Top row – James VI of Scotland and I of England with his wife Anne of Denmark
Second row – François II of France, Mary Queen of Scots, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley
Third row – James V of Scotland, his wife Marie of Guise, Margaret Douglas Countess of Lennox and her husband Matthew Stewart, Earl of Lennox
Fourth row – James IV of Scotland, Margaret Tudor, Archibald Douglas, Earl of Angus
Bottom row – Henry VII of England and his wife Elizabeth of York.
The tree illustrate James VI’s claim to the English throne (inherited through both of his parents, Mary Stuart and Henry Stewart who were both direct descendents of Margaret Tudor, Henry VII of England’s daughter). The tree itself dates to 1603, the year of James’s accession to the English throne.
Notably there is no mention of Mary Stuart’s third husband, the James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, probably due to the controversy of the marriage and the fact that it would muck up the tree’s pattern.