Bismarck-Monument & Victory-Column are militarist monarchist memorials that are standing at their present location in Berlin-Tiergarten since 1938.
Bismarck-Monument At the socket is inscripted a dedication:
to the first // imperial chancellor // the // german people // 1901
DEM ERSTEN // REICHSKANZLER // DAS // DEUTSCHE VOLK // 1901
The memorial was sculptured by Reinhold Begas. The central Bismarck-sculpture is surrounded by four mythological figures: 1. Atlas making a knee-bend to bear the terrestrial globe (imperialist aspirations) 2. Siegfried swinging the hammer against the West to forge his sword (militarist aspirations) 3. a woman, who has killed a lion, shall symbolize the ever victorious Germania 4. a sibyllinic woman reclining on a sphinx and reading the book of history.
The upright standing Bismarck in his cuirassier’s uniform rests his left arm upon a sword, his right drags along behind a military overcoat. Upon his head he wears a spiked helmet.
The erection of the magnificent imperialist memorial - that is standing near the Spreeweg since 1938 - was initiated by the prussian monarch Wilhelm II (1859-1941) and consecrated in 1901, i.e. eleven years after he had dismissed the first imperial chancellor Otto von Bismarck, i.e. thirteen years before the Hohenzoller unleashed WWI standing upon the balcony above portal V of his Berlin castle.
The "Victory Column" (de: 'Siegessäule') is a famous sight in Berlin. Designed by Heinrich
Strack to commemorate the Prussian victory in the Danish-Prussian war
(1864), by the time it was inaugurated on 2nd September 1873 Prussia
had also defeated Austria in the Austro-Prussian War (1866) and France
in the Franco-Prussian War (1870/1871), giving the statue a new
purpose. Different from the original plans, these later victories in
the so-called Unification Wars inspired the addition of the bronze
sculpture of Victoria, 8.3 meters high and weighing 35 tonnes,
designed by Friedrich Drake.
2009-2011: Restoration of the square 'Großer Stern', the red granite rotunda (covered with chalky rivulets, since April 1945 the socket of the monument is also damaged by many holes caused by bomb-splinters) and the weathering gilding of the Lizzy for an amount of expected 3,5 millions €€ by architect Steffen Obermann begins in autumn 2009: "Wir sehen uns den Zustand der (1941 von Albert Speer errichteten) vier Torhäuser und der zwei Fußgängertunnel an, die Umfassungsmauer und die Denkmäler an der Nordseite des Platzes." (Summary from short news in MoPo p9, 21.-22.Febr 2009)
Both of the landmarks, the lionized, fêted politician Bismarck and also the mythological victory-goddess, are facing to the southwest along the old prussian army road into the direction of France. At the beginning of the 20th century the militarist monarchist Wilhelm II had placed the Bismarck-Memorial in front of the Reichstag to propagate the ideology that Germany's «traditional enemy» („Erbfeind“) were lying there in wait to revenge their defeat on 1st September 1870 in Sedan.
In 1933 the miltarist monarchist entourage of the archetypical,
prussian Junker Paul von Hindenburg did eventually succeed installing
their favourite revanchist Adolf Hitler as the new, german imperial
On the eve of WWII, during the times of appeasement policies, Albert Speer had the column with the victory-angel heightened by some segments to a height of 67 meters and its position near king's square (today: 'Platz der Republik') relocated to 'Großer Stern' (joining-up of 5 main-roads) [up]on the victory-avenue (today: 'Straße des 17.Juni') and its orientation was altered against the France. Additionally and assistantly the Monument of the Iron Chancellor in front of the Reichstag was taken, orientated towards the West as well and set up besides the gilded bronze.
Like ostentatious chessplayers the warmongers were showing off their revanchist intentions and affronted the France (and the western allies) by dislodging the "Gilded-Victory-Column" and the Bismarck-Memorial and moving them for a distance of 2 kilometers into the west, i.e. they transplanted them from "Königsplatz" to "Großer Stern". Now the pair of the two most prussian monuments were standing there side by side as a couple in a weird approximation (distance: ~200mtrs). Algebraically spoken: The wannabe-magnificos had taken up the Bismarck-Memorial to raise it to the revanchist (Nike)th power ...
Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold von, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1815 - 1898), Prussian minister and german statesman, Chancellor of the German Empire (1871 - 1890); known as the Iron Chancellor ('Eiserner Kanzler'). He was the driving force behind the unification of Germany, orchestrating wars with Denmark (1864), Austria (1866), and France (1870 - 1871) in order to achieve this end. (_NODE_p178_)
Wilhelm I (1797 - 1888), king of Prussia (1861-1888) and Emperor of Germany (1871 - 1888). He became the first emperor of Germany after Prussia's victory against France 1871. The latter part of his reign was marked by the rise of German socialism, to which he responded with harsh, repressive measures.
Wilhelm II (1859-1941), emperor of Germany (1888-1918), grandson of Wilhelm I and also of Queen Victoria; known as Kaiser Wilhelm. After forcing Bismarck to resign in 1890 he proved unable to exercise a consistent influence over German policies. He was vilified by the Allies and the german socialists as the sole author of the First World War. After he had lost WWI he abdicated on the 9th of November 1918 to live on in the Netherlands where he eventually died in 1941. (_NODE_p2112_)
Hindenburg, Paul Ludwig von Beneckendorff (1847-1934), German Field Marshal and statesman, President of the Weimar Republic 1925-1934. Elected President in 1925 and re-elected in 1932, he reluctantly appointed Hitler as Chancellor in 1933.
Junker 1.) prussian landowner east of the river Elbe ('Rittergutsbesitzer in Ostelbien')
2.) arrogant, narrow-minded, and tyrannical German army officer or official
Hitler, Adolf (1889-1945), Austrian-born Nazi leader, Chancellor of Germany (1933-1945). He co-founded the National Socialist German Workers' party in 1919, and came to prominence through his powers of oratory. While imprisoned for an unsuccessful putsch in Munich he wrote Mein Kampf (1925), an exposition of his political ideas. Becoming chancellor in 1933, he established the totalitarian Third Reich. His revanchist and expansionist foreign policy precipitated the Second World War, while his fanatical anti-Semitism led to the Holocaust. (_NODE_p870_)
Speer, Albert (1905-1981), German architect and Nazi government official, designer of the Nuremberg stadium for the 1934 Nazi Party congress. He was also minister for Armaments and Munitions. Following the Nuremberg trials, he served twenty years in Spandau prison. (_NODE_p1789_)
revanchism, a policy of seeking to retaliate, especially to recover lost territory
- DERIVATES: revanchist adjective & noun
- ORIGIN: 1950s: from French revanche + ISM. The form 'revanchist' was adopted in the 1920s from the French form 'revanchard'.
revanche the policy of a nation to seek the return of lost territory - ORIGIN French, litterally 'revenge'
Munich Agreement an agreement between Britain, France, Germany, and Italy, signed at Munich on 29 September 1938, under whicht the Sudetenland was ceded to Germany
Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact an agreement officially titled the Treaty of Non-aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and signed in Moscow in the early hours of August 24, 1939, but dated August 23.
magnificence the quality of being magnificent - His_Your etc. Magnificence chiefly historical a title given to a monarch or other distinguished person, or used in addressing them
Sedan, Battle of - a battle fought in 1870 near the town of Sedan in NE France, in which the prussian army defeated a smaller French army under Napoleon III, opening the way for a Prussian advance on Paris and marking the end of the French Second Empire. (_NODE_p1681_)
wannabe (informal, derogatary) a person who tries to be like someone else or to fit in with a particular group of people
raise: 3 raised to the 7th power is 2,187
lionize give a lot of public attention and approval to (someone); treat as celebrity
militarism the belief of a government or people that a country should maintain a strong military capability and be prepared to use it aggressively to defend or promote national interests DERIVATES: militarist (nound & adjective): But you will note this: that the militarist--while avowing by his conduct that nations can no longer in a military sense be independent, that they are obliged to co-operate with others and consequently depend upon some sort of an arrangement, agreement, compact, alliance with others--has adopted a form of compact which merely perpetuates the old impossible situation on a larger scale! — New York Times Current History: The European War, Vol 2, No. 1, April, 1915 April-September, 1915.
militaristic (adjective) ORIGIN: mid 19th from French militarisme
imperialism: a policy of extending a country's power and influence through colonization, use of military force, or other means, chiefly historical: rule by an emperor (_NODE_), "eve of the socialistic revolution" (preface of "Imperialism, as highest stadium of capitalism." Petrograd, 26th April 1917, W.I. Lenin)
imperialist: - adjective, of, relating to, supporting, or practising imperialism, - noun chiefly derogatary a person who supports or practises imperialism.
Nike: the goddess of victory, NIKH ATHANA POLIAS Sophocles Philoctetes134. Name of the victory-goddess in the Berlin vernacular: 'Goldelse' (Gold Lizzy).
Bronze a yellowish brown alloy of copper with up to one-third tin ORIGIN: Italian bronzo is probably from Persian birinj 'brass'.
Bronze Age a prehistoric period that followed the Stone Age, when weapons and tools were made of bronze rather than stone.
The Bronze Age began in the Near East and SE Europe in the late 4th and early 3rd millenium BC. It is associated with the first European civilisations, the beginnings of urban life in China, and the final stages of some Meso-American civilisations, but did not appear in Africa and Australasia at all. See also Copper Age (=the Chalcolithic period).
Chalcolithic adjective, denoting a period in the 4th and 3rd millenia BC, chiefly in the Near East and SE Europe, during which some weapons and tools were made of copper. This period was still largely Neolithic in character. Also called Eneolithic.
landmark 1. an object or feature of a landscape or town that is easily seen and recognized from a distance, especially one that enables someone to establish their location - historical: the boundary of an area of land, or an object marking this. 2. an event, discovery or change marking an important stage or turning point in something
sights places of interest to tourist and visitors in a city, town or other place
topographical of or relating to the arrangement or accurate representation of the physical features of an area
- DERIVATES topographic, topographically
verdigris a bright bluish-green encrustation or patina formed on copper or brass by atmospheric oxidation, consisting of basic copper carbonate. ORIGIN: - Middle English: from old French verte-gres, earlier vert de Grèce = 'green of Greece'. [_NODE_]
1894-1900: Fountain in front of the Reichstag
1901: Bismarck-Memorial in front of Reichstag
photography by 'Album von Berlin. Globus Verlag, Berlin 1904' - some reliefs at the socket were obviously not relocated too
1901-1938: Bismarck-Memorial between Reichstag and Victory-Column (Photomontage) Ab 1933 stand der Reichstag als Brandruine, die Siegessäule und Bismark wurden 1937/38? an den Großen Stern versetzt. These models are a part of the exhibition: "Wege, Irrwege, Umwege" (the development of democracy and parliamentarianism in Germany) in Deutscher Dom at Gendarmenmarkt.
Der Reichstag (als umstrittenes Bauwerk)
Schließlich konnte am 9. Juni 1884 der Grundstein gelegt werden. Viel Militär und nur wenige Parlamentarier nahmen an der verregneten Zeremonie teil. Drei Hohenzollern hatten die Hauptrollen: Kaiser Wilhelm I. sowie sein Sohn und sein Enkel – die späteren Kaiser Friedrich III. und Wilhelm II. Beim Hammerschlag Wilhelms I. zersprang das symbolische Werkzeug.
Sein Enkel, der Antirepublikaner Kaiser Wilhelm II., bezeichnete es verächtlich als »Reichsaffenhaus«, und setzte mittels einer Baukommission Änderungen an Wallot's Entwurf durch:
Wallot hatte für den Portikus den Schriftzug »Dem Deutschen Volke« vorgesehen, was von Kaiser Wilhelm II. abgelehnt wurde. Erst 1916 wurde er auf Anregung des Reichskanzlers Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg angebracht, nachdem die SPD den Kriegskrediten zugestimmt hatte und der Kaiser sich mit dem Parlament „versöhnt“ hatte. Die Bronze für die Buchstaben wurde auf kaiserliche Anordnung aus erbeuteten französischen Geschützen gewonnen. Der Schriftzug wurde zeitgenössisch gestaltet und durch den Architekten Peter Behrens ausgeführt.
Von 1884 bis 1894 wurde der Bau von dem Architekten Paul Wallot (1841-1912) im Stil der Neorenaissance im Tiergarten (heute zu Mitte gehörend) errichtet. Er beherbergte bis 1918 den Reichstag des deutschen Kaiserreichs und anschließend das Parlament der Weimarer Republik. Durch den Reichstagsbrand von 1933 und durch Auswirkungen des Zweiten Weltkriegs schwer beschädigt, wurde das Gebäude in den 1960er Jahren in modernisierter Form wiederhergestellt und von 1991 bis 1999 noch einmal grundlegend umgestaltet.
COVERS & BACKUPS (July 30, 2009)
? musicspot fr w credit for oedipusphinx & backlink at the bottom «photo originale sur Flickr»
? backup@picturesandbox ... with credit for Karl-Ludwig Poggemann and image-backlink.Some wikipedia-links are additionally inserted...
? ? backup of backup of picturesandbox@igosso ... with credit for oedipusphinx and image-backlink...
Infringement of the CC-Attribution
? www.juuh.com/otto_von_bismarck_prussian The Photo has no backlink and not even a credit. There is just the backup-photo that a signed-in user rashly supertitled with his 'Otto Von Bismarck Prussian images, videos, blogs and news' ...
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