Cana da Índia - Capachos - Common Garden Canna, Canna X generalis, Canna lily (Canna generalis) 007 - 10
Cannaceae é uma família de plantas da ordem Zingiberales que inclui 19 espécies distribuídas em um único gênero, Canna.
A text in english:
Any plant of the genus Canna having large sheathing leaves and clusters of large showy flowers.
Ornamental lily commonly cultivated for its beautiful flowers. There are numerous hybrids all falling under the general name Canna Lily.
Cannas provide big, bold splashes of color with large, tropical appearing foliage. Cannas may be grown in the mountains, but the roots must be lifted before winter.
Common Names: canna, canna lily, Indian shot
Family: Cannaceae (canna Family)
Cannas, or canna lilies, look like banana trees without the trunk! That's no accident - they're kin to bananas and gingers, and their wide, furled leaves come out of thick, multiple-eyed rhizomes, just like their larger, edible cousins. Flowers are the main reason cannas are so highly prized, though. The tropical Indian shot (Canna indica) was hybridized and backcrossed with other Canna species, including the North American native, golden canna (C. flaccida). These hybrids have been known as Canna X generalis, or Canna X orchiodes, depending on flower characteristics, but they've been crossed too, and the distinctions are now largely lost or forgotten. Nowadays most experts include all the canna hybrids under Canna X generalis. And indeed there are hundreds of named cultivars, ranging from less than 30 in (76.2 cm) to more than 8 ft (2.4 m) in height, in colors from creams to yellows, to oranges and reds, and with a colorful diversity of leaf patterns as well. Some of the most striking cultivars have red or variegated foliage. Canna flowers are asymmetrical, with three petals, three sepals and three highly modified showy petal-like stamens. They come in a rainbow of shades from yellows, oranges, reds and pinks. The flowers are followed by a capsule with round, shotlike seeds.
Canna flaccida is native to the southeastern U.S. and Central America and the Antilles. Canna indica is native to tropical Central and South America. The many hybrid selections are of garden origin, some dating back to the 18th century. Canna species and various hybrids have naturalized in wetlands throughout the subtropical and tropical world.
Light: Cannas prefer sun, but will grow in partial shade.
Moisture: Cannas like moist soil and will thrive even in boggy conditions. They can be grown in ordinary garden soils, but will need regular watering.
Hardiness: USDA Zones 8-12. Cannas can be grown in colder regions, but where the ground freezes, either lift the rhizomes during winter, or protect them with a thick layer of mulch. In cold climates, the rhizomes may be susceptible to rot.
Propagation: Cannas are easy to propagate by dividing off pieces of the rhizomes.
Canna lilies are remarkably easy to grow. These are great flowers for a wet area. They will even grow in moderately polluted wetlands. Cannas look best in masses. Leaf rolling caterpillars can be devastating to the foliage, but are easily controlled. Plant cannas with bananas, gingers and palms for an enormous tropical foliage statement!
There are just 9 species of Canna, all native to the New World tropics and subtropics. Canna indica, also known as Canna edulis, makes an edible root and is the source of arrowroot starch. Its seeds have been used as shot (thus the common name, "Indian shot"). Canna is from the Greek for a type of reed.
Small herbaceous perennial, usually to 3-6ft. The canna lily is tender to hard frosts, but can be grown practically anywhere if its rhizomes are dug up during winter. Plants commonly die back during cold months, only to leaf out and bloom during warmer months. Plants enjoy regular water during the warm months. Plant in full sun, part sun, or shade. They can be grown in pretty much any type of soil. If growing in cold winter areas, dig up the rhizomes and store them in a cool area for the winter, then plant out after frost has past. Cultivars abound, but most have yellow, orange, red, or combination color flowers.
Propagation: By seed, or by rhizomes.
anna (Canna or Canna lily although not a true lily) is a genus of nineteen species of flowering plants, the only genus in the family Cannaceae. The closest living relations to cannas are the other plant families of the order Zingiberales, that is the gingers, bananas, marantas, heliconiaa, strelitzias, etc.
The species have large, attractive foliage and horticulturists have turned it into a large, brash, bright and sometimes gaudy, garden plant. In addition, it is one of the world's richest starch sources, and is an agricultural plant.
Although a plant of the tropics, most cultivars have been developed in
temperate climates and are easy to grow in most countries of the world
as long as they can enjoy about 6 hours average sunlight during the
summer. See the Canna cultivar gallery for photographs of Canna
The name Canna originates from the Celtic word for a cane or reed [Johnsons 1856, Chaté 1866].
* "The first Cannas introduced to Europe were C. indica L., and although they all came from the East Indies, they originated from the American continent. Charles de l'Ecluse, who first described and sketched C. indica in his Histoire des plantes rare observées en Espagne, published in 1576, indicates this origin, and states that it was given the name of indica, not because the plant is from India, in Asia, but because this species was originally transported from America: "Quia ex America primum delata sit"; and at that time, one described the tropical areas of that part of the globe as the Western Indies; English speakers still call them the West Indies.
* Much later, in 1658, Pison made reference, in his Histoire naturelle du Brésil, to another species which he documented under the vulgar name of 'Albara' and 'Pacivira', and which resided, he said, in the shaded and damp places, between the tropics; this species is Canna angustifolia L., (later reclassified as C. glauca L. by taxonomists).
* Without exception, all Canna species that have been introduced into Europe can be traced back to the American continent, and it can be asserted with confidence that Canna is solely an American genus. If Asia and Africa provided some of the early introductions, they were only varieties resulting from C. indica and C. glauca cultivars that have grown for a long time in India and Africa, but not from species growing in a spontaneous state.
* The penultimate argument is that it is certain, as it is pointed out by Lamarck, in his Botanical Encyclelopédie, that "Cannas were unknown to the ancients, and that it is only after the discovery of the New World, that they made their appearance in Europe; whereas if the soils of India or Africa had produced some of them, they would not have waited until the 1860’s, to make an entry into the European gardens."
* The final argument is that Canna seeds have never been discovered by archeologists in the Old World, and the hard shells of Canna would have ensured that some would have survived in the right conditions.
* Some species and many cultivars are widely grown in the garden in temperate and sub-tropical regions. Sometimes they may also be grown as potted plants. A large number of ornamental cultivars have been developed. They can be used in herbaceous borders, tropical plantings, and as a patio or decking plant.
* Internationally cannas are one of the most popular garden plants and a large horticultural industry depends on the plant.
* The canna rhizome of is rich in starch, and it has many uses in agriculture. All of the plant has commercial value, rhizomes for starch (consumption by humans and livestock), stems and foliage for animal fodder, young shoots as a vegetable and young seeds as an addition to tortillas.
* Agricultural Cannas have the potential to be a rich producer of biofuels because of its outstanding starch production, and ability to thrive in temperate climates as well as the tropics. This is a young area of research and we have to wait for research results before commenting further on this use.
* Cannas (particularly C. indica) are sometimes known as "Indian Shot", as their seeds are small, round, and hard like bird shot. The seeds are used as pearls in jewelry.
* The seeds are used as the mobile elements of the kayamb, a musical instrument from Réunion, as well as the hosho, a gourd rattle from Zimbabwe, where the seeds are known as "hota" seeds.
* In remoter regions of India, cannas are fermented to produce alcohol.
* Cannas are used to extract many undesirable pollutants in a wetland environment as it has a high tolerance to contaminants.
Different kind of Cannas:
Canna 'Spanish Emblem'
Canna 'Striped Beauty'
Canna 'Trinacria Variegata'
Canna 'Tropicanna Gold'
Canna 'Yellow King Humbert'
Canna (Plant) Gallery
Canna African Yellow
Canna Bengal Tiger
Canna Christ's Light
Canna King of Siam
Canna Pallida Variegata
Canna Queen Helena
Canna Queen of Italy
Canna Spanish Emblem
Canna Striped Beauty
Canna Tropicanna Gold