Efes (Ephesus), one of the most important cities of antiquity, was founded by Androclos, although it has been established that the Lelegians and Carians inhabited the place earlier. The city must have been colonized no later than the 10th century B.C., by the lonians. Then Persian invasion in the 6th century B.C. took place. As you can see Ephesus History goes way back. This was followed by Ionian uprising against the Persians during the 5th century B.C. The ruins remaining are of the city established by Lyssimachos, one of the generals of Alexander the Great in the 3rd century B.C. The best remains of the city ramparts today are from this era. During its Golden Age (2nd century B.C.), the city had a population of around 300,000; it monopolized the wealth of the Middle East and was one of the principal ports of the Mediterranean. Finally, the Roman and Byzantine Empires took control of the city. When the Seljuks and later Ottomans claimed the control of the city, it had already lost its commercial and political significance. Today, a visit to Ephesus is one of the highlights of any visit to Turkey.