a harlequin mantis shrimp or stomatopods, have the most sophisticated visual system in the world. the stomatopod eye contains 16 different types of photoreceptors (12 for color analysis, compared to humanity's 3 cones). mantis shrimps can thus see polarized light and 4 colors of uv (ultraviolet) light, and they may also be able to distinguish up to 100,000 colors (compared to the 10,000 seen by human beings).
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