黑河 Heihe
zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e9%bb%91%e6%b2%b3%e5%b8%82

黑河,位于黑龙江省的东北部,小兴安岭北端,是黑龙江省下辖的一个地级市,与俄罗斯的阿穆尔州首府布拉戈维申斯克市(海兰泡)隔黑龙江相邻。是中国北方重要边境贸易中心。人口约16万。黑河市总面积66802.7平方公里,市辖区面积1.44万平方千米。


* 1 历史
* 2 行政区划
* 3 人口
* 4 资源
* 5 名胜古迹
* 6 教育
* 7 参看

历史

清宣统元年(1909年)设瑷珲兵备道,同年设瑷珲直隶厅和黑河府。1913年瑷珲直隶厅改瑷珲县。1956年改爱辉县。1980年析爱辉县设黑河市。1983年爱辉县并入黑河市。
行政区划

现辖1市辖区,2县级市,3县。

* 市辖区:爱辉区
* 县级市:北安、五大连池
* 县:逊克、嫩江、孙吴

人口
黑河市各区(县、市)面积与人口数据(2007年末) 区划名称 ↓ 面积(公里²) ↓ 常住人口 ↓ 户籍人口 ↓
黑河市 66,802.70 1,739,727
爱辉区 191,440
嫩江县 503,924
逊克县 101,817
孙吴县 105,076
北安市 471,158
五大连池市 366,312
资源

* 矿产有黄金、银、铜、锡、铅、锌、铀、铬、磁化铁、硫化铁、钛化铁、方铅矿、石灰石、萤石、麦饭石、石棉、云母、大理石、重晶石、石英砂、陶土、油页岩等。
* 野生动物有狐、猞猁、水獭、野猪、狍子、驼鹿、马鹿、熊等。
* 药用植物有黄芪、刺五加、百合、苍术、白芍、柴胡、党参等。
* 土特产有蕨菜、黄花菜、蘑菇、猴头、木耳、榛子、都柿等。

名胜古迹

中国重点文物保护单位:

* 爱辉城遗址:历史展览馆,将军墓群,女真族石墓群,王肃公园





en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heihe

Heihe (Chinese: 黑河; pinyin: Hēihé; "Black River") is a city in Heilongjiang, China.

It is located at 50°14′42″N 127°28′54″E / 50.245°N 127.48167°E / 50.245; 127.48167, on the Russian border, on the south bank of the Amur River, across the river from the Russian city of Blagoveshchensk. Heihe has a population of about 113,000.


* 1 History
* 2 Economy and transportation
* 3 Administrative divisions
* 4 References

History
Main article: Aigun

The predecessor of today's Heihe was the town established in 1683 some 30 km south of the modern city site[1] (in today's Aihui District) and was known as Aigun, Heilongjiang, or Saghalien Ula. (The two last names both mean "the Black River" - the name for the Amur River in Chinese and Manchu, respectively). From 1683 to 1690 Aigun was the capital (the seat of the Military Governor) of Heilongjiang Province.[2]
Economy and transportation

Today Heihe, which forms a free-trade zone with Blagoveshchensk, is a major centre of Sino-Russian trade. Many Russians and Chinese take advantage of visa-free travel between the cities, which has spurred large unofficial trade between China and Russia. Some inhabitants of Blagoveshchensk have purchased apartments on the Chinese side, as living costs are much lower.

Transportation between Blagoveshchensk and Heihe is by boat in the summer and by bus over the frozen river in the winter; when the ice is too weak to carry buses, the route is operated by hovercrafts.
Administrative divisions

* Aihui District 爱辉区 Àihuī Qū - the site of the former regional capital Aigun, and the location of Dawujia village, home of some of the last remaining native Manchu Language speakers
* Bei'an City 北安市 Běi'ān Shì
* Wudalianchi City 五大连池市 Wǔdàliánchí Shì
* Nenjiang County 嫩江县 Nènjiāng Xiàn
* Xunke County 逊克县 Xùnkè Xiàn
* Sunwu County 孙吴县 Sūnwú Xiàn

References

1. ^ The Ancient City of Aigun
2. ^ Edmonds, Richard Louis (1985). Northen Frontiers of Qing China and Tokugawa Japan: A Comparative Study of Frontier Policy. University of Chicago, Department of Geography; Research Paper No. 213. pp. 115–117. ISBN 0-89065-118-3.


en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aigun

Aigun (simplified Chinese: 瑷珲; traditional Chinese: 璦琿; pinyin: Àihún; Manchu: Aihūn hoton) was a historic town of China in northern Manchuria, situated on the right bank of the Amur River, some 30 km south (downstream) from the central urban area of Heihe (which, in its turn, is across the Amur from the mouth of the Zeya River and Blagoveschensk).[1]

The Chinese name of the town, which literally means "Bright Jade", is a transliteration of the original Manchu (or Ducher) name of the town.

Today the former city of Aigun is called Aihui Town (爱辉镇); it is part of Aihui District, which in its turn is part of the prefecture-level city of Heihe (and also includes downtown Heihe). Heihe is one of the major cities of Heilongjiang Province, People's Republic of China.
History

The predecessor of Aigun was a town of the indigenous Ducher people of the Amur Valley, located on the left (northeastern - now Russian) bank of the Amur. The site of the Ducher town, whose name was reported by the Russian explorer Yerofey Khabarov as Aytyun (Айтюн) in 1652, is currently known to the archaeologists as the Grodekovo site (Гродековское городище), after the nearby village of Grodekovo. It is thought by archaeologists to have been populated since around the end of the 1st or the beginning of the 2nd millennium AD.[2]
Aaihom (destroyed) shown on the 1773 map opposite Sahalien Hotun, following d'Anville's map from 1734

The Ducher town was probably vacated when the Duchers were evacuated by the Qing to the Sungari or Hurka in the mid-1650s.[2] In 1683-85 the Manchus re-used the site as a base for their campaign against the Russian fort of Albazin[3].

After the capture of Albazin in 1685 or 1686, the Manchus relocated the town to a new site on the right (southwestern) bank of the Amur, about 3 miles downstream from the original site.[4][5] The new site occupied the location of the former village of the Daurian chief named Tolga.[4] The city became known primarily under its Manchu name Saghalien Ula hoton (Manchu: sahaliyan ulai hoton), [6] and sometimes also under the Chinese translation of this name, Heilongjiang Cheng (黑龍江城). Both names mean "Black River City", but by the 19th century the name "Aigun" again became more current in the western languages.

For a few years early on (since 1683) Aigun served as the capital (the seat of the Military Governor) of Heilongjiang Province, until the capital was moved to Nenjiang (Mergen) in 1690, and later to Qiqihar.[7] Aigun, however, remained the seat of the Deputy Lieutenant-General (Fu dutong), responsible for a large district covering much of the Amur Valley within the province of Heilongjiang as it existed in those days.

As a part of a nationwide Sino-French cartographic program, Aigun (or, rather, Saghalien Ula hoton) was visited ca. 1709 by the Jesuits Jean-Baptiste Régis, Pierre Jartoux, and Xavier Ehrenbert Fridelli,[8] who found it a well-defended town, serving as the base of a Manchu river fleet controlling the Amur River region. Surrounded by numerous villages on the fertile riverside plain, the town was well provisioned with foodstuffs.[6]
Muravyov's fleet off Aigun in 1854

It was at Aigun that Nikolay Muravyov concluded, in May 1858, the Aigun Treaty, according to which the left bank of the Amur River was conceded to Russia.

During the Boxer Rebellion of 1900 Aigun was, for a few weeks, the center of military action directed against the Russians.

In 1913 Aigun became the county seat of the newly-created Aigun County (瑷珲县, Aihun xian), which was in December 1956 renamed Aihui County (爱辉县). On November 15, 1980, Heihe City was created, and on June 6, 1983, Aihui County was abolished, being merged into the Heihe City.[9]
Commemoration

According to Google Maps, there are a number of historical sites in today's Aihui Town (30 km south of downtown Heihe) related to the historical Aigun. They include "Aihui Ancient City" (爱辉古城), "Aigun Heroic Defenders' of the Fatherland Garden" (Aihun Weiguo Yingxiong Yuan, 瑷珲卫国英雄园), and "Aihui Historical Exhibition Hall" (Aihui Lishi Chenlie Guan, 爱辉历史陈列馆).[1]
References

* This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

1. ^ a b Aihui Town on Google Maps
2. ^ a b Амурская область: История НАРОДЫ АМУРСКОЙ ЗЕМЛИ (Amur Oblast - the History. The peoples of the Amur Land) (Russian)
3. ^ Bruce Mancall, 'Russia and China:Their Diplomatic Relations to 1728,1971,pages 115-127
4. ^ a b E.G.Ravenstein, The Russians on the Amur. London, 1861. Full text can be found on Google Books. Pages 18,48.
5. ^ The Jesuits (at du Halde, pp. 18-19), who visited the "new" Aigun ca. 1709, also mentioned the old site on the left bank of the river (which they called Aykom), but said that it was 13 li (unit), i.e. some 8.3 km, upstream from the new site. They also claimed that Aykom was originally founded by the 15th-century Ming Yongle Emperor, but abandoned within 20 years. Although Yongle's Amur expeditions are well known (see e.g. Yishiha), there seem to be no corroboration in modern literature for the existence of a Yongle-era fort at the Old Aigun site.
6. ^ a b Jean-Baptiste Du Halde, Description géographique, historique, chronologique, politique, et physique de l'empire de la Chine et de la Tartarie chinoise, enrichie des cartes générales et particulieres de ces pays, de la carte générale et des cartes particulieres du Thibet, & de la Corée; & ornée d'un grand nombre de figures & de vignettes gravées en tailledouce, Vol. 4 (La Haye: H. Scheurleer, 1736). Pp. 18-19.
7. ^ Edmonds, Richard Louis (1985). Northen Frontiers of Qing China and Tokugawa Japan: A Comparative Study of Frontier Policy. University of Chicago, Department of Geography; Research Paper No. 213. pp. 115–117. ISBN 0-89065-118-3.
8. ^ Jean-Baptiste Du Halde, Description géographique, historique, chronologique, politique, et physique de l'empire de la Chine et de la Tartarie chinoise, enrichie des cartes générales et particulieres de ces pays, de la carte générale et des cartes particulieres du Thibet, & de la Corée; & ornée d'un grand nombre de figures & de vignettes gravées en tailledouce, Vol. 1 (La Haye: H. Scheurleer, 1736). (p. xxxviii in Vol. 1)
9. ^ 爱辉区概况 (Aihui District overview) (Chinese)



zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%e7%91%b7%e7%8f%b2

瑷珲是古地名,遗址在今黑龙江省黑河市爱辉区爱辉镇。
历史

瑷珲是15世纪建立的一个中国东北的城市,有着比沙俄首都圣彼德堡更长的历史。1858年5月28日,俄国和清政府在这个城镇签订了《瑷珲条约》。1900年俄军大举入侵满洲,不久瑷珲城陷落,被俄军焚毁,原城址只余一颗松树,名为“见证松”。后瑷珲县驻地改为距古瑷珲以北三十多公里的黑河镇,即为现在的黑河市爱辉区的前身。1956年瑷珲县改称爱辉县。
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