseum[26][27] on Good Fridays.

In the Middle Ages, the Colosseum was clearly not regarded as a sacred site. Its use as a fortress and then a quarry demonstrates how little spiritual importance was attached to it, at a time when sites associated with martyrs were highly venerated. It was not included in the itineraries compiled for the use of pilgrims nor in works such as the 12th century Mirabilia Urbis Romae ("Marvels of the City of Rome"), which claims the Circus Flaminius — but not the Colosseum — as the site of martyrdoms. Part of the structure was inhabited by a Christian order, but apparently not for any particular religious reason.

It appears to have been only in the 16th and 17th centuries that the Colosseum came to be regarded as a Christian site. Pope Pius V (1566–1572) is said to have recommended that pilgrims gather sand from the arena of the Colosseum to serve as a relic, on the grounds that it was impregnated with the blood of martyrs. This seems to have been a minority view until it was popularised nearly a century later by Fioravante Martinelli, who listed the Colosseum at the head of a list of places sacred to the martyrs in his 1653 book Roma ex ethnica sacra.

Martinelli's book evidently had an effect on public opinion; in response to Cardinal Altieri's proposal some years later to turn the Colosseum into a bullring, Carlo Tomassi published a pamphlet in protest against what he regarded as an act of desecration. The ensuing controversy persuaded Pope Clement X to close the Colosseum's external arcades and declare it a sanctuary, though quarrying continued for some time.

At the instance of St. Leonard of Port Maurice, Pope Benedict XIV (1740–1758) forbade the quarrying of the Colosseum and erected Stations of the Cross around the arena, which remained until February 1874. St. Benedict Joseph Labre spent the later years of his life within the walls of the Colosseum, living on alms, prior to his death in 1783. Several 19th century popes funded repair and restoration work on the Colosseum, and it still retains a Christian connection today. Crosses stand in several points around the arena and every Good Friday the Pope leads a Via Crucis procession to the amphitheatre.

 

Coliseu (Colosseo)

A seguir, um texto, em português, da Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre:

 

O Coliseu, também conhecido como Anfiteatro Flaviano, deve seu nome à expressão latina Colosseum (ou Coliseus, no latim tardio), devido à estátua colossal de Nero, que ficava perto a edificação. Localizado no centro de Roma, é uma excepção de entre os anfiteatros pelo seu volume e relevo arquitectónico. Originalmente capaz de albergar perto de 50 000 pessoas, e com 48 metros de altura, era usado para variados espetáculos. Foi construído a leste do fórum romano e demorou entre 8 a 10 anos a ser construído.

O Coliseu foi utilizado durante aproximadamente 500 anos, tendo sido o último registro efetuado no século VI da nossa era, bastante depois da queda de Roma em 476. O edifício deixou de ser usado para entretenimento no começo da era medieval, mas foi mais tarde usado como habitação, oficina, forte, pedreira, sede de ordens religiosas e templo cristão.

Embora esteja agora em ruínas devido a terremotos e pilhagens, o Coliseu sempre foi visto como símbolo do Império Romano, sendo um dos melhores exemplos da sua arquitectura. Actualmente é uma das maiores atrações turísticas em Roma e em 7 de julho de 2007 foi eleita umas das "Sete maravilhas do mundo moderno". Além disso, o Coliseu ainda tem ligações à igreja, com o Papa a liderar a procissão da Via Sacra até ao Coliseu todas as Sextas-feiras Santas.

O coliseu era um local onde seriam exibidos toda uma série de espectáculos, inseridos nos vários tipos de jogos realizados na urbe. Os combates entre gladiadores, chamados muneras, eram sempre pagos por pessoas individuais em busca de prestígio e poder em vez do estado. A arena (87,5 m por 55 m) possuía um piso de madeira, normalmente coberto de areia para absorver o sangue dos combates (certa vez foi colocada água na representação de uma batalha naval), sob o qual existia um nível subterrâneo com celas e jaulas que tinham acessos diretos para a arena; Alguns detalhes dessa construção, como a cobertura removível que poupava os espectadores do sol, são bastante interessantes, e mostram o refinamento atingido pelos construtores romanos. Formado por cinco anéis concêntricos de arcos e abóbadas, o Coliseu representa bem o avanço introduzido pelos romanos à engenharia de estruturas. Esses arcos são de concreto (de cimento natural) revestidos por alvenaria. Na verdade, a alvenaria era construída simultaneamente e já servia de forma para a concretagem. Outro tipo de espetáculos era a caça de animais, ou venatio, onde eram utilizados animais selvagens importados de África. Os animais mais utilizados eram os grandes felinos como leões, leopardos e panteras, mas animais como rinocerontes, hipopótamos, elefantes, girafas, crocodilos e avestruzes eram também utilizados. As caçadas, tal como as representações de batalhas famosas, eram efetuadas em elaborados cenários onde constavam árvores e edifícios amovíveis.

Estas últimas eram por vezes representadas numa escala gigante; Trajano celebrou a sua vitória em Dácia no ano 107 com concursos envolvendo 11 000 animais e 10 000 gladiadores no decorrer de 123 dias.

Segundo o documentário produzido pelo canal televisivo fechado, History Channel, o Coliseu também era utilizado para a realização de naumaquias, ou batalhas navais. O coliseu era inundado por dutos subterrâneos alimentados pelos aquedutos que traziam água de longe. Passada esta fase, foi construída uma estrutura, que é a que podemos ver hoje nas ruínas do Coliseu, com altura de um prédio de dois andares, onde no passado se concentravam os gladiadores, feras e todo o pessoal que organizava os duelos que ocorreriam na arena. A arena era como um grande palco, feito de madeira, e se chama arena, que em italiano significa areia, porque era jogada areia sob a estrutura de madeira para esconder as imperfeições. Os animais podiam ser inseridos nos duelos a qualquer momento por um esquema de elevadores que surgiam em alguns pontos da arena; o filme "Gladiador" retrata muito bem esta questão dos elevadores. Os estudiosos, há pouco tempo, descobriram uma rede de dutos inundados por baixo da arena do Coliseu. Acredita-se que o Coliseu foi construído onde, outrora, foi o lago do Palácio Dourado de Nero; O imperador Vespasiano escolheu o local da construção para que o mal causado por Nero fosse esquecido por uma construção gloriosa.

Sylvae, ou recreações de cenas naturais eram também realizadas no Coliseu. Pintores, técnicos e arquitectos construiriam simulações de florestas com árvores e arbustos reais plantados no chão da arena. Animais seriam então introduzidos para dar vida à simulação. Esses cenários podiam servir só para agrado do público ou como pano de fundo para caçadas ou dramas representando episódios da mitologia romana, tão autênticos quanto possível, ao ponto de pessoas condenadas fazerem o papel de heróis onde eram mortos de maneiras horríveis mas mitologicamente autênticas, como mutilados por animais ou queimados vivos.

Embora o Coliseu tenha funcionado até ao século VI da nossa Era, foram proibidos os jogos com mortes humanas desde 404, sendo apenas massacrados animais como elefantes, panteras ou leões.

O Coliseu era sobretudo um enorme instrumento de propaganda e difusão da filosofia de toda uma civilização, e tal como era já profetizado pelo monge e historiador inglês Beda na sua obra do século VII "De temporibus liber": "Enquanto o Coliseu se mantiver de pé, Roma permanecerá; quando o Coliseu ruir, Roma ruirá e quando Roma cair, o mundo cairá".

A construção do Coliseu foi iniciada por Vespasiano, nos anos 70 da nossa era. O edifício foi inaugurado por Tito, em 80, embora apenas tivesse sido finalizado poucos anos depois. Empresa colossal, este edifício, inicialmente, poderia sustentar no seu interior cerca de 50 000 espectadores, constando de três andares. Aquando do reinado de Alexandre Severo e Gordiano III, é ampliado com um quarto andar, podendo suster agora cerca de 90 000 espectadores. A grandiosidade deste monumento testemunha verdadeiramente o poder e esplendor de Roma na época dos Flávios.

Os jogos inaugurais do Coliseu tiveram lugar ano 80, sob o mandato de Tito, para celebrar a finalização da construção. Depois do curto reinado de Tito começar com vários meses de desastres, incluindo a erupção do Monte Vesúvio, um incêndio em Roma, e um surto de peste, o mesmo imperador inaugurou o edifício com uns jogos pródigos que duraram mais de cem dias, talvez para tentar apaziguar o público romano e os deuses. Nesses jogos de cem dias terão ocorrido combates de gladiadores, venationes (lutas de animais), execuções, batalhas navais, caçadas e outros divertimentos numa escala sem precedentes.

O Coliseu, como não se encontrava inserido numa zona de encosta, enterrado, tal como normalmente sucede com a generalidade dos teatros e anfiteatros romanos, possuía um “anel” artificial de rocha à sua volta, para garantir sustentação e, ao mesmo tempo, esta substrutura serve como ornamento ao edifício e como condicionador da entrada dos espectadores. Tal como foi referido anteriormente, possuía três pisos, sendo mais tarde adicionado um outro. É construído em mármore, pedra travertina, ladrilho e tufo (pedra calcária com grandes poros). A sua planta elíptica mede dois eixos que se estendem aproximadamente de 190 m por 155 m. A fachada compõe-se de arcadas decoradas com colunas dóricas, jónicas e coríntias, de acordo com o pavimento em que se encontravam. Esta subdivisão deve-se ao facto de ser uma construção essencialmente vertical, criando assim uma diversificação do espaço.

 

Os assentos eram em mármore e a cavea, escadaria ou arquibancada, dividia-se em três partes, correspondentes às diferentes classes sociais: o podium, para as classes altas; as maeniana, sector destinado à classe média; e os portici, ou pórticos, construídos em madeira, para a plebe e as mulheres. O pulvinar, a tribuna imperial, encontrava-se situada no podium e era balizada pelos assentos reservados aos senadores e magistrados. Rampas no interior do edifício facilitavam o acesso às várias zonas de onde podiam visualizar o espectáculo, sendo protegidos por uma barreira e por uma série de arqueiros posicionados numa passagem de madeira, para o caso de algum acidente. Por cima dos muros ainda são visíveis as mísulas, que sustentavam o velarium, enorme cobertura de lona destinada a proteger do sol os espectadores e, nos subterrâneos, ficavam as jaulas dos animais, bem como todas as celas e galerias necessárias aos serviços do anfiteatro.

O monumento permaneceu como sede principal dos espetáculos da urbe romana até ao período do imperador Honorius, no século V. Danificado por um terremoto no começo do mesmo século, foi alvo de uma extensiva restauração na época de Valentinianus III. Em meados do século XIII, a família Frangipani transformou-o em fortaleza e, ao longo dos séculos XV e XVI, foi por diversas vezes saqueado, perdendo grande parte dos materiais nobres com os quais tinha sido construído.

Os relatos romanos referem-se a cristãos sendo martirizados em locais de Roma descritos pouco pormenorizadamente (no anfiteatro, na arena...), quando Roma tinha numerosos anfiteatros e arenas. Apesar de muito provavelmente o Coliseu não ter sido utilizado para martírios, o Papa Bento XIV consagrou-o no século XVII à Paixão de Cristo e declarou-o lugar sagrado. Os trabalhos de consolidação e restauração parcial do monumento, já há muito em ruínas, foram feitos sobretudo pelos pontífices Gregório XVI e Pio IX, no século XIX.

#smalltowninertia Carlos in his apartment in prayer July 2017

 

The interior of Carlo’s apartment is sparse, a small television and stereo, a fish tank, a few old photographs of his estranged family, a table, chairs, a single bed, his Bible and his medication.

 

Immediately upon my arrival, Carlos showed me copious correspondence regarding health assessments to determine if he is eligible for continued support and benefits to, essentially, given the nature of his illness, keep him alive.

 

Left in a state of terror and confusion, ‘Is my Doctor talking with the assessors?’ , ‘Why are benefits changing?’, ‘Why am I being called to be assessed?’ , the past few months have been a nightmare, every moment abducted by fear with the resulting stress having a detrimental impact on his condition and his mental well being.

 

Carlos works hard at mastering the language but people rush words, have such little patience, correspondence is in English and vague at best and he has no transport, no phone and it’s painful and very difficult to move, to walk.

 

The stress, the constant downpour of stress, the anxiety, the isolation, little to no money, all make life and living, harder and harder.

 

In spite of his health challenges, Carlos wanted and wants to work. He had an interview and secured a job at a local factory, packing boxes but as soon as they learned of his illness, he was dismissed.

 

It all became too much, where to turn and how to breathe beneath the weight of such fears, problems?.

 

When Carlos attempted suicide, he had nowhere and no one to turn to. “Jesus Christ appeared to me and said ‘NO!, Carlos, now it is not your time.”

 

Keeping the noose on the shelf of a small table, often picking it up, holding it, folding it into the palm of his hands, letting it slip through his fingers, a dark black snake, an anti rosary, remembering.

 

Yesterday, after much talking, we decided it best to take it and throw it into the trash.

 

Afterwards, Carlos read from his bible and prayed.

313/365 Work with textures

  

I took the original image @ that park

on December 26th/2009

Miami, Florida, USA

Nikon D5000

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The Christian Christmas Story Offers The Real Meaning Of Christmas

 

Whenever someone complains that the real meaning of Christmas is lost in all of the commercials and store discounts they mean the story of the birth of Jesus. It is true that much of the commercialism glosses over the real story but a fat guy in a red suit sells more merchandise than a prophet in a manger. But it is always a good idea to know the real story behind Christmas.

 

As you wander through the stores this Christmas you will see walls and walls of toys for sale, hundreds of Santa Claus statues and decorations, and lights and other things that everyone always associates with Christmas. Unfortunately the real story of Christmas does not involve a fat guy in a red suit, or a sleigh with eight tiny reindeer, and nor does it have anything to do with Mommy kissing Santa Claus. Christmas is actually a hybrid holiday made up of bits and pieces of various pagan celebrations which were given credibility by aligning them with the birth of Jesus Christ. In reality the only thing that is really religious and Christian about Christmas is the word Christmas. A Christian Christmas is a celebration of the birth of Jesus and down through the years the Christian Christmas got intertwined with various pagan celebrations and all of that was somehow brought all together into one day. So as those that hope for a real Christian Christmas each year get more and more angry at the commercialism of the celebration they need to remember that not all of Christmas is about Jesus. There are non-religious factors in there too and, to be honest, the Christian Christmas is a very difficult thing to really put your finger on anyways.

 

No one is really sure why Christmas is on December 25th every year or why the Christian Christmas got all tangled up with all of the pagan celebrations. The Bible is actually very vague on the life of Jesus and focuses more on his teachings than him as a person. So we are not really given an exact date of his birth anywhere in the Bible. So how did December 25th get choosen? In the Christian religion the date of March 25 is very important. Many Christians believe that the angle appeared to Mary on March 25th to tell her that she was pregnant with Jesus. A long time ago the Christian religion believed that Jesus was crucified on March 25th and they also believed that March 25th coincided with the creation of Adam. So back in the very early days some Christian authorities simply went 9 months from March 25th and came up with December 25th as the Christian Christmas. Many cultures also celebrate the Epiphany on January 6th as the day the wise men arrived to visit Jesus. January 6th is 12 days from December 25th so that is where the Twelve Days Of Christmas comes from. If you look at the history of the Christian Christmas you start to realize that a lot of it is guessing and coincidence rather than any hard facts or proof of any dates. But when you are dealing with religion you deal with faith and that is what carries much of this.

 

For centuries after the death of Jesus his birthday was not celebrated. Early Christians were more interested in celebrating what they felt was the day of the baptism of Jesus which they celebrated during the Epiphany of January 6th. As the Middle Ages came around the festival of Christmas was starting to dominate the calendar and soon the time months before, and after, the Christian Christmas were dotted with holidays based on Christmas day. As time went by Christians celebrating Christmas had turned the holiday into a drunken mess and the Protestants saw to outlaw it due to anti-Catholic sentiments. For a short time in the 1600’s Christmas was banned but a siege of Canterbury by pro-Christmas rebels caused it to be reinstated. From there the celebration changed and grew and when it reached the new world of America other cultures started mixing in their Christmas traditions that they had gained from pagan festivals and soon the Christian Christmas was starting to get swallowed up once again by a drunken mess.

 

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Texture with my gratitude to Jerry Jones (Ghostbones): Aged Book Thank you very much dear Jerry!

 

.../

a ship at sea in the darkness .. its light still shines *

  

  

this is for everyone

 

every One

  

its not just for everyone in america .. yet needs be especially, right now.

 

and it is not just for those, and the families of those, who were murdered and maimed .. though it is dedicated to Them

 

dedicated to all of them .. including the 9 year old child.. with a whole bright life ahead of her .. christina greene, who was murdered

murdered..

along with arizona supreme court judge, john roll .. of whom pima county sheriff clarence dupnik said..

"I have never met a more sincere fair-minded brilliant federal judge or any judge for that matter.. in my whole life .. John Roll was one of the finest human beings I have ever met in my whole life "

 

and gabriel zimmerman.. only 30 .. who was gifford's director of community outreach

and dorwin stoddard .. pastor of a church

and dorothy murray and phyllis scheck .. of whom we don't know enough about yet, but who were perhaps mothers and grandmothers .. and who surely were lights

 

like every One is *

 

and its not just for the heartfully-devoted congresswoman, gabrielle giffords, who is fighting for her life after the assassination attempt .. and all the many others who were shot .. though it is dedicated to Them too

 

. . . as we hold them All in our prayers and in the Light *

 

.

 

congresswoman giffords, who was shot through the head and who is miraculously somehow still alive .. herself said recently..

 

"We're on Sarah Palin's targeted list. .. But the thing is that the way that she has it depicted has the crosshairs of a gun sight over our district .. and when people do that, they've gotta realize there are consequences to that action.. "

 

the above mentioned previous governor of alaska .. you know, the one who quit her elected post with 1/2 of her 1 term still remaining - to pursue money, fame and then the presidency .. the same person who slaughters animals for sport.. often from the perch of a helicopter ... and the same as who posted her 'crosshairs call to arms', saying: "don't retreat - RELOAD!"

(sometimes i wonder .. if there is one .. if she is the anti-christ) ... she too is responsible for this.

and those in the 'tea party' who promote viscious hate antics are too.

and those who support unhindered purchase of guns, too.

  

blame is not in my nature .. and they also are All in my prayers ..... yet clearly the time has come to ≈speak Truth to power ≈ .. and be unafraid to do so

 

because this must end now

 

.

 

and it is up to every One to make sure

 

by staying awake

 

by stepping up

 

by keeping the Light in our Hearts *on*

 

and SHINING It strongly, brightly.. and fearlessly

 

outward ~~

  

   

ITAR-TASS: MOSCOW, RUSSIA. JULY 30, 2012. Nadezhda Tolokonnikova of the punk band Pussy Riot attends a court hearing in Khamovniki district court. Pussy Riot members are accused of hooliganism for performing an anti-Putin song at Moscow's Christ the Savior Cathedral on February 21, 2012. (Photo ITAR-TASS / Mitya Aleshkovsky)

mosaic Christ the warrior - Chapel of Sant'Andrea or Archiepiscopal Chapel - Ravenna (494-519 AD) - UNESCO World Heritage Site (1996)

 

La Cappella Arcivescovile o di Sant'Andrea costituisce l'unico esempio di cappella arcivescovile paleocristiana giunta integra sino a noi. Fu costruita da Pietro II (494-519) come oratorio privato dei vescovi cattolici durante il regno di Teoderico, quando il culto dominante era quello ariano. Dedicata originariamente a Cristo, fu in seguito intitolata a Sant'Andrea, le cui reliquie erano state trasportate da Costantinopoli a Ravenna attorno alla metà del VI secolo.

La cappella è costituita da un vano a pianta cruciforme preceduto da un piccolo vestibolo rettangolare, ricoperto da volta a botte e interamente rivestito in marmo nella parte inferiore e a mosaico in quella superiore. L'iconografia di quest'ultimi è di grande interesse: tutto il programma decorativo, difatti, tende a glorificare la figura del Cristo, in un'interpretazione chiaramente anti-ariana. La presenza del Salvatore in veste di guerriero, il suo monogramma e il suo volto dominano infatti in vari punti della cappella e le immagini dei Martiri, degli Apostoli e degli Evangelisti concorrono anch'essi a sottolineare questo concetto di glorificazione, come chiara affermazione dell'ortodossia cattolica.

 

The Chapel of Sant'Andrea or Archiepiscopal Chapel is the only existing archiepiscopal chapel of the early Christian era that has been preserved intact to the present day. It was erected by bishop Peter II (494-519) during the reign of Theodoric as a private oratory for Catholic bishops when Arianism was the main religion of the court. Originally dedicated to Christ, the chapel was then renamed and dedicated to Saint Andrew, whose relics were transported from Costantinople to Ravenna around the mid-6th century AD.

The cross-shaped chapel is preceded by a small barrel-vaulted rectangular vestibule, entirely covered with marble in its lower part and decorated with mosaics at the top. The iconography of the mosaic decoration is of great interest and aims at glorifying the figure of Christ from a clearly anti-Arian point of view. The representation of Christ as a warrior, his monogram and his face as well as the images of Martyrs, Apostles and Evangelists frequently appear in a dominant position in various places of the chapel, thus underlining the concept of the glorification of Jesus and reaffirming the principles of Catholic orthodoxy.

  

 

One of my favorite chapters in the Book of Psalms :

 

Psalm 91

 

1 He that dwelleth in the secret place of the most High shall abide under the shadow of the Almighty.

2 I will say of the Lord, He is my refuge and my fortress: my God; in him will I trust.

3 Surely he shall deliver thee from the snare of the fowler, and from the noisome pestilence.

4 He shall cover thee with his feathers, and under his wings shalt thou trust: his truth shall be thy shield and buckler.

 

5 Thou shalt not be afraid for the terror by night; nor for the arrow that flieth by day;

6 Nor for the pestilence that walketh in darkness; nor for the destruction that wasteth at noonday.

7 A thousand shall fall at thy side, and ten thousand at thy right hand; but it shall not come nigh thee.

8 Only with thine eyes shalt thou behold and see the reward of the wicked.

9 Because thou hast made the Lord, which is my refuge, even the most High, thy habitation;

 

10 There shall no evil befall thee, neither shall any plague come nigh thy dwelling.

11 For he shall give his angels charge over thee, to keep thee in all thy ways.

12 They shall bear thee up in their hands, lest thou dash thy foot against a stone.

13 Thou shalt tread upon the lion and adder: the young lion and the dragon shalt thou trample under feet.

14 Because he hath set his love upon me, therefore will I deliver him: I will set him on high, because he hath known my name.

15 He shall call upon me, and I will answer him: I will be with him in trouble; I will deliver him, and honour him.

16 With long life will I satisfy him, and shew him my salvation.

  

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* "Last Exit Before Babylon" Beautiful warning message to Americans and everyone who are watching prophetic events unfold.

   

* Prophecy Update - November 11th, 2012

 

* Economic Collapse, Foreign Troops & Marshall Law with Steve Quayle

 

* Paul Begley New Jersey Awards Contract For RFID "666 Mark" To Radiant! ~ You can believe this or not .

 

Perversion and immorality abides - dark times :

* Gay Foreplay Taught In School In Maine!! video of Paul Begley

 

* EU budget talks for 2013 collapse

 

* Mass Animal Die-offs and Bible Prophecy

 

* BREAKING: MASSIVE RIOTS HIT MADRID, SPAIN

 

* ISRAEL "Hamas Leader Killed" (LIVE Video) Prophecy!

  

* The Anti Christ revealed - Bible Prophecy !

My personal belief ,the AntiChrist hasn't been revealed as the falling away hasn't

happened yet or the global need for peace ,perhaps a world war yet to happen.The "falling away" translated to greek means "departure" by which pre-tribulation rapture believing christians do believe it is and not alone attrbuted to people leaving the Christian faith .

Anyway , many speculations abound who the antichrist is.This video is one example ,

perhaps it holds water but AC is yet to be revealed in the future. He may not be as we thought .

I am not looking forward to see the Antichrist - Not in my dreams to be around at that time

to see him reigning in control of the global system . What Bible scholars had seen is the one world

global system as spoken in Revelations and it would not be any coincidence the world condition today

is heading to .Many world leaders are advocating for one world monetary system ,even the Vatican

calling for it.

     

* The Mark of the Beast ~ Today's Technology & Bible Prophecy

 

* Big Brother UK: 8 million children recorded on massive secret database

  

* UK classrooms may teach students about Internet porn - What ?!!!!

   

* Prophecy in the News: Cosmic Codes / Bible codes Interesting video !

  

* Signs of the Times with L.A. Marzulli Also talks about the BBC documentary about two strange women " Living in the fast lane ".

   

* "Belgium Will Become an Islamic State" and who's next ? This is truly a prophetic sign of the times coming to happen when real Christians will get more persecuted and sentenced even to death .

* New Euro Currency Shows Woman Riding the Beast

* Petitions seeking White House approval to ‘secede’ now come from 47 states

 

* More Layoffs at many companies : cite economy and Obama care as reasons

  

* We are Preparing for Massive Civil War, Says DHS Informant

 

* How fraudsters use your Facebook, LinkedIn and Twitter pages to build a jigsaw and steal your identity ~ This proves my point .If you ever find me on facebook , I methamorphosed into bearded man in his 60's.

  

* Google: Surveillance 'is on the rise'

 

* There Will Be War In The Middle East

 

* First three Gaza missiles hit Tel Aviv. Israel drafts 30,000 reservists

    

Israel and Hamas compete for EU sympathy ~ The Bible tells whose side the west will be on . Israel will be left alone soon , in solo to fight the war . God bless Israel and always.

 

* Over 1.2 million signatures/Obama Supporters call for Arrests/Deportation!!

   

* 2 rockets explode near Jerusalem

  

* "BREAKING: Jerusalem Hit By Rocket"

Of those who understand ,please pray for Israel .

 

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~<< ~~~~~~~@

 

Many of us may think it would not touch us if the middleast burns ,but take note mega inflation will happen ,perhaps will trigger global economic collapse . Can you cycle 60 miles to work 5 x a week when price of oil shoot up sky high ?

You may have resources enough to feed your family but think of others who will not have enough and will starve during the crisis .Have reflection of what is going on in some countries in EU ,example is Greece ,it breaks my heart .When people don't have enough and living for survival - try to figure out great social upheaval / cause and effect , surely will create an increase in criminalities ,lootings ,robberies and all evils,"where love of many will grow cold " as spoken in the Bible . Apart from the imminent nuclear threat ,some countries so involve with middleast affair ,including the country where I live in ,probability we might burn as well .But fear not if you have Yeshua or Jesus .

Hey doom and gloom again , for those critical of my postings and who just want to hear every rosy side of things ,well you have the choice to bury your head in the sand -- but it's rather good to be aware of what is to come and waking up others and as many into awareness than having pleasure of seeing others still sleeping / being caught up by hell of surprise unprepared .If it will not happen soon then many will be relieved but if this things spoken happens sooner ,it's good to be ready at all times .The most significant point is spiritual preparedness above prepping to save our physical bodies. Submitting ones life to Jesus ( no religion involve ) ,having personal relationship with Jesus is our way to eternal salvation .It's asking Jesus to come into our hearts and true repentance of our sins, and we're save in Christ. Jesus died for humanity for everyone to be save,for those who accept Him , the only sacrificial lamb of God to die once and for all .

 

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Location :

Nile River

Luxor ,Egypt ( 2009 )

Colosseum

Following, a text, in english, from the Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia:

The Colosseum, or the Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin: Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering.

Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum, its construction started between 70 and 72 AD[1] under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus,[2] with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign (81–96).[3] The name "Amphitheatrum Flavium" derives from both Vespasian's and Titus's family name (Flavius, from the gens Flavia).

Capable of seating 50,000 spectators,[1][4][5] the Colosseum was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles such as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. The building ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval era. It was later reused for such purposes as housing, workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry, and a Christian shrine.

Although in the 21st century it stays partially ruined because of damage caused by devastating earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum is an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome. It is one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions and still has close connections with the Roman Catholic Church, as each Good Friday the Pope leads a torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession that starts in the area around the Colosseum.[6]

The Colosseum is also depicted on the Italian version of the five-cent euro coin.

The Colosseum's original Latin name was Amphitheatrum Flavium, often anglicized as Flavian Amphitheater. The building was constructed by emperors of the Flavian dynasty, hence its original name, after the reign of Emperor Nero.[7] This name is still used in modern English, but generally the structure is better known as the Colosseum. In antiquity, Romans may have referred to the Colosseum by the unofficial name Amphitheatrum Caesareum; this name could have been strictly poetic.[8][9] This name was not exclusive to the Colosseum; Vespasian and Titus, builders of the Colosseum, also constructed an amphitheater of the same name in Puteoli (modern Pozzuoli).[10]

The name Colosseum has long been believed to be derived from a colossal statue of Nero nearby.[3] (the statue of Nero itself being named after one of the original ancient wonders, the Colossus of Rhodes[citation needed]. This statue was later remodeled by Nero's successors into the likeness of Helios (Sol) or Apollo, the sun god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. Nero's head was also replaced several times with the heads of succeeding emperors. Despite its pagan links, the statue remained standing well into the medieval era and was credited with magical powers. It came to be seen as an iconic symbol of the permanence of Rome.

In the 8th century, a famous epigram attributed to the Venerable Bede celebrated the symbolic significance of the statue in a prophecy that is variously quoted: Quamdiu stat Colisæus, stat et Roma; quando cadet colisæus, cadet et Roma; quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus ("as long as the Colossus stands, so shall Rome; when the Colossus falls, Rome shall fall; when Rome falls, so falls the world").[11] This is often mistranslated to refer to the Colosseum rather than the Colossus (as in, for instance, Byron's poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage). However, at the time that the Pseudo-Bede wrote, the masculine noun coliseus was applied to the statue rather than to what was still known as the Flavian amphitheatre.

The Colossus did eventually fall, possibly being pulled down to reuse its bronze. By the year 1000 the name "Colosseum" had been coined to refer to the amphitheatre. The statue itself was largely forgotten and only its base survives, situated between the Colosseum and the nearby Temple of Venus and Roma.[12]

The name further evolved to Coliseum during the Middle Ages. In Italy, the amphitheatre is still known as il Colosseo, and other Romance languages have come to use similar forms such as le Colisée (French), el Coliseo (Spanish) and o Coliseu (Portuguese).

Construction of the Colosseum began under the rule of the Emperor Vespasian[3] in around 70–72AD. The site chosen was a flat area on the floor of a low valley between the Caelian, Esquiline and Palatine Hills, through which a canalised stream ran. By the 2nd century BC the area was densely inhabited. It was devastated by the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64, following which Nero seized much of the area to add to his personal domain. He built the grandiose Domus Aurea on the site, in front of which he created an artificial lake surrounded by pavilions, gardens and porticoes. The existing Aqua Claudia aqueduct was extended to supply water to the area and the gigantic bronze Colossus of Nero was set up nearby at the entrance to the Domus Aurea.[12]

Although the Colossus was preserved, much of the Domus Aurea was torn down. The lake was filled in and the land reused as the location for the new Flavian Amphitheatre. Gladiatorial schools and other support buildings were constructed nearby within the former grounds of the Domus Aurea. According to a reconstructed inscription found on the site, "the emperor Vespasian ordered this new amphitheatre to be erected from his general's share of the booty." This is thought to refer to the vast quantity of treasure seized by the Romans following their victory in the Great Jewish Revolt in 70AD. The Colosseum can be thus interpreted as a great triumphal monument built in the Roman tradition of celebrating great victories[12], placating the Roman people instead of returning soldiers. Vespasian's decision to build the Colosseum on the site of Nero's lake can also be seen as a populist gesture of returning to the people an area of the city which Nero had appropriated for his own use. In contrast to many other amphitheatres, which were located on the outskirts of a city, the Colosseum was constructed in the city centre; in effect, placing it both literally and symbolically at the heart of Rome.

The Colosseum had been completed up to the third story by the time of Vespasian's death in 79. The top level was finished and the building inaugurated by his son, Titus, in 80.[3] Dio Cassius recounts that over 9,000 wild animals were killed during the inaugural games of the amphitheatre. The building was remodelled further under Vespasian's younger son, the newly designated Emperor Domitian, who constructed the hypogeum, a series of underground tunnels used to house animals and slaves. He also added a gallery to the top of the Colosseum to increase its seating capacity.

In 217, the Colosseum was badly damaged by a major fire (caused by lightning, according to Dio Cassius[13]) which destroyed the wooden upper levels of the amphitheatre's interior. It was not fully repaired until about 240 and underwent further repairs in 250 or 252 and again in 320. An inscription records the restoration of various parts of the Colosseum under Theodosius II and Valentinian III (reigned 425–455), possibly to repair damage caused by a major earthquake in 443; more work followed in 484[14] and 508. The arena continued to be used for contests well into the 6th century, with gladiatorial fights last mentioned around 435. Animal hunts continued until at least 523, when Anicius Maximus celebrated his consulship with some venationes, criticised by King Theodoric the Great for their high cost.

The Colosseum underwent several radical changes of use during the medieval period. By the late 6th century a small church had been built into the structure of the amphitheatre, though this apparently did not confer any particular religious significance on the building as a whole. The arena was converted into a cemetery. The numerous vaulted spaces in the arcades under the seating were converted into housing and workshops, and are recorded as still being rented out as late as the 12th century. Around 1200 the Frangipani family took over the Colosseum and fortified it, apparently using it as a castle.

Severe damage was inflicted on the Colosseum by the great earthquake in 1349, causing the outer south side, lying on a less stable alluvional terrain, to collapse. Much of the tumbled stone was reused to build palaces, churches, hospitals and other buildings elsewhere in Rome. A religious order moved into the northern third of the Colosseum in the mid-14th century and continued to inhabit it until as late as the early 19th century. The interior of the amphitheatre was extensively stripped of stone, which was reused elsewhere, or (in the case of the marble façade) was burned to make quicklime.[12] The bronze clamps which held the stonework together were pried or hacked out of the walls, leaving numerous pockmarks which still scar the building today.

During the 16th and 17th century, Church officials sought a productive role for the vast derelict hulk of the Colosseum. Pope Sixtus V (1585–1590) planned to turn the building into a wool factory to provide employment for Rome's prostitutes, though this proposal fell through with his premature death.[15] In 1671 Cardinal Altieri authorized its use for bullfights; a public outcry caused the idea to be hastily abandoned.

In 1749, Pope Benedict XIV endorsed as official Church policy the view that the Colosseum was a sacred site where early Christians had been martyred. He forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry and consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the Christian martyrs who perished there (see Christians and the Colosseum). However there is no historical evidence to support Benedict's claim, nor is there even any evidence that anyone prior to the 16th century suggested this might be the case; the Catholic Encyclopedia concludes that there are no historical grounds for the supposition. Later popes initiated various stabilization and restoration projects, removing the extensive vegetation which had overgrown the structure and threatened to damage it further. The façade was reinforced with triangular brick wedges in 1807 and 1827, and the interior was repaired in 1831, 1846 and in the 1930s. The arena substructure was partly excavated in 1810–1814 and 1874 and was fully exposed under Benito Mussolini in the 1930s.

The Colosseum is today one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions, receiving millions of visitors annually. The effects of pollution and general deterioration over time prompted a major restoration programme carried out between 1993 and 2000, at a cost of 40 billion Italian lire ($19.3m / €20.6m at 2000 prices). In recent years it has become a symbol of the international campaign against capital punishment, which was abolished in Italy in 1948. Several anti–death penalty demonstrations took place in front of the Colosseum in 2000. Since that time, as a gesture against the death penalty, the local authorities of Rome change the color of the Colosseum's night time illumination from white to gold whenever a person condemned to the death penalty anywhere in the world gets their sentence commuted or is released,[16] or if a jurisdiction abolishes the death penalty. Most recently, the Colosseum was illuminated in gold when capital punishment was abolished in the American state of New Mexico in April 2009.

Because of the ruined state of the interior, it is impractical to use the Colosseum to host large events; only a few hundred spectators can be accommodated in temporary seating. However, much larger concerts have been held just outside, using the Colosseum as a backdrop. Performers who have played at the Colosseum in recent years have included Ray Charles (May 2002),[18] Paul McCartney (May 2003),[19] Elton John (September 2005),[20] and Billy Joel (July 2006).

Exterior

Unlike earlier Greek theatres that were built into hillsides, the Colosseum is an entirely free-standing structure. It derives its basic exterior and interior architecture from that of two Roman theatres back to back. It is elliptical in plan and is 189 meters (615 ft / 640 Roman feet) long, and 156 meters (510 ft / 528 Roman feet) wide, with a base area of 6 acres (24,000 m2). The height of the outer wall is 48 meters (157 ft / 165 Roman feet). The perimeter originally measured 545 meters (1,788 ft / 1,835 Roman feet). The central arena is an oval 87 m (287 ft) long and 55 m (180 ft) wide, surrounded by a wall 5 m (15 ft) high, above which rose tiers of seating.

The outer wall is estimated to have required over 100,000 cubic meters (131,000 cu yd) of travertine stone which were set without mortar held together by 300 tons of iron clamps.[12] However, it has suffered extensive damage over the centuries, with large segments having collapsed following earthquakes. The north side of the perimeter wall is still standing; the distinctive triangular brick wedges at each end are modern additions, having been constructed in the early 19th century to shore up the wall. The remainder of the present-day exterior of the Colosseum is in fact the original interior wall.

The surviving part of the outer wall's monumental façade comprises three stories of superimposed arcades surmounted by a podium on which stands a tall attic, both of which are pierced by windows interspersed at regular intervals. The arcades are framed by half-columns of the Tuscan, Ionic, and Corinthian orders, while the attic is decorated with Corinthian pilasters.[21] Each of the arches in the second- and third-floor arcades framed statues, probably honoring divinities and other figures from Classical mythology.

Two hundred and forty mast corbels were positioned around the top of the attic. They originally supported a retractable awning, known as the velarium, that kept the sun and rain off spectators. This consisted of a canvas-covered, net-like structure made of ropes, with a hole in the center.[3] It covered two-thirds of the arena, and sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze for the audience. Sailors, specially enlisted from the Roman naval headquarters at Misenum and housed in the nearby Castra Misenatium, were used to work the velarium.[22]

The Colosseum's huge crowd capacity made it essential that the venue could be filled or evacuated quickly. Its architects adopted solutions very similar to those used in modern stadiums to deal with the same problem. The amphitheatre was ringed by eighty entrances at ground level, 76 of which were used by ordinary spectators.[3] Each entrance and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. The northern main entrance was reserved for the Roman Emperor and his aides, whilst the other three axial entrances were most likely used by the elite. All four axial entrances were richly decorated with painted stucco reliefs, of which fragments survive. Many of the original outer entrances have disappeared with the collapse of the perimeter wall, but entrances XXIII (23) to LIV (54) still survive.[12]

Spectators were given tickets in the form of numbered pottery shards, which directed them to the appropriate section and row. They accessed their seats via vomitoria (singular vomitorium), passageways that opened into a tier of seats from below or behind. These quickly dispersed people into their seats and, upon conclusion of the event or in an emergency evacuation, could permit their exit within only a few minutes. The name vomitoria derived from the Latin word for a rapid discharge, from which English derives the word vomit.

Interior

According to the Codex-Calendar of 354, the Colosseum could accommodate 87,000 people, although modern estimates put the figure at around 50,000. They were seated in a tiered arrangement that reflected the rigidly stratified nature of Roman society. Special boxes were provided at the north and south ends respectively for the Emperor and the Vestal Virgins, providing the best views of the arena. Flanking them at the same level was a broad platform or podium for the senatorial class, who were allowed to bring their own chairs. The names of some 5th century senators can still be seen carved into the stonework, presumably reserving areas for their use.

The tier above the senators, known as the maenianum primum, was occupied by the non-senatorial noble class or knights (equites). The next level up, the maenianum secundum, was originally reserved for ordinary Roman citizens (plebians) and was divided into two sections. The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper part (the summum) was for poor citizens. Specific sectors were provided for other social groups: for instance, boys with their tutors, soldiers on leave, foreign dignitaries, scribes, heralds, priests and so on. Stone (and later marble) seating was provided for the citizens and nobles, who presumably would have brought their own cushions with them. Inscriptions identified the areas reserved for specific groups.

Another level, the maenianum secundum in legneis, was added at the very top of the building during the reign of Domitian. This comprised a gallery for the common poor, slaves and women. It would have been either standing room only, or would have had very steep wooden benches. Some groups were banned altogether from the Colosseum, notably gravediggers, actors and former gladiators.

Each tier was divided into sections (maeniana) by curved passages and low walls (praecinctiones or baltei), and were subdivided into cunei, or wedges, by the steps and aisles from the vomitoria. Each row (gradus) of seats was numbered, permitting each individual seat to be exactly designated by its gradus, cuneus, and number.

The arena itself was 83 meters by 48 meters (272 ft by 157 ft / 280 by 163 Roman feet).[12] It comprised a wooden floor covered by sand (the Latin word for sand is harena or arena), covering an elaborate underground structure called the hypogeum (literally meaning "underground"). Little now remains of the original arena floor, but the hypogeum is still clearly visible. It consisted of a two-level subterranean network of tunnels and cages beneath the arena where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. Eighty vertical shafts provided instant access to the arena for caged animals and scenery pieces concealed underneath; larger hinged platforms, called hegmata, provided access for elephants and the like. It was restructured on numerous occasions; at least twelve different phases of construction can be seen.[12]

The hypogeum was connected by underground tunnels to a number of points outside the Colosseum. Animals and performers were brought through the tunnel from nearby stables, with the gladiators' barracks at the Ludus Magnus to the east also being connected by tunnels. Separate tunnels were provided for the Emperor and the Vestal Virgins to permit them to enter and exit the Colosseum without needing to pass through the crowds.[12]

Substantial quantities of machinery also existed in the hypogeum. Elevators and pulleys raised and lowered scenery and props, as well as lifting caged animals to the surface for release. There is evidence for the existence of major hydraulic mechanisms[12] and according to ancient accounts, it was possible to flood the arena rapidly, presumably via a connection to a nearby aqueduct.

The Colosseum and its activities supported a substantial industry in the area. In addition to the amphitheatre itself, many other buildings nearby were linked to the games. Immediately to the east is the remains of the Ludus Magnus, a training school for gladiators. This was connected to the Colosseum by an underground passage, to allow easy access for the gladiators. The Ludus Magnus had its own miniature training arena, which was itself a popular attraction for Roman spectators. Other training schools were in the same area, including the Ludus Matutinus (Morning School), where fighters of animals were trained, plus the Dacian and Gallic Schools.

Also nearby were the Armamentarium, comprising an armory to store weapons; the Summum Choragium, where machinery was stored; the Sanitarium, which had facilities to treat wounded gladiators; and the Spoliarium, where bodies of dead gladiators were stripped of their armor and disposed of.

Around the perimeter of the Colosseum, at a distance of 18 m (59 ft) from the perimeter, was a series of tall stone posts, with five remaining on the eastern side. Various explanations have been advanced for their presence; they may have been a religious boundary, or an outer boundary for ticket checks, or an anchor for the velarium or awning.

Right next to the Colosseum is also the Arch of Constantine.

he Colosseum was used to host gladiatorial shows as well as a variety of other events. The shows, called munera, were always given by private individuals rather than the state. They had a strong religious element but were also demonstrations of power and family prestige, and were immensely popular with the population. Another popular type of show was the animal hunt, or venatio. This utilized a great variety of wild beasts, mainly imported from Africa and the Middle East, and included creatures such as rhinoceros, hippopotamuses, elephants, giraffes, aurochs, wisents, barbary lions, panthers, leopards, bears, caspian tigers, crocodiles and ostriches. Battles and hunts were often staged amid elaborate sets with movable trees and buildings. Such events were occasionally on a huge scale; Trajan is said to have celebrated his victories in Dacia in 107 with contests involving 11,000 animals and 10,000 gladiators over the course of 123 days.

During the early days of the Colosseum, ancient writers recorded that the building was used for naumachiae (more properly known as navalia proelia) or simulated sea battles. Accounts of the inaugural games held by Titus in AD 80 describe it being filled with water for a display of specially trained swimming horses and bulls. There is also an account of a re-enactment of a famous sea battle between the Corcyrean (Corfiot) Greeks and the Corinthians. This has been the subject of some debate among historians; although providing the water would not have been a problem, it is unclear how the arena could have been waterproofed, nor would there have been enough space in the arena for the warships to move around. It has been suggested that the reports either have the location wrong, or that the Colosseum originally featured a wide floodable channel down its central axis (which would later have been replaced by the hypogeum).[12]

Sylvae or recreations of natural scenes were also held in the arena. Painters, technicians and architects would construct a simulation of a forest with real trees and bushes planted in the arena's floor. Animals would be introduced to populate the scene for the delight of the crowd. Such scenes might be used simply to display a natural environment for the urban population, or could otherwise be used as the backdrop for hunts or dramas depicting episodes from mythology. They were also occasionally used for executions in which the hero of the story — played by a condemned person — was killed in one of various gruesome but mythologically authentic ways, such as being mauled by beasts or burned to death.

The Colosseum today is now a major tourist attraction in Rome with thousands of tourists each year paying to view the interior arena, though entrance for EU citizens is partially subsidised, and under-18 and over-65 EU citizens' entrances are free.[24] There is now a museum dedicated to Eros located in the upper floor of the outer wall of the building. Part of the arena floor has been re-floored. Beneath the Colosseum, a network of subterranean passageways once used to transport wild animals and gladiators to the arena opened to the public in summer 2010.[25]

The Colosseum is also the site of Roman Catholic ceremonies in the 20th and 21st centuries. For instance, Pope Benedict XVI leads the Stations of the Cross called the Scriptural Way of the Cross (which calls for more meditation) at the Colosseum[26][27] on Good Fridays.

In the Middle Ages, the Colosseum was clearly not regarded as a sacred site. Its use as a fortress and then a quarry demonstrates how little spiritual importance was attached to it, at a time when sites associated with martyrs were highly venerated. It was not included in the itineraries compiled for the use of pilgrims nor in works such as the 12th century Mirabilia Urbis Romae ("Marvels of the City of Rome"), which claims the Circus Flaminius — but not the Colosseum — as the site of martyrdoms. Part of the structure was inhabited by a Christian order, but apparently not for any particular religious reason.

It appears to have been only in the 16th and 17th centuries that the Colosseum came to be regarded as a Christian site. Pope Pius V (1566–1572) is said to have recommended that pilgrims gather sand from the arena of the Colosseum to serve as a relic, on the grounds that it was impregnated with the blood of martyrs. This seems to have been a minority view until it was popularised nearly a century later by Fioravante Martinelli, who listed the Colosseum at the head of a list of places sacred to the martyrs in his 1653 book Roma ex ethnica sacra.

Martinelli's book evidently had an effect on public opinion; in response to Cardinal Altieri's proposal some years later to turn the Colosseum into a bullring, Carlo Tomassi published a pamphlet in protest against what he regarded as an act of desecration. The ensuing controversy persuaded Pope Clement X to close the Colosseum's external arcades and declare it a sanctuary, though quarrying continued for some time.

At the instance of St. Leonard of Port Maurice, Pope Benedict XIV (1740–1758) forbade the quarrying of the Colosseum and erected Stations of the Cross around the arena, which remained until February 1874. St. Benedict Joseph Labre spent the later years of his life within the walls of the Colosseum, living on alms, prior to his death in 1783. Several 19th century popes funded repair and restoration work on the Colosseum, and it still retains a Christian connection today. Crosses stand in several points around the arena and every Good Friday the Pope leads a Via Crucis procession to the amphitheatre.

 

Coliseu (Colosseo)

A seguir, um texto, em português, da Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre:

 

O Coliseu, também conhecido como Anfiteatro Flaviano, deve seu nome à expressão latina Colosseum (ou Coliseus, no latim tardio), devido à estátua colossal de Nero, que ficava perto a edificação. Localizado no centro de Roma, é uma excepção de entre os anfiteatros pelo seu volume e relevo arquitectónico. Originalmente capaz de albergar perto de 50 000 pessoas, e com 48 metros de altura, era usado para variados espetáculos. Foi construído a leste do fórum romano e demorou entre 8 a 10 anos a ser construído.

O Coliseu foi utilizado durante aproximadamente 500 anos, tendo sido o último registro efetuado no século VI da nossa era, bastante depois da queda de Roma em 476. O edifício deixou de ser usado para entretenimento no começo da era medieval, mas foi mais tarde usado como habitação, oficina, forte, pedreira, sede de ordens religiosas e templo cristão.

Embora esteja agora em ruínas devido a terremotos e pilhagens, o Coliseu sempre foi visto como símbolo do Império Romano, sendo um dos melhores exemplos da sua arquitectura. Actualmente é uma das maiores atrações turísticas em Roma e em 7 de julho de 2007 foi eleita umas das "Sete maravilhas do mundo moderno". Além disso, o Coliseu ainda tem ligações à igreja, com o Papa a liderar a procissão da Via Sacra até ao Coliseu todas as Sextas-feiras Santas.

O coliseu era um local onde seriam exibidos toda uma série de espectáculos, inseridos nos vários tipos de jogos realizados na urbe. Os combates entre gladiadores, chamados muneras, eram sempre pagos por pessoas individuais em busca de prestígio e poder em vez do estado. A arena (87,5 m por 55 m) possuía um piso de madeira, normalmente coberto de areia para absorver o sangue dos combates (certa vez foi colocada água na representação de uma batalha naval), sob o qual existia um nível subterrâneo com celas e jaulas que tinham acessos diretos para a arena; Alguns detalhes dessa construção, como a cobertura removível que poupava os espectadores do sol, são bastante interessantes, e mostram o refinamento atingido pelos construtores romanos. Formado por cinco anéis concêntricos de arcos e abóbadas, o Coliseu representa bem o avanço introduzido pelos romanos à engenharia de estruturas. Esses arcos são de concreto (de cimento natural) revestidos por alvenaria. Na verdade, a alvenaria era construída simultaneamente e já servia de forma para a concretagem. Outro tipo de espetáculos era a caça de animais, ou venatio, onde eram utilizados animais selvagens importados de África. Os animais mais utilizados eram os grandes felinos como leões, leopardos e panteras, mas animais como rinocerontes, hipopótamos, elefantes, girafas, crocodilos e avestruzes eram também utilizados. As caçadas, tal como as representações de batalhas famosas, eram efetuadas em elaborados cenários onde constavam árvores e edifícios amovíveis.

Estas últimas eram por vezes representadas numa escala gigante; Trajano celebrou a sua vitória em Dácia no ano 107 com concursos envolvendo 11 000 animais e 10 000 gladiadores no decorrer de 123 dias.

Segundo o documentário produzido pelo canal televisivo fechado, History Channel, o Coliseu também era utilizado para a realização de naumaquias, ou batalhas navais. O coliseu era inundado por dutos subterrâneos alimentados pelos aquedutos que traziam água de longe. Passada esta fase, foi construída uma estrutura, que é a que podemos ver hoje nas ruínas do Coliseu, com altura de um prédio de dois andares, onde no passado se concentravam os gladiadores, feras e todo o pessoal que organizava os duelos que ocorreriam na arena. A arena era como um grande palco, feito de madeira, e se chama arena, que em italiano significa areia, porque era jogada areia sob a estrutura de madeira para esconder as imperfeições. Os animais podiam ser inseridos nos duelos a qualquer momento por um esquema de elevadores que surgiam em alguns pontos da arena; o filme "Gladiador" retrata muito bem esta questão dos elevadores. Os estudiosos, há pouco tempo, descobriram uma rede de dutos inundados por baixo da arena do Coliseu. Acredita-se que o Coliseu foi construído onde, outrora, foi o lago do Palácio Dourado de Nero; O imperador Vespasiano escolheu o local da construção para que o mal causado por Nero fosse esquecido por uma construção gloriosa.

Sylvae, ou recreações de cenas naturais eram também realizadas no Coliseu. Pintores, técnicos e arquitectos construiriam simulações de florestas com árvores e arbustos reais plantados no chão da arena. Animais seriam então introduzidos para dar vida à simulação. Esses cenários podiam servir só para agrado do público ou como pano de fundo para caçadas ou dramas representando episódios da mitologia romana, tão autênticos quanto possível, ao ponto de pessoas condenadas fazerem o papel de heróis onde eram mortos de maneiras horríveis mas mitologicamente autênticas, como mutilados por animais ou queimados vivos.

Embora o Coliseu tenha funcionado até ao século VI da nossa Era, foram proibidos os jogos com mortes humanas desde 404, sendo apenas massacrados animais como elefantes, panteras ou leões.

O Coliseu era sobretudo um enorme instrumento de propaganda e difusão da filosofia de toda uma civilização, e tal como era já profetizado pelo monge e historiador inglês Beda na sua obra do século VII "De temporibus liber": "Enquanto o Coliseu se mantiver de pé, Roma permanecerá; quando o Coliseu ruir, Roma ruirá e quando Roma cair, o mundo cairá".

A construção do Coliseu foi iniciada por Vespasiano, nos anos 70 da nossa era. O edifício foi inaugurado por Tito, em 80, embora apenas tivesse sido finalizado poucos anos depois. Empresa colossal, este edifício, inicialmente, poderia sustentar no seu interior cerca de 50 000 espectadores, constando de três andares. Aquando do reinado de Alexandre Severo e Gordiano III, é ampliado com um quarto andar, podendo suster agora cerca de 90 000 espectadores. A grandiosidade deste monumento testemunha verdadeiramente o poder e esplendor de Roma na época dos Flávios.

Os jogos inaugurais do Coliseu tiveram lugar ano 80, sob o mandato de Tito, para celebrar a finalização da construção. Depois do curto reinado de Tito começar com vários meses de desastres, incluindo a erupção do Monte Vesúvio, um incêndio em Roma, e um surto de peste, o mesmo imperador inaugurou o edifício com uns jogos pródigos que duraram mais de cem dias, talvez para tentar apaziguar o público romano e os deuses. Nesses jogos de cem dias terão ocorrido combates de gladiadores, venationes (lutas de animais), execuções, batalhas navais, caçadas e outros divertimentos numa escala sem precedentes.

O Coliseu, como não se encontrava inserido numa zona de encosta, enterrado, tal como normalmente sucede com a generalidade dos teatros e anfiteatros romanos, possuía um “anel” artificial de rocha à sua volta, para garantir sustentação e, ao mesmo tempo, esta substrutura serve como ornamento ao edifício e como condicionador da entrada dos espectadores. Tal como foi referido anteriormente, possuía três pisos, sendo mais tarde adicionado um outro. É construído em mármore, pedra travertina, ladrilho e tufo (pedra calcária com grandes poros). A sua planta elíptica mede dois eixos que se estendem aproximadamente de 190 m por 155 m. A fachada compõe-se de arcadas decoradas com colunas dóricas, jónicas e coríntias, de acordo com o pavimento em que se encontravam. Esta subdivisão deve-se ao facto de ser uma construção essencialmente vertical, criando assim uma diversificação do espaço.

 

Os assentos eram em mármore e a cavea, escadaria ou arquibancada, dividia-se em três partes, correspondentes às diferentes classes sociais: o podium, para as classes altas; as maeniana, sector destinado à classe média; e os portici, ou pórticos, construídos em madeira, para a plebe e as mulheres. O pulvinar, a tribuna imperial, encontrava-se situada no podium e era balizada pelos assentos reservados aos senadores e magistrados. Rampas no interior do edifício facilitavam o acesso às várias zonas de onde podiam visualizar o espectáculo, sendo protegidos por uma barreira e por uma série de arqueiros posicionados numa passagem de madeira, para o caso de algum acidente. Por cima dos muros ainda são visíveis as mísulas, que sustentavam o velarium, enorme cobertura de lona destinada a proteger do sol os espectadores e, nos subterrâneos, ficavam as jaulas dos animais, bem como todas as celas e galerias necessárias aos serviços do anfiteatro.

O monumento permaneceu como sede principal dos espetáculos da urbe romana até ao período do imperador Honorius, no século V. Danificado por um terremoto no começo do mesmo século, foi alvo de uma extensiva restauração na época de Valentinianus III. Em meados do século XIII, a família Frangipani transformou-o em fortaleza e, ao longo dos séculos XV e XVI, foi por diversas vezes saqueado, perdendo grande parte dos materiais nobres com os quais tinha sido construído.

Os relatos romanos referem-se a cristãos sendo martirizados em locais de Roma descritos pouco pormenorizadamente (no anfiteatro, na arena...), quando Roma tinha numerosos anfiteatros e arenas. Apesar de muito provavelmente o Coliseu não ter sido utilizado para martírios, o Papa Bento XIV consagrou-o no século XVII à Paixão de Cristo e declarou-o lugar sagrado. Os trabalhos de consolidação e restauração parcial do monumento, já há muito em ruínas, foram feitos sobretudo pelos pontífices Gregório XVI e Pio IX, no século XIX.

La Pyramide Inversée

1971 Dodge Dart Demon 340

 

Many thanks to Richard Allan Dulkin for graciously allowing me his permission to use his fine studio picture of the model in my composite. Richard’s original studio picture can viewed here.

  

The Car

Attempting to give the once low-budget Dart a jump into the muscle car market, Dodge introduced the Dart GTS in 1967, produced only in a limited run due to its late release in the year. In 1968, the GTS model was fitted with Dodge’s 340ci V-8.

 

The following year, the Dart acquired names like Swinger and Swinger 340, in addition to the once again limited run GTS models fitted with massive 440ci V-8s. In 1970, the Swinger 340 became the top performance Dart model, fitted with the top-of-the-line 340ci engine after the optional 383ci engine was discontinued.

 

Building an A-body Monopoly and the Controversy That Ensued

 

By 1971, the Dart lineup changed again- this time introducing the famed Dodge Dart Demon and Demon 340 to the mix. But the Demon series wasn’t just another Dart trim level. In fact, in 1971, Dodge received a version of the Plymouth Valiant-based Duster to increase interest in their A-body designs, which Dodge used as the new Dart. Plymouth also received a new A-body model, a version of the Dodge Swinger which they rebadged as the Scamp.

 

Originally, the newly acquired Valiant-based Duster was to be rebadged as the Beaver for Dodge’s line-up. Ironically, however, Chrysler’s marketing department found out soon after their name choice had been disclosed that “Beaver” was actually slang for a part of the female anatomy – (duh! Apparently the boys from Chrysler’s marketing department didn’t have much “street sense”).

 

Not wanting to stir up controversy, Chrysler decided to name the new model the Demon instead. Unbeknown to them, however, the new Demon nameplate continued to pave the road to unwelcome controversy.

 

Having a religious background or not, one might be able to discern why the Demon name tag struck certain groups as support of an anti-Christ. Although not intended as such (in fact, the historic reasoning behind the name was in correspondence with getting people to come in for a look at the car, as in “Come in for a Demon-stration”), the name instantly hit a sore nerve with some groups, which immediately started pressuring Dodge to change the vehicle’s name. Dodge refused, of course, and continued on with their new Demon models.

 

To fit the new Dart Demon into the lineup, Dodge shifted the Swinger name over to the custom 2-door Dart model and introduced the Swinger Special name to replace the Dart Swinger moniker.

 

Source material above: www.streetlegaltv.com/features/car-features/muscle-cars-y...

  

Dodge Dart Demon 340 2-Door Coupe 4-speed (3.55 axle),

model year 1971, version for North America U.S. (up to September)

 

•2-door coupe body type

•RWD (rear-wheel drive), manual 4-speed gearbox

•petrol (gasoline) engine with displacement: 5563 cm3 / 339.4 cui, advertised power: 175 205 kW / 235 275 hp / 238 279 PS ( SAE net SAE gross ), Torque net: 421 461 Nm / 310 340 lb-ft

•characteristic dimensions: outside length: 4890 mm / 192.5 in, wheelbase: 2743 mm / 108 in

•reference weights: base curb weight: 1515 kg / 3340 lbs

•how fast is this car ? top speed: 188 km/h (117 mph) (theoretical);

•accelerations: 0- 60 mph 6.3 s; 0- 100 km/h 6.9 s (a-c simulation); 1/4 mile drag time (402 m) 14.9 s (a-c simulation)

•fuel consumption and mileage: average estimated by a-c: 20.4 l/100km / 13.8 mpg (imp.) / 11.5 mpg (U.S.) / 4.9 km/l

 

Source: www.automobile-catalog.com/make/dodge/dart_5gen/dart_5gen...

 

Hope you enjoy..........