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Turkmenbashi, formerly known as Krasnovodsk, is located in eastern Turkmenistan on the coast of the Caspian Sea.

The history of the town goes back to 1717 when the Russian prince Alexander Bekovich-Cherkassky established a secret fortified settlement on the future site of Turkmenbashi with the aim of conquering the Khanate of Khiva in present day Uzbekistan. The mission failed and the settlement was abandoned.

In 1869, the Russians made another attempt at conquering the Khanate of Khiva, the Khanate of Bukhara and the previously unconquered Turkmen tribes. They established a fort and named it Krasnovodsk.

Krasnovodsk fell to the Red Army in 1920. In 1991 Turkmenistan gained independance and in 1993 the President of Turkmenistan, Saparmurat Niyazov also known as Turkmenbashi or Leader of Turkmen, re-named Krasnovodsk after himself.

Turkmenbashi is the only sea port of Turkmenistan and is the western terminus of the Trans-Caspian Railway. Today Turkmenbashi has a ferry service to Baku in Azerbaijan, a train service to Ashgabat and an airport with several domestic flights and an international connection to Istanbul. The biggest oil refinery of Turkmenistan is located in Turkmenbashi.

Turkmenbashi is a popular tourist destination for Turkmen and the new President of Turkmenistan after Turkmenbashi, Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov, is hoping to turn Turkmenbashi into an international tourist destination. Construction of the Awaza Tourist Resort was initiated in 2007.

(Information from

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